Insolvency Legislation in Canada - Cassels Brock

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Insolvency Legislation in Canada 2012

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Canadian Insolvency Legislation Contents Foreword ....................................................................................... Page i Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3 ....................................................................... Section 1 Companies’ Creditors Arrangement Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. C-36..................................................................... Section 2 Wage Earner Protection Program Act, R.S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 1 ................................................................ Section 3 Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases ..................................... Section 4 United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency ................. Section 5 Chapter 15, United States Bankruptcy Code 11 U.S.C. § 1501-1532, Ancillary and Other Cross-Border Cases ............................................................................................ Section 6 Cross-Border Insolvency Protocols .............................................. Section 7

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Foreword The Cassels Brock Restructuring and Insolvency Group is pleased to present the 2012 Edition of Portable Canadian Insolvency Legislation for our friends in the restructuring and reorganizing community and for everyone else whose path might take them into the area of restructurings and insolvencies, particularly cross-border issues. Our Portable Canadian Insolvency Legislation is intended to be a handy reference to the critical materials that anyone who is practising in the area or who is affected by it would find useful and necessary. Our intention is to make Portable Canadian Insolvency Legislation a regular feature of the Canadian and international insolvency scene and to make it userfriendly, convenient and comprehensive while at the same time retaining its ease of use as an authoritative reference in fast-moving insolvency and restructuring situations. This edition of Portable Canadian Insolvency Legislation contains all of the major Canadian federal insolvency legislation. The edition also contains features from international insolvency practice and procedure that are not readily available elsewhere to reflect the growing trend of internationalization of restructurings and insolvencies. To keep the print edition of the Portable Canadian Insolvency Legislation to a convenient and popular size, we will maintain other important and useful items on the electronic version of Portable Canadian Insolvency Legislation. You can easily access and retrieve the Toronto Commercial List Practice Direction, the Toronto Commercial List User Committee’s Model CCAA and Receivership Orders, a bibliography of literature and cases under the Uncitral Model Law on Cross-border insolvency and Chapter 15 of the United States Bankruptcy Code, and a current list of major Cross-Border Insolvency Protocols on our website www.casselsbrock/insolvency/portable. We hope that everyone will find Portable Canadian Insolvency Legislation convenient and useful and we would appreciate comments or suggestions on additional materials that may be useful for our next edition either for the print version or for the electronic version on our website. We would, of course, appreciate comments and suggestions of all kinds from our readers. Please address comments to either Bruce Leonard at [email protected] or David Ward at [email protected] We appreciate everyone’s interest and attention to Portable Canadian Insolvency Legislation, a new initiative in the Canadian and international insolvency areas. Bruce Leonard Cassels Brock and Blackwell 2100 Scotia Plaza 40 King Street West Toronto ON M5H 3C2 [email protected] David Ward Cassels Brock and Blackwell 2100 Scotia Plaza 40 King Street West Toronto ON M5H 3C2 [email protected]

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Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3 An Act respecting bankruptcy and insolvency Current to June 1, 2011

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Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act Contents Sections 2–4 — Definitions and Interpretation................................................. 13 Part I — Administrative Officials ........................................................ 20 Sections 5–11 — Superintendent of Bankruptcy: Powers, Duties, and Investigations ......................................................... 20 Section 11.1 — Public Records ................................................................. 24 Section 12 — Official Receivers ............................................................... 25 Sections 13–41 — Trustees ....................................................................... 25 Sections 13–13.2 — Licensing of Trustees ........................................ 25 Sections 13.3–13.6 — Bars to Being a Trustee and Working for a Trustee .................................................... 27 Section 14 — Appointment by Creditors ............................................ 28 Section 14.04 — Removal and Substitution ....................................... 31 Section 14.06(1.2) — No Personal Liability Pre-Appointment .......... 32 Sections 14.06(2)-(8) — Liability of Trustee for Environmental Damage ............................... 32 Sections 16–38 — Duties and Powers of Trustees ................................... 34 Section 16(1) — Trustee’s Security .................................................... 34 Section 18 — Conservatory Measures ............................................... 35 Section 19 — Obtaining Legal Advice ............................................... 36 Section 20 — Divesting Property ....................................................... 36 Section 24 — Insuring Property ......................................................... 36 Section 25 — Estate Trust Accounts .................................................. 37 Section 26 — Books, Records, and Inspection ................................... 37 Section 27 — Reports by Trustee ....................................................... 38 Section 29 — Duties Related to Termination of Appointment ............ 38 Section 30(1) — Trustee’s Powers on Inspectors’ Permission .......... 39 Sections 30(4)-(6) — Sales to Related Parties .................................. 40 Section 31 — Borrowing .................................................................... 40 Section 32 — No Obligation to Carry on Business ............................ 41 Section 34 — Court Directions .......................................................... 41 Section 35 — Redirection of Mail ...................................................... 42 Section 36 — Duties on Substitution .................................................. 42 Section 37 — Appeals from Trustee’s Action ..................................... 43 Section 38 — Proceedings by Creditors ............................................ 43 Section 39 — Remuneration of Trustees ............................................ 43

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Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

Sections 40–41 — Discharge of Trustees ................................................ 44 Part II — Bankruptcy Orders and Assignments ............................... 45 Section 42 — Acts of Bankruptcy ............................................................ 45 Sections 43-45 — Applications for Bankruptcy Orders ........................... 46 Sections 46–48 — Interim Receivers ....................................................... 48 Section 46 — Appointment of Interim Receiver (Bankruptcy Application) ................................................................. 48 Section 47 — Appointment of Interim Receiver (Security Interest) ........................................................................ 49 Section 47.1 — Appointment of Interim Receiver (Proposal) ........... 50 Section 47.2 — Interim Receiver’s Costs and Expenses ................... 51 Section 49 — Assignments in Bankruptcy ............................................... 51 Part III — Proposals ............................................................................ 52 Section 50 — Commencement and Procedure ......................................... 52 Section 50(1.4) — Secured Creditor Classes ..................................... 53 Section 50(1.5) — Court’s Classification of Creditors ...................... 53 Section 50(1.8) — Voting by Creditors .............................................. 53 Section 50(2) — Documents to be Filed ............................................. 53 Section 50(5) — Trustee’s Investigation and Report.......................... 54 Section 50(6) — Cash-Flow Statements ............................................. 54 Section 50(10) — Trustee Access and Reporting ............................... 54 Section 50(11) — Report to Creditors ................................................ 55 Section 50(12) — Deemed Refusal of Proposal ................................. 55 Sections 50(13)-(17) — Compromise of Directors’ Liabilities .......... 55 Section 50(18) — Deemed Directors.................................................. 56 Section 50.1 — Secured Creditors’ Claims and Proposed Assessed Value................................................................................ 56 Section 50.2 — Excluded Secured Creditors ............................................. 57 Section 50.4 — Notice of Intention to Make a Proposal – Procedure ....... 57 Section 50.4(1) — Notice of Intention to Make a Proposal................ 57 Section 50.4(2) — Filings by Debtor.................................................. 57 Section 50.4(7) — Trustee’s Investigation and Reporting – Material Adverse Changes .................................... 58 Section 50.4(8) — Deemed Assignment in Bankruptcy ...................... 58 Section 50.4(9) — Extension of Time for Filing Proposal: Tests and Limits ................................................... 59 Section 50.4(11) — Termination of Period for Making Proposals ............................................................ 59 Section 50.6 — DIP Financing .................................................................. 60 4

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

Sections 51-54 — Meetings of Creditors in Proposals .............................. 61 Section 51 — Meetings of Creditors ................................................... 61 Section 52 — Adjournments ............................................................... 61 Sections 54(1)-(2) — Voting by Creditors .......................................... 62 Section 54(2.1) — Crown Claims ....................................................... 62 Section 54.1 — Equity Class Claims ......................................................... 63 Sections 55-56 — Creditor Supervision and Inspectors ............................ 63 Section 57 — Refusal of Proposal ............................................................. 63 Sections 58–59 — Court Approval of Proposal ........................................ 64 Section 60 — Priority Claims .................................................................... 65 Sections 60(1.1)-(1.5) — Claims Required to be Paid .............................. 65 Section 60(1.7) — Equity Claim Subordination ........................................ 67 Section 60(3) — Distribution in Kind ....................................................... 67 Section 61(2) — Refusal of Court Approval ............................................. 67 Section 62 — Determination and Release of Claims ................................. 68 Sections 62.1–63 — Default in Performance of Proposal ......................... 69 Section 64 — Removal of Directors .......................................................... 70 Sections 64.1-64.2 — Security for Obligations to Trustees, Directors and Advisers .......................................... 70 Section 65.1 — Prohibition on Termination of Contracts ......................... 71 Section 65.1(4) — Preservation of Rights of Counterparties .................... 72 Section 65.1(6) — Exception to Prohibition on Termination .................... 72 Sections 65.1(7)-(10) — Eligible Financial Contracts............................... 73 Section 65.11(1) — Disclaimer/Rejection of Contracts ............................ 73 Section 65.11(7) — Rights to Use Intellectual Property ........................... 74 Sections 65.11(8)-(10) — Consequences of Disclaimer and NonDisclaimable Contracts .................................... 74 Section 65.12(1) — Collective Bargaining Agreements ........................... 75 Section 65.13 — Sale of Assets ................................................................. 76 Section 65.13(1) — Sales of Assets Outside Ordinary Course ........... 76 Section 65.13(4) — Factors to Consider on Sales .............................. 76 Sections 65.13(5)-(6) — Sales to Related Parties............................... 76 Section 65.13(7) — Sales Free and Clear .......................................... 77 Sections 65.2–65.22 — Disclaimer of Leases .......................................... 77 Section 65.2(2) — Objections to Disclaimer of Leases ...................... 77 Section 65.2(4) — Effect of Disclaimer .............................................. 77 Section 65.2(5) — Classification of Lessor’s Claims on Disclaimed Leases ................................................ 77 Section 65.21 — Disclaimer Where Lessee Bankrupt ........................ 78

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Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

Section 66 — Completion and Miscellaneous ........................................... 78 Consumer Proposals ................................................................................ 79 Section 66.11 — Definitions ..................................................................... 79 Sections 66.12–66.14 — Commencement ................................................. 80 Sections 66.15–66.19 — Meetings of Creditors ........................................ 82 Section 66.22(2) — Court Approval .......................................................... 83 Section 66.28 — Claims and Claims Releases .......................................... 85 Sections 66.3–66.32 — Annulment and Default ....................................... 86 Section 66.34 — Prohibition Against Terminating Contracts ................... 89 Part IV: Property of the Bankrupt ..................................................... 92 Section 67 — Property of the Bankrupt Estate ......................................... 92 Section 67(1) — Property Included in Estate ..................................... 92 Section 67(2) — Deemed Trusts Invalid ............................................. 92 Section 67(3) — Exceptions to Deemed Trust Invalidity .................... 93 Section 68 — Surplus Income .................................................................. 93 Sections 69–69.6 — Stays of Proceedings ................................................ 96 Sections 69(1)-69(2) — Stay of Proceedings – Notice of Intention to Make a Proposal and Exceptions .................................................... 96 Section 69.1(1) — Stay of Proceedings – Proposals and Exceptions ............................................................... 99 Section 69.2 — Stay of Proceedings – Consumer Proposals ............ 103 Section 69.3 — Stay of Proceedings – Bankruptcies ........................ 104 Section 69.31 — Stay of Proceedings – Directors ............................ 105 Section 69.4 — Lifting Stays ............................................................. 106 Section 69.6 — Stays – Regulatory Bodies ....................................... 107 Section 70 — Priority of Bankruptcy Orders........................................... 107 Sections 71–80 — Effect of Commencement of Bankruptcy .................. 108 Section 71 — Estate Property Vesting in Trustee ............................. 108 Section 73 — Purchasers in Good Faith .......................................... 108 Section 74 — Registration of Bankruptcy Order .............................. 109 Section 76 — Property Not to be Transferred .................................. 110 Section 77 — Contributory Shareholders ......................................... 110 Section 81 — Claims for Return of Property........................................... 111 Section 81.1 — Unpaid Suppliers’ Rights of Repossession .................... 111 Section 81.2 — Special Rights of Farmers and Fishermen...................... 113 Section 81.3 — Unpaid Employees’ Secured Claims in Bankruptcy ...... 115

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Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

Section 81.4 — Unpaid Employees’ Secured Claims in Receivership .................................................................. 116 Section 81.5 — Security for Unpaid Pension Deductions and Contributions – Bankruptcy........................................... 117 Section 81.6 — Security for Unpaid Pension Deductions and Contributions – Receivership ........................................ 118 Sections 82–83 — Patented and Copyrighted Articles - Sale .................. 119 Section 84.1 — Assignment of Contracts ................................................ 120 Section 84.2 — Restrictions on Termination of Agreements .................. 121 Section 85 — Partnership Property ........................................................ 122 Sections 86–87 — Crown Claims ........................................................... 122 Sections 95–101.2 — Preferences and Transfers at Undervalue ............ 124 Section 95 — Preferences ................................................................. 124 Section 96 — Transfers at Undervalue............................................. 125 Section 97 — Protected Transactions and Set-Off ........................... 126 Section 98 — Proceeds of Void or Voidable Transactions ............... 126 Section 99 — Transactions with Undischarged Bankrupt ................ 127 Section 101 — Payment of Dividends When Insolvent ..................... 128 Section 101.1 — Applicability in Proposals ..................................... 129 Part V — Administration of Estates ................................................. 129 Sections 102–104 — Meetings of Creditors ........................................... 129 Sections 105–115.1 — Procedure at Meetings ....................................... 131 Section 106 — Quorum at Meetings ................................................. 131 Sections 107–112 — Voting at Meetings ......................................... 132 Section 113 — Persons Not Entitled to Vote ................................... 133 Section 115 — Calculation of Votes ................................................ 134 Sections 116–120 — Inspectors .............................................................. 134 Section 116 — Appointment of Inspectors and Eligibility ................ 134 Section 117 — Meetings of Inspectors.............................................. 134 Section 119(1) — Creditors may Override Inspectors’ Direction .............................................................. 135 Section 119(2) — Court Review of Inspectors’ Decision ................. 135 Section 120 — Duties and Expense of Inspectors............................. 135 Sections 121–123 — Claims Provable ................................................... 136 Sections 124–126 — Proof of Claims .................................................... 137 Sections 127–134 — Proof by Secured Creditors .................................. 138 Section 128 — Requiring Proof of Security Interest......................... 138 Section 129 — Compulsory Sale of Collateral ................................. 138 Sections 131-132 — Amendment of Secured Claims ........................ 139

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Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

Section 135 — Admission and Disallowance of Proofs of Claim and Proofs of Security ................................................... 140 Sections 136–147 — Scheme of Distribution ......................................... 140 Section 136 — Priority of Claims ..................................................... 140 Section 137 — Related Party Claims ................................................ 142 Sections 139–140 — Deferred Claims .............................................. 142 Section 142 — Claims Against Partnerships .................................... 142 Section 143 — Interest Payable From Surplus ................................. 143 Sections 145–146 — Provincial Legislation for Rights to Proceeds of Automobile Insurance and Rights of Lessors ............................................. 143 Section 147 — Administrative Levy on Estate .................................. 144 Sections 148–154 — Dividends .............................................................. 144 Section 149 — Notice to Prove Claims ............................................ 144 Section 150 — Dividends on Late Claims ....................................... 145 Section 152 — Trustee’s Final Statement of Receipts and Disbursements.......................................................... 146 Section 154 — Unclaimed Dividends .............................................. 147 Sections 155–157 — Summary Administrations .................................... 147 Part VI — Bankrupts ......................................................................... 149 Section 157.1 — Counselling Services ................................................... 149 Sections 158–160 — Duties of Bankrupts .............................................. 149 Sections 161–167 — Examination of Bankrupts and Others .................. 151 Section 161 — Examination of Bankrupt by Official Receiver ......... 151 Section 163 — Examination by Trustees and Creditor ..................... 152 Section 164 — Production of Estate Books and Properties.............. 152 Sections 166–167 — Duties on Examination .................................... 153 Section 168 — Arrest of Bankrupts ........................................................ 153 Sections 168.1–176 — Discharge of Bankrupts ..................................... 154 Section 168.1 — Automatic Discharge from Bankruptcy ................. 154 Section 168.2 — Opposition to Automatic Discharge ...................... 155 Section 170 — Trustee’s Report on Discharge Application ............. 156 Section 170.1 — Mediation............................................................... 157 Section 171 — Trustee’s Report to Superintendent .......................... 158 Section 172 — Refusal/Deferral of Discharge.................................. 159 Section 173 — Grounds for Refusal/Deferral of Discharge ............. 161 Section 176 — Duties of Bankrupt on Conditional Discharge ......... 163 Section 178 — Debts not Released by Discharge .................................... 163 Sections 180–181 — Annulment of Discharge on Bankruptcy ............... 165 8

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

Part VII — Courts and Procedure ..................................................... 166 Sections 183–186 — Jurisdiction of Courts ........................................... 166 Sections 187–191 — Authority of the Courts ......................................... 167 Section 188 — Enforcement of Orders Across Canada .................... 168 Section 190 — Evidence in Bankruptcy Proceedings ....................... 169 Section 192 — Powers of Registrar ........................................................ 169 Sections 193–196 — Appeals ................................................................. 170 Section 193 — Appeals to Court of Appeal ...................................... 170 Section 194 — Appeals to Supreme Court of Canada ...................... 171 Sections 195–196 — Stay of Proceedings on Appeals ...................... 171 Section 197 — Legal Costs .................................................................... 171 Part VIII — Offences ......................................................................... 172 Section 198 — Bankruptcy Offences ..................................................... 172 Section 199 — Failure to Disclose Being Undischarged ........................ 173 Section 200 — Failing to Keep Proper Books of Account ..................... 173 Section 201 — False Claims ................................................................... 174 Section 202 — Other Offences ............................................................... 174 Section 203 — Removal of Bankrupt’s Property Without Notice .......... 176 Section 203.1 — Trustee Acting While Licence Suspended ................... 176 Section 204 — Officers of Corporations ................................................ 176 Section 204.1 — Community Service ..................................................... 176 Section 204.3 — Compensation for Loss ............................................... 177 Section 205 — Reports by Trustee on Offences ..................................... 177 Section 208 — Time Within Which Prosecutions to be Commenced ................................................................... 178 Part IX — Miscellaneous Provisions ............................................... 179 Section 209 — Making, Altering, or Revoking General Rules .............. 179 Section 212 — Rights Under Bank Act ................................................... 179 Section 213 — Winding-Up and Restructuring Act Not to Apply .......... 179 Section 215 — No Action Against Superintendent or Trustees Without Leave of Court .................................................. 179 Section 215.1 — Claims in Foreign Currency ........................................ 179 Part X — Orderly Payment of Debts ............................................... 180 Section 217 — Definitions ..................................................................... 180 Section 218 — Application to Classes of Debts ...................................... 180 Sections 219–220 — Applications for Consolidation Orders ................. 181 Sections 221–223 — Objections by Creditors ........................................ 183 9

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

Sections 224–231 — Consolidation Orders ............................................ 184 Section 232 — Secured Claims .............................................................. 186 Section 233 — Enforcement on Default ................................................. 187 Section 235 — Distribution of Moneys Paid Into Court ......................... 188 Section 237 — Assignments or Bankruptcy Orders ............................... 189 Section 239.1 — No Dismissal of Debtor ............................................... 189 Section 239.2 — No Discontinuance of Public Utilities ......................... 189 Part XI — Secured Creditors and Receivers ................................. 190 Section 243 — Court May Appoint Receiver ......................................... 190 Section 244 — Notice of Intention to Enforce Security .......................... 192 Section 245 — Notice of Appointment of Receiver ................................ 192 Section 246 — Receiver’s Preliminary Report ....................................... 193 Section 247 — Receiver’s Standard of Care ........................................... 193 Section 248 — Compliance Orders ......................................................... 193 Sections 249–250 — Court Directions ................................................... 194 Sections 251–252 — Receivers’ Good Faith and Reasonable Grounds Defences .................................................. 194 Part XII — Securities Firm Bankruptcies ........................................ 195 Section 253 — Definitions ..................................................................... 195 Sections 254–255 — Applicability of Provisions of the Act ................... 196 Section 259 — Trustee’s Powers ............................................................. 199 Sections 261–265 — Distribution of Estate ............................................ 199 Section 261 — Securities Vesting in Trustee .................................... 199 Section 262 — Customer Pool Fund................................................. 200 Section 263 — Delivery of Securities ............................................... 202 Section 266 — Trustee’s Accounting ...................................................... 202 Part XIII — Cross-Border Insolvencies ........................................... 203 Section 267 — Purpose ........................................................................... 203 Section 268 — Definitions ..................................................................... 203 Section 269 — Application for Recognition of Foreign Proceedings ..................................................................... 204 Section 270 — Order Recognizing Foreign Proceeding .......................... 204 Section 271 — Effect of Recognition of Foreign Proceedings ................ 205 Sections 272–273 — Protection of Debtor’s Property After Recognition ........................................................... 205 Section 274 — Proceedings by Foreign Representative After Recognition ..................................................................... 206

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Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

Section 275 — Cooperation with Foreign Courts and Foreign Representatives ............................................................... 206 Section 276 — Notification by Foreign Representatives......................... 207 Section 277 — Concurrent Proceedings .................................................. 207 Section 278 — Multiple Foreign Proceedings ......................................... 207 Section 279 — Authorization to Act Outside Canada ............................. 208 Section 280 — Non-Attornment of Foreign Representatives .................. 208 Section 281 — Appeals in Foreign Proceedings ..................................... 208 Section 282 — Presumption of Insolvency ............................................. 208 Section 283 — Rule Against Double Recovery ...................................... 208 Section 284(2) — Public Policy Exception ............................................. 209 Part XIV — Review of Act ................................................................. 209 Section 285 — Five-Year Review of Act ............................................... 209

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Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

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Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

Ss. 1-2

SHORT TITLE 1. Short title - This Act may be cited as the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 1; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 2.

INTERPRETATION 2. Definitions - In this Act, “affidavit” includes statutory declaration and solemn affirmation; “aircraft objects” has the same meaning as in subsection 2(1) of the International Interests in Mobile Equipment (aircraft equipment) Act; “application”, with respect to a bankruptcy application filed in a court in the Province of Quebec, means a motion; “assignment” means an assignment filed with the official receiver; “bank” means (a)

every bank and every authorized foreign bank within the meaning of section 2 of the Bank Act,

(b)

every other member of the Canadian Payments Association established by the Canadian Payments Act, and

(c)

every local cooperative credit society, as defined in subsection 2(1) of the Act referred to in paragraph (b), that is a member of a central cooperative credit society, as defined in that subsection, that is a member of that Association;

“bankrupt” means a person who has made an assignment or against whom a bankruptcy order has been made or the legal status of that person; “bankruptcy” means the state of being bankrupt or the fact of becoming bankrupt; “bargaining agent” means any trade union that has entered into a collective agreement on behalf of the employees of a person; “child” [Repealed] - [S.C. 2000, c. 12, s. 8(1), effective July 31, 2000 (SI/2000-76)]. “claim provable in bankruptcy”, “provable claim” or “claim provable” includes any claim or liability provable in proceedings under this Act by a creditor; “collective agreement”, in relation to an insolvent person, means a collective agreement within the meaning of the jurisdiction governing collective bargaining between the insolvent person and a bargaining agent; “common-law partner”, in relation to an individual, means a person who is cohabiting with the individual in a conjugal relationship, having so cohabited for a period of at least one year;

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S. 2

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

“common-law partnership” means the relationship between two persons who are commonlaw partners of each other; “corporation” means a company or legal person that is incorporated by or under an Act of Parliament or of the legislature of a province, an incorporated company, wherever incorporated, that is authorized to carry on business in Canada or has an office or property in Canada or an income trust, but does not include banks, authorized foreign banks within the meaning of section 2 of the Bank Act, insurance companies, trust companies, loan companies or railway companies; “court”, except in paragraphs 178(1)(a) and (a.1) and sections 204.1 to 204.3, means a court referred to in subsection 183(1) or (1.1) or a judge of that court, and includes a registrar when exercising the powers of the court conferred on a registrar under this Act; “creditor” means a person having a claim provable as a claim under this Act; “current assets” means cash, cash equivalents - including negotiable instruments and demand deposits - inventory or accounts receivable, or the proceeds from any dealing with those assets; “date of the bankruptcy”, in respect of a person, means the date of (a)

the granting of a bankruptcy order against the person,

(b)

the filing of an assignment in respect of the person, or

(c)

the event that causes an assignment by the person to be deemed;

“date of the initial bankruptcy event”, in respect of a person, means the earliest of the day on which any one of the following is made, filed or commenced, as the case may be: (a)

an assignment by or in respect of the person,

(b)

a proposal by or in respect of the person,

(c)

a notice of intention by the person,

(d)

the first application for a bankruptcy order against the person, in any case (i)

referred to in paragraph 50.4(8)(a) or 57(a) or subsection 61(2), or

(ii)

in which a notice of intention to make a proposal has been filed under section 50.4 or a proposal has been filed under section 62 in respect of the person and the person files an assignment before the court has approved the proposal,

(e)

the application in respect of which a bankruptcy order is made, in the case of an application other than one referred to in paragraph (d), or

(f)

proceedings under the Companies’ Creditors Arrangement Act;

“debtor” includes an insolvent person and any person who, at the time an act of bankruptcy was committed by him, resided or carried on business in Canada and, where the context requires, includes a bankrupt;

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Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

S. 2

“director” in respect of a corporation other than an income trust, means a person occupying the position of director by whatever name called and, in the case of an income trust, a person occupying the position of trustee by whatever name called; “eligible financial contract” means an agreement of a prescribed kind; “equity claim” means a claim that is in respect of an equity interest, including a claim for, among others, (a)

a dividend or similar payment,

(b)

a return of capital,

(c)

a redemption or retraction obligation,

(d)

a monetary loss resulting from the ownership, purchase or sale of an equity interest or from the rescission, or, in Quebec, the annulment, of a purchase or sale of an equity interest, or

(e)

contribution or indemnity in respect of a claim referred to in any of paragraphs (a) to (d);

“equity interest” means (a)

in the case of a corporation other than an income trust, a share in the corporation or a warrant or option or another right to acquire a share in the corporation - other than one that is derived from a convertible debt, and

(b)

in the case of an income trust, a unit in the income trust - or a warrant or option or another right to acquire a unit in the income trust - other than one that is derived from a convertible debt;

“executing officer” includes a sheriff, a bailiff and any officer charged with the execution of a writ or other process under this Act or any other Act or proceeding with respect to any property of a debtor; “financial collateral” means any of the following that is subject to an interest, or in the Province of Quebec a right, that secures payment or performance of an obligation in respect of an eligible financial contract or that is subject to a title transfer credit support agreement: (a)

cash or cash equivalents, including negotiable instruments and demand deposits,

(b)

securities, a securities account, a securities entitlement or a right to acquire securities, or

(c)

a futures agreement or a futures account;

“General Rules” means the General Rules referred to in section 209; “income trust” means a trust that has assets in Canada if (a)

its units are listed on a prescribed stock exchange on the date of the initial bankruptcy event, or

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Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

(b)

the majority of its units are held by a trust whose units are listed on a prescribed stock exchange on the date of the initial bankruptcy event;

“insolvent person” means a person who is not bankrupt and who resides, carries on business or has property in Canada, whose liabilities to creditors provable as claims under this Act amount to one thousand dollars, and (a)

who is for any reason unable to meet his obligations as they generally become due,

(b)

who has ceased paying his current obligations in the ordinary course of business as they generally become due, or

(c)

the aggregate of whose property is not, at a fair valuation, sufficient, or, if disposed of at a fairly conducted sale under legal process, would not be sufficient to enable payment of all his obligations, due and accruing due;

“legal counsel” means any person qualified, in accordance with the laws of a province, to give legal advice; “locality of a debtor” means the principal place (a)

where the debtor has carried on business during the year immediately preceding the date of the initial bankruptcy event,

(b)

where the debtor has resided during the year immediately preceding the date of the initial bankruptcy event, or

(c)

in cases not coming within paragraph (a) or (b), where the greater portion of the property of the debtor is situated;

“Minister” means the Minister of Industry; “net termination value” means the net amount obtained after netting or setting off or compensating the mutual obligations between the parties to an eligible financial contract in accordance with its provisions; “official receiver” means an officer appointed under subsection 12(2); “person” includes a partnership, an unincorporated association, a corporation, a cooperative society or a cooperative organization, the successors of a partnership, of an association, of a corporation, of a society or of an organization and the heirs, executors, liquidators of the succession, administrators or other legal representatives of a person; “prescribed” (a)

in the case of the form of a document that is by this Act to be prescribed and the information to be given therein, means prescribed by directive issued by the Superintendent under paragraph 5(4)(e), and

(b)

in any other case, means prescribed by the General Rules;

“property” means any type of property, whether situated in Canada or elsewhere, and includes money, goods, things in action, land and every description of property, whether real or personal, legal or equitable, as well as obligations, easements and every description of

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Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

S. 2

estate, interest and profit, present or future, vested or contingent, in, arising out of or incident to property; “proposal” means (a)

in any provision of Division I of Part III, a proposal made under that Division, and

(b)

in any other provision, a proposal made under Division I of Part III or a consumer proposal made under Division II of Part III and includes a proposal or consumer proposal, as the case may be, for a composition, for an extension of time or for a scheme or arrangement;

“public utility” includes a person or body who supplies fuel, water or electricity, or supplies telecommunications, garbage collection, pollution control or postal services; “resolution” or “ordinary resolution” means a resolution carried in the manner provided by section 115; “secured creditor” means a person holding a mortgage, hypothec, pledge, charge or lien on or against the property of the debtor or any part of that property as security for a debt due or accruing due to the person from the debtor, or a person whose claim is based on, or secured by, a negotiable instrument held as collateral security and on which the debtor is only indirectly or secondarily liable, and includes (a)

a person who has a right of retention or a prior claim constituting a real right, within the meaning of the Civil Code of Québec or any other statute of the Province of Quebec, on or against the property of the debtor or any part of that property, or

(b)

any of (i)

the vendor of any property sold to the debtor under a conditional or instalment sale,

(ii)

the purchaser of any property from the debtor subject to a right of redemption, or

(iii)

the trustee of a trust constituted by the debtor to secure the performance of an obligation,

if the exercise of the person’s rights is subject to the provisions of Book Six of the Civil Code of Québec entitled Prior Claims and Hypothecs that deal with the exercise of hypothecary rights; “settlement” [Repealed] - [S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 2(1), effective September 18, 2009 (SI/2009-68)]. “shareholder” includes a member of a corporation - and, in the case of an income trust, a holder of a unit in an income trust - to which this Act applies; “sheriff” [Repealed] - [S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 7(3) (E), effective December 15, 2004 (R.A.)]. “special resolution” means a resolution decided by a majority in number and three- fourths in value of the creditors with proven claims present, personally or by proxy, at a meeting of creditors and voting on the resolution;

17

Ss. 2-4

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

“Superintendent” means the Superintendent of Bankruptcy appointed under subsection 5(1); “Superintendent of Financial Institutions” means the Superintendent of Financial Institutions appointed under subsection 5(1) of the Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions Act; “time of the bankruptcy”, in respect of a person, means the time of (a)

the granting of a bankruptcy order against the person,

(b)

the filing of an assignment by or in respect of the person, or

(c)

the event that causes an assignment by the person to be deemed;

“title transfer credit support agreement” means an agreement under which an insolvent person or a bankrupt has provided title to property for the purpose of securing the payment or performance of an obligation of the insolvent person or bankrupt in respect of an eligible financial contract; “transfer at undervalue” means a disposition of property or provision of services for which no consideration is received by the debtor or for which the consideration received by the debtor is conspicuously less than the fair market value of the consideration given by the debtor; “trustee” or “licensed trustee” means a person who is licensed or appointed under this Act. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 2; R.S.C. 1985, c. 31 (1st Supp.), s. 69; S.C. 1992, c. 1, s. 145 (F), c. 27, s. 3; S.C. 1995, c. 1, s. 62; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 1; S.C. 1999, c. 31, s. 17; S.C. 1999, c. 28, s. 146; S.C. 2000, c. 12, s. 8; S.C. 2001, c. 4, s. 25; S.C. 2001, c. 9, s. 572; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 7(1), (2) (F), (3) (E), (4), (5) (E), (6), (7), (8) (E), (9) (F) and (10); S.C. 2005, c. 3, s. 11; S.C. 2007, c. 29, s. 91; S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 1(5) (E), (6) and (7); S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 2(1), (2) (F), (3), (4) (E), (5) and (6) (F), as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 1; S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 1(1). 2.1 Designation of beneficiary - A change in the designation of a beneficiary in an insurance contract is deemed to be a disposition of property for the purpose of this Act. S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 2; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 8; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 3. 2.2 Superintendent’s division office - Any notification, document or other information that is required by this Act to be given, forwarded, mailed, sent or otherwise provided to the Superintendent, other than an application for a licence under subsection 13(1), shall be given, forwarded, mailed, sent or otherwise provided to the Superintendent at the Superintendent’s division office as specified in directives of the Superintendent. S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 2. 3. [Repealed] - [S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 4, effective September 18, 2009 (SI/2009-68)]. 4. (1) Definitions - In this section, “entity” means a person other than an individual;

18

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

S. 4

“related group” means a group of persons each member of which is related to every other member of the group; “unrelated group” means a group of persons that is not a related group. (2) Definition of “related persons” - For the purposes of this Act, persons are related to each other and are “related persons” if they are (a)

individuals connected by blood relationship, marriage, common-law partnership or adoption;

(b)

an entity and

(c)

(i)

a person who controls the entity, if it is controlled by one person,

(ii)

a person who is a member of a related group that controls the entity, or

(iii)

any person connected in the manner set out in paragraph (a) to a person described in subparagraph (i) or (ii); or

two entities (i)

both controlled by the same person or group of persons,

(ii)

each of which is controlled by one person and the person who controls one of the entities is related to the person who controls the other entity,

(iii)

one of which is controlled by one person and that person is related to any member of a related group that controls the other entity,

(iv)

one of which is controlled by one person and that person is related to each member of an unrelated group that controls the other entity,

(v)

one of which is controlled by a related group a member of which is related to each member of an unrelated group that controls the other entity, or

(vi)

one of which is controlled by an unrelated group each member of which is related to at least one member of an unrelated group that controls the other entity.

(3) Relationships - For the purposes of this section, (a)

if two entities are related to the same entity within the meaning of subsection (2), they are deemed to be related to each other;

(b)

if a related group is in a position to control an entity, it is deemed to be a related group that controls the entity whether or not it is part of a larger group by whom the entity is in fact controlled;

(c)

a person who has a right under a contract, in equity or otherwise, either immediately or in the future and either absolutely or contingently, to, or to acquire, ownership interests, however designated, in an entity, or to control the voting rights in an entity, is, except when the contract provides that the right is not exercisable until the death of an individual designated in the contract, deemed to

19

Ss. 4-5

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

have the same position in relation to the control of the entity as if the person owned the ownership interests; (d)

if a person has ownership interests in two or more entities, the person is, as holder of any ownership interest in one of the entities, deemed to be related to himself or herself as holder of any ownership interest in each of the other entities;

(e)

persons are connected by blood relationship if one is the child or other descendant of the other or one is the brother or sister of the other;

(f)

persons are connected by marriage if one is married to the other or to a person who is connected by blood relationship or adoption to the other;

(f.1)

persons are connected by common-law partnership if one is in a common-law partnership with the other or with a person who is connected by blood relationship or adoption to the other; and

(g)

persons are connected by adoption if one has been adopted, either legally or in fact, as the child of the other or as the child of a person who is connected by blood relationship, otherwise than as a brother or sister, to the other.

(4) Question of fact - It is a question of fact whether persons not related to one another were at a particular time dealing with each other at arm’s length. (5) Presumption - Persons who are related to each other are deemed not to deal with each other at arm’s length while so related. For the purpose of paragraph 95(1)(b) or 96(1)(b), the persons are, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, deemed not to deal with each other at arm’s length. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 4; S.C. 2000, c. 12, s. 9; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 9 (F); S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 5; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 5 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 2.

HER MAJESTY 4.1 Binding on Her Majesty - This Act is binding on Her Majesty in right of Canada or a province. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 4.

PART I — ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICIALS Superintendent 5. (1) Appointment - The Governor in Council shall appoint a Superintendent of Bankruptcy to hold office during good behaviour for a term of not more than five years, but the Superintendent may be removed from office by the Governor in Council for cause. The Superintendent’s term may be renewed for one or more further terms. (1.1) Salary - The Superintendent shall be paid the salary that the Governor in Council may fix.

20

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

S. 5

(2) Extent of supervision - The Superintendent shall supervise the administration of all estates and matters to which this Act applies. (3) Duties - The Superintendent shall, without limiting the authority conferred by subsection (2), (a)

receive applications for licences to act as trustees under this Act and issue licences to persons whose applications have been approved;

(b)

monitor the conditions that led to a trustee being issued a licence to determine whether those conditions continue to exist after the licence has been issued and take the appropriate action if he or she determines that the conditions no longer exist;

(c)

where not otherwise provided for, require the deposit of one or more continuing guaranty bonds or continuing suretyships as security for the due accounting of all property received by trustees and for the due and faithful performance by them of their duties in the administration of estates to which they are appointed, in any amount that the Superintendent may determine, which amount may be increased or decreased as the Superintendent may deem expedient, and the security shall be in a form satisfactory to the Superintendent and may be enforced by the Superintendent for the benefit of the creditors;

(d)

[Repealed] - [1992, c. 27, s. 5]

(e)

from time to time, make or cause to be made any inquiry or investigation of estates or other matters to which this Act applies, including the conduct of a trustee or a trustee acting as a receiver, within the meaning of subsection 243(2), or as an interim receiver, that the Superintendent considers appropriate, and for the purpose of the inquiry or investigation the Superintendent or any person appointed by the Superintendent for the purpose shall have access to and the right to examine and make copies of all books, records, data, including data in electronic form, documents and papers, that are relevant to an inquiry or investigation pertaining or relating to any estate or other matter to which this Act applies;

(f)

receive and keep a record of all complaints from any creditor or other person interested in any estate and make such specific investigations with regard to such complaints as the Superintendent may determine; and

(g)

examine trustees’ accounts of receipts and disbursements and final statements.

(4) Powers of Superintendent - The Superintendent may (a)

intervene in any matter or proceeding in court, where the Superintendent considers it expedient to do so, as if the Superintendent were a party thereto;

(b)

issue, to official receivers, trustees, administrators of consumer proposals made under Division II of Part III and persons who provide counselling pursuant to this Act, directives with respect to the administration of this Act and, without restricting the generality of the foregoing, directives requiring them (i)

to keep such records as the Superintendent may require, and

(ii)

to provide the Superintendent with such information as the Superintendent may require;

21

Ss. 5-6

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

(c)

issue such directives as may be necessary to give effect to any decision made by the Superintendent pursuant to this Act or to facilitate the carrying out of the purposes and provisions of this Act and the General Rules, including, without limiting the generality of the foregoing, directives relating to the powers, duties and functions of trustees, of receivers and of administrators as defined in section 66.11.

(d)

issue directives governing the criteria to be applied by the Superintendent in determining whether a trustee licence is to be issued to a person and governing the qualifications and activities of trustees;

(d.1) issue directives respecting the rules governing hearings for the purposes of section 14.02; and (e)

issue directives prescribing the form of any document that is by this Act to be prescribed and the information to be given therein;

(5) Compliance with directives - Every person to whom a directive is issued by the Superintendent under paragraph (4)(b) or (c) shall comply with the directive in the manner and within the time specified therein. (6) Directives - A directive issued by the Superintendent under this section shall be deemed not to be a statutory instrument within the meaning and for the purposes of the Statutory Instruments Act. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 5; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 5; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 4; S.C. 2001, c. 4, s. 26; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 6. 6. (1) Outside investigations - The Superintendent may engage any persons that the Superintendent considers advisable to conduct any inquiry or investigation or to take any other necessary action outside of the office of the Superintendent, and the cost and expenses of those persons shall, when certified by the Superintendent, be payable out of the appropriation for the office of the Superintendent. (2) Superintendent may examine bank account - The Superintendent, or any one duly authorized by him in writing on his behalf, is entitled to have access to and to examine and make copies of the banking accounts of a trustee in which estate funds may have been deposited, and, when required, all deposit slips, cancelled cheques or other documents relating thereto in the custody of the bank or the trustee shall be produced for examination. (3) Superintendent may examine records and documents - The Superintendent, or anyone duly authorized in writing by or on behalf of the Superintendent, may with the leave of the court granted on an ex parte application examine the books, records, documents and deposit accounts of a trustee or any other person designated in the order granting that leave for the purpose of tracing or discovering the property or funds of an estate when there are reasonable grounds to believe or suspect that the property or funds of an estate have not been properly disclosed or dealt with and for that purpose may under a warrant from the court enter on and search any premises. (4) Court order re payments from accounts - Where the Superintendent, on ex parte application, satisfies the court that it is necessary and in the public interest to do so, the court may issue an order directing a deposit-taking institution that holds a deposit account of a

22

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

Ss. 6-10

trustee or such other person as is designated in the order not to make payments out of the account until such time as the court otherwise directs. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 6; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 5; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 7 (E). 7. [Repealed] - [S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 6] 8. [Repealed] - [S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 6] 9. Appointment of employees - Such employees as are required to assist the Superintendent to perform his functions under this Act shall be appointed in accordance with the Public Service Employment Act. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 5. 10. (1) Investigations or inquiries by Superintendent - If, on information supplied by an official receiver, trustee or other person, the Superintendent suspects, on reasonable grounds, that a person has, in connection with any estate or matter to which this Act applies, committed an offence under this or any other Act of Parliament, the Superintendent may, if it appears to the Superintendent that the alleged offence might not otherwise be investigated, make or cause to be made any inquiries or investigations that the Superintendent considers appropriate. (2) [Repealed] - [1992, c. 27, s. 7] (3) Examination - If, on the application of the Superintendent or the Superintendent’s authorized representative, a subpoena has been issued by the court, the Superintendent may, for the purpose of an inquiry or investigation under subsection (1), examine or cause to be examined under oath before the registrar of the court or other authorized person, the trustee, the debtor, any person who the Superintendent suspects, on reasonable grounds, has knowledge of the affairs of the debtor, or any person who is or has been an agent or a mandatary, or a clerk, a servant, an officer, a director or an employee of the debtor or the trustee, with respect to the conduct, dealings and transactions of the debtor, the causes of the bankruptcy or insolvency of the debtor, the disposition of the debtor’s property or the administration of the estate, and may order any person liable to be so examined to produce any books, records, data, including data in electronic form, documents or papers in the person’s possession or under the person’s control. (4) Questions - A person being examined pursuant to this section is bound to answer all questions relating to the conduct, dealings and transactions of the debtor, the causes of the debtor’s bankruptcy or insolvency and the disposition of the debtor’s property. (5) Privilege of witness - Where a person being examined pursuant to this section objects to answering any question on the ground that his answer may tend to criminate him or may tend to establish his liability to a civil proceeding at the instance of the Crown or of any person and if, but for this section or section 5 of the Canada Evidence Act, he would have been excused from answering that question, the answer so given shall not be used or admitted in evidence against him in any proceeding, civil or criminal, thereafter taking place other than a prosecution for perjury in the giving of that evidence. (6) Compliance - No person shall hinder, molest or interfere with any person doing anything that he is authorized by or pursuant to this section to do, or prevent or attempt to prevent any

23

Ss. 10-11

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

person doing any such thing, and, notwithstanding any other Act or law, every person shall, unless he is unable to do so, do everything he is required by or pursuant to this section to do. (7) Copies - Where any book, record, paper or other document is examined or produced in accordance with this section, the person by whom it is examined or to whom it is produced or the Superintendent may make or cause to be made one or more copies thereof, and a document purporting to be certified by the Superintendent or a person thereunto authorized by him to be a copy made pursuant to this section is admissible in evidence and has the same probative force as the original document would have if it were proven in the ordinary way. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 10; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 7; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 10(1) (F), (2) and (3) (F); S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 8. 11. (1) Reporting offence to provincial authority - Where after an investigation pursuant to section 10 or otherwise the Superintendent has obtained evidence of an offence having been committed in connection with an estate or matter to which this Act applies, the Superintendent shall report the alleged offence to the deputy attorney general of the province concerned or to such person as is duly designated by that deputy attorney general for that purpose. (2) Costs and expenses - Notwithstanding section 136, a recovery made as the result of any inquiries or investigation made or caused to be made pursuant to section 10 shall be applied to the reimbursement of any costs and expenses incurred by the Superintendent thereon, not being ordinary costs or expenses of the office of the Superintendent, and the balance thereafter remaining in respect of the recovery shall be made available for the benefit of the creditors of the debtor. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 11; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 8; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 11 (F).

Public Records 11.1 (1) Public records - The Superintendent shall keep, or cause to be kept, in such form as the Superintendent deems appropriate and for the prescribed period, a public record of (a)

proposals,

(b)

bankruptcies,

(c)

licences issued to trustees by the Superintendent, and appointments or designations of administrators made by the Superintendent, and

(d)

notices sent to the Superintendent by receivers pursuant to subsection 245(1)

and, on request therefor and on payment of such fee as may be prescribed, shall provide, or cause to be provided, any information contained in that public record. (2) Other records - The Superintendent shall keep, or cause to be kept, in such form as the Superintendent deems appropriate and for the prescribed period, such other records relating to the administration of this Act as the Superintendent deems advisable. (3) Agreement to provide compilation - The Superintendent may enter into an agreement to provide a compilation of all or part of the information that is contained in the public record. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 8; S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 3.

24

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

Ss. 12-13

Official Receivers 12. (1) Bankruptcy districts and divisions - Each of the provinces constitutes one bankruptcy district for the purposes of this Act but the Governor in Council may divide any bankruptcy district into two or more bankruptcy divisions and name or number them. (2) Official receivers - The Governor in Council shall appoint one or more official receivers in each bankruptcy division who shall be deemed to be officers of the court and shall have and perform the duties and responsibilities specified by this Act and the General Rules. (3) Report to Superintendent - The official receiver shall make a report to the Superintendent, in the prescribed form, of every bankruptcy originating in his division, and he shall also notify the Superintendent of any subsequent increase or decrease in the security filed by the trustee. (4) Registrar to act for official receiver - In the absence or illness of the official receiver or pending the appointment of a successor when the office is vacant, the registrar of the court shall perform the duties of the official receiver. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 8.

Trustees Licensing of Trustees 13. (1) Application for licence - A person who wishes to obtain a licence to act as a trustee shall file with the Superintendent an application for a licence in the prescribed form. (2) Conditions of eligibility - The Superintendent, after such investigation concerning an applicant for a licence to act as a trustee as the Superintendent considers necessary, may issue the licence if the Superintendent is satisfied, having regard to the criteria referred to in paragraph 5(4)(d), that the applicant is qualified to obtain the licence. (3) Non-eligibility - The Superintendent may refuse to issue a licence to an applicant who is insolvent or has been found guilty of an indictable offence that, in the Superintendent’s opinion, is of a character that would impair the trustee’s capacity to perform his or her fiduciary duties. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 13; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 9; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 6; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 9. 13.1 Form of licence - A licence shall (a)

be in the prescribed form;

(b)

specify the bankruptcy district or part thereof in which the trustee is entitled to act; and

(c)

be subject to such conditions and limitations as the Superintendent considers appropriate and may specify therein.

S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 9; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 7.

25

S. 13

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

13.2 (1) Fees payable - Prior to the issue of a licence, the applicant shall pay such fees as may be prescribed. (2) Idem - On the December 31 following the day on which a licence is issued, and on December 31 in each year thereafter, the trustee shall pay such fees as may be prescribed. (3) When licence invalid - A licence ceases to be valid on the failure of the trustee to pay a fee in accordance with subsection (2) or if the trustee becomes bankrupt. (4) Superintendent may reinstate licence - Where a licence has ceased to be valid by reason of (a)

failure to pay fees, the Superintendent may reinstate it where the trustee pays the outstanding fees together with a prescribed penalty amount and provides a reasonable written explanation of the failure to pay them in accordance with subsection (2); or

(b)

the trustee becoming bankrupt, the Superintendent may, on written representations made by the trustee, reinstate the licence subject to such conditions and limitations as the Superintendent considers appropriate and may specify therein.

(5) Suspension or cancellation - A licence may be suspended or cancelled by the Superintendent (a)

if the trustee has been found guilty of an indictable offence that, in the Superintendent’s opinion, is of a character that would impair the trustee’s capacity to perform his or her fiduciary duties;

(b)

if the trustee has failed to comply with any of the conditions or limitations to which the licence is subject;

(c)

if the trustee has ceased to act as a trustee; or

(d)

at the request of the trustee.

(6) Notice of intended decision - Notice of an intended decision under subsection (5) shall be in writing setting out the Superintendent’s reasons therefor and shall be sent to the trustee at least ten days before the decision takes effect. (7) Conditions - If a licence ceases to be valid by virtue of subsection (3) or is suspended or cancelled under subsection (5), the Superintendent may impose on the trustee any requirements that the Superintendent considers appropriate, including a requirement that the trustee provide security for the protection of an estate. (8) Non-application of procedure - For greater certainty, section 14.02 does not apply in respect of a suspension or cancellation of a licence under subsection (5). S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 9; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 8; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 12; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 10.

26

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

S. 13

Eligibility and Qualifications 13.3 (1) Where trustee is not qualified to act - Except with the permission of the court and on such conditions as the court may impose, no trustee shall act as trustee in relation to the estate of a debtor (a)

(b)

where the trustee is, or at any time during the two preceding years was, (i)

a director or officer of the debtor,

(ii)

an employer or employee of the debtor or of a director or officer of the debtor,

(iii)

related to the debtor or to any director or officer of the debtor, or

(iv)

the auditor, accountant or legal counsel, or a partner or an employee of the auditor, accountant or legal counsel, of the debtor; or

where the trustee is (i)

the trustee under a trust indenture issued by the debtor or any person related to the debtor, or the holder of a power of attorney under an act constituting a hypothec within the meaning of the Civil Code of Québec that is granted by the debtor or any person related to the debtor, or

(ii)

related to the trustee, or the holder of a power of attorney, referred to in subparagraph (i).

(1.1) Copy of application to Superintendent - A trustee who applies for the permission of the court for the purposes of subsection (1) shall without delay send a copy of the application to the Superintendent. (2) Where disclosure required - No trustee shall act as a trustee in relation to the estate of a debtor where the trustee is already (a)

the trustee in the bankruptcy of, or in a proposal concerning, any person related to the debtor, or

(b)

the receiver, within the meaning of subsection 243(2), or the liquidator of the property of any person related to the debtor,

without making, at the time of being appointed as trustee in relation to the estate of the debtor and at the first meeting of creditors, full disclosure of that fact and of the potential conflict of interest. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 9; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 9 (F); S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 13(1) (E) and (2); S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 11. 13.4 (1) Trustee may act for secured creditor - No trustee may, while acting as the trustee of an estate, act for or assist a secured creditor to assert a claim against the estate or to realize or otherwise deal with a security that the secured creditor holds, unless the trustee has obtained a written opinion from independent legal counsel that the security is valid and enforceable against the estate.

27

Ss. 13-14

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

(1.1) Notification by trustee - Forthwith on commencing to act for or assist a secured creditor of the estate in the manner set out in subsection (1), a trustee shall notify the Superintendent and the creditors or the inspectors (a)

that the trustee is acting for the secured creditor;

(b)

of the basis of any remuneration from the secured creditor; and

(c)

of the opinion referred to in subsection (1).

(2) Trustee to provide opinion - Within two days after receiving a request therefor, a trustee shall provide the Superintendent with a copy of the opinion referred to in subsection (1) and shall also provide a copy to each creditor who has made a request therefor. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 9; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 10; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 14 (E); S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 12 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 5. 13.5 Code of Ethics - A trustee shall comply with the prescribed Code of Ethics. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 9; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 13. 13.6 Persons disqualified from working for trustee - A trustee shall not engage the services of a person (a)

whose trustee licence has been cancelled under paragraph 13.2(5)(a) or subsection 14.01(1); or

(b)

who is the subject of a direction made by the Superintendent under paragraph 14.03(1)(d).

S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 11; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 13.

Appointment and Substitution of Trustees 14. Appointment of trustee by creditors - The creditors may, at any meeting by special resolution, appoint or substitute another licensed trustee for the trustee named in an assignment, a bankruptcy order or a proposal, or otherwise appointed or substituted. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 14; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 9; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 15. 14.01 (1) Decision affecting licence - If, after making or causing to be made an inquiry or investigation into the conduct of a trustee, it appears to the Superintendent that (a)

a trustee has not properly performed the duties of a trustee or has been guilty of any improper management of an estate,

(b)

a trustee has not fully complied with this Act, the General Rules, directives of the Superintendent or any law with regard to the proper administration of any estate, or

(c)

it is in the public interest to do so,

28

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

S. 14

the Superintendent may do one or more of the following: (d)

cancel or suspend the licence of the trustee;

(e)

place such conditions or limitations on the licence as the Superintendent considers appropriate including a requirement that the trustee successfully take an exam or enrol in a proficiency course,

(f)

require the trustee to make restitution to the estate of such amount of money as the estate has been deprived of as a result of the trustee’s conduct, and

(g)

require the trustee to do anything that the Superintendent considers appropriate and that the trustee has agreed to.

(1.1) Application to former trustees - This section and section 14.02 apply, in so far as they are applicable, in respect of former trustees, with such modifications as the circumstances require. (2) Delegation - The Superintendent may delegate by written instrument, on such terms and conditions as are therein specified, any or all of the Superintendent’s powers, duties and functions under subsection (1), subsection 13.2(5), (6) or (7) or section 14.02 or 14.03. (3) Notification to trustees - Where the Superintendent delegates in accordance with subsection (2), the Superintendent or the delegate shall (a)

where there is a delegation in relation to trustees generally, give written notice of the delegation to all trustees; and

(b)

whether or not paragraph (a) applies, give written notice of the delegation of a power to any trustee who may be affected by the exercise of that power, either before the power is exercised or at the time the power is exercised.

S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 9; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 12; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 14; S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 6. 14.02 (1) Notice to trustee - Before deciding whether to exercise any of the powers referred to in subsection 14.01(1), the Superintendent shall send the trustee written notice of the powers that the Superintendent may exercise and the reasons why they may be exercised and afford the trustee a reasonable opportunity for a hearing. (1.1) Summons - The Superintendent may, for the purpose of the hearing, issue a summons requiring and commanding any person named in it (a)

to appear at the time and place mentioned in it;

(b)

to testify to all matters within their knowledge relative to the subject matter of the inquiry or investigation into the conduct of the trustee; and

(c)

to bring and produce any books, records, data, documents or papers including those in electronic form in their possession or under their control relative to the subject matter of the inquiry or investigation.

(1.2) Effect throughout Canada - A person may be summoned from any part of Canada by virtue of a summons issued under subsection (1.1).

29

S. 14

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

(1.3) Fees and allowances - Any person summoned under subsection (1.1) is entitled to receive the like fees and allowances for so doing as if summoned to attend before the Federal Court. (2) Procedure at hearing - At a hearing referred to in subsection (1), the Superintendent (a)

has the power to administer oaths;

(b)

is not bound by any legal or technical rules of evidence in conducting the hearing;

(c)

shall deal with the matters set out in the notice of the hearing as informally and expeditiously as the circumstances and a consideration of fairness permit; and

(d)

shall cause a summary of any oral evidence to be made in writing.

(3) Record - The notice referred to in subsection (1) and, where applicable, the summary of oral evidence referred to in paragraph (2)(d), together with such documentary evidence as the Superintendent receives in evidence, form the record of the hearing and the record and the hearing are public, unless the Superintendent is satisfied that personal or other matters that may be disclosed are of such a nature that the desirability of avoiding public disclosure of those matters, in the interest of a third party or in the public interest, outweighs the desirability of the access by the public to information about those matters. (4) Decision - The decision of the Superintendent after a hearing referred to in subsection (1), together with the reasons therefor, shall be given in writing to the trustee not later than three months after the conclusion of the hearing, and is public. (5) Review by Federal Court - A decision of the Superintendent given pursuant to subsection (4) is deemed to be a decision of a federal board, commission or other tribunal that may be reviewed and set aside pursuant to the Federal Courts Act. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 9; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 13; S.C. 2002, c. 8, s. 182; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 15 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 7. 14.03 (1) Conservatory measures - Subject to subsection (2), the Superintendent may, for the protection of an estate, the rights of the creditors or the debtor, (a)

direct a person to deal with property of the estate described in the direction in such manner as may be indicated in the direction, including the continuation of the administration of the estate;

(b)

direct any person to take such steps as the Superintendent considers necessary to preserve the books, records, data, including data in electronic form, and documents of the estate;

(c)

direct a bank or other depository not to pay out funds held to the credit of the estate except in accordance with the direction; and

(d)

direct the official receiver not to appoint the trustee in respect of any new estates until a decision is made under subsection 13.2(5) or 14.01(1).

(2) Circumstances - The circumstances in which the Superintendent is authorized to exercise the powers set out in subsection (1) are where (a)

an estate is left without a trustee by the death, removal or incapacity of the trustee; 30

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

S. 14

(b)

the Superintendent makes or causes to be made any inquiry or investigation under paragraph 5(3)(e);

(c)

the Superintendent exercises any of the powers set out in section 14.01;

(d)

the fees referred to in subsection 13.2(2) have not been paid in respect of the trustee’s licence; or

(e)

a trustee becomes insolvent;

(f)

a trustee has been found guilty of an indictable offence that, in the Superintendent’s opinion, is of a character that would impair the trustee’s capacity to perform the trustee’s fiduciary duties, or has failed to comply with any of the conditions or limitations to which the trustee’s licence is subject; or

(g)

a circumstance referred to in paragraph 13.2(5)(c) or (d) exists and the Superintendent is considering cancelling the licence under subsection 13.2(5).

(3) Contents and effect of direction - A direction given pursuant to subsection (1) (a)

shall state the statutory authority pursuant to which the direction is given;

(b)

is binding on the person to whom it is given; and

(c)

is, in favour of the person to whom it is given, conclusive proof of the facts set out therein.

(4) Liability ceases on compliance - A person who complies with a direction given pursuant to subsection (1) is not liable for any act done by the person only to comply with the direction. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 9; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 14; S.C. 1999, c. 31, s. 18 (E); S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 16. 14.04 Removal and appointment - The court, on the application of any interested person, may for cause remove a trustee and appoint another licensed trustee in the trustee’s place. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 9. 14.05 Where there is no licensed trustee, etc. - Where a debtor resides or carries on business in a locality in which there is no licensed trustee, and no licensed trustee can be found who is willing to act as trustee, the court or the official receiver may appoint a responsible person residing in the locality of the debtor to administer the estate of the debtor, and that person, for that purpose, has all the powers of a licensed trustee under this Act, and the provisions of this Act apply to that person as if a licence had been issued to that person under paragraph 5(3)(a). S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 9. 14.06 (1) No trustee is bound to act - No trustee is bound to assume the duties of trustee in matters relating to assignments, bankruptcy orders or proposals, but having accepted an appointment in relation to those matters the trustee shall, until discharged or another trustee is appointed in the trustee’s stead, perform the duties required of a trustee under this Act. (1.1) Application - In subsections (1.2) to (6), a reference to a trustee means a trustee in a bankruptcy or proposal and includes

31

S. 14

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

(a)

an interim receiver;

(b)

a receiver within the meaning of subsection 243(2); and

(c)

any other person who has been lawfully appointed to take, or has lawfully taken, possession or control of any property of an insolvent person or a bankrupt that was acquired for, or is used in relation to, a business carried on by the insolvent person or bankrupt.

(1.2) No personal liability in respect of matters before appointment - Despite anything in federal or provincial law, if a trustee, in that position, carries on the business of a debtor or continues the employment of a debtor’s employees, the trustee is not by reason of that fact personally liable in respect of a liability, including one as a successor employer, (a)

that is in respect of the employees or former employees of the debtor or a predecessor of the debtor or in respect of a pension plan for the benefit of those employees; and

(b)

that exists before the trustee is appointed or that is calculated by reference to a period before the appointment.

(1.3) Status of liability - A liability referred to in subsection (1.2) is not to rank as costs of administration. (1.4) Liability of other successor employers - Subsection (1.2) does not affect the liability of a successor employer other than the trustee. (2) Liability in respect of environmental matters - Notwithstanding anything in any federal or provincial law, a trustee is not personally liable in that position for any environmental condition that arose or environmental damage that occurred (a)

before the trustee’s appointment; or

(b)

after the trustee’s appointment unless it is established that the condition arose or the damage occurred as a result of the trustee’s gross negligence or wilful misconduct or, in the Province of Quebec, the trustee’s gross or intentional fault.

(3) Reports, etc., still required - Nothing in subsection (2) exempts a trustee from any duty to report or make disclosure imposed by a law referred to in that subsection. (4) Non-liability re certain orders - Notwithstanding anything in any federal or provincial law but subject to subsection (2), where an order is made which has the effect of requiring a trustee to remedy any environmental condition or environmental damage affecting property involved in a bankruptcy, proposal or receivership, the trustee is not personally liable for failure to comply with the order, and is not personally liable for any costs that are or would be incurred by any person in carrying out the terms of the order, (a)

if, within such time as is specified in the order, within ten days after the order is made if no time is so specified, within ten days after the appointment of the trustee, if the order is in effect when the trustee is appointed, or during the period of the stay referred to in paragraph (b), the trustee

32

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

(b)

(c)

S. 14

(i)

complies with the order, or

(ii)

on notice to the person who issued the order, abandons, disposes of or otherwise releases any interest in any real property, or any right in any immovable, affected by the condition or damage;

during the period of a stay of the order granted, on application made within the time specified in the order referred to in paragraph (a), within ten days after the order is made or within ten days after the appointment of the trustee, if the order is in effect when the trustee is appointed, by (i)

the court or body having jurisdiction under the law pursuant to which the order was made to enable the trustee to contest the order, or

(ii)

the court having jurisdiction in bankruptcy for the purposes of assessing the economic viability of complying with the order; or

if the trustee had, before the order was made, abandoned or renounced or been divested of any interest in any real property, or any right in any immovable, affected by the condition or damage.

(5) Stay may be granted - The court may grant a stay of the order referred to in subsection (4) on such notice and for such period as the court deems necessary for the purpose of enabling the trustee to assess the economic viability of complying with the order. (6) Costs for remedying not costs of administration - If the trustee has abandoned or renounced any interest in any real property, or any right in any immovable, affected by the environmental condition or environmental damage, claims for costs of remedying the condition or damage shall not rank as costs of administration. (7) Priority of claims - Any claim by Her Majesty in right of Canada or a province against the debtor in a bankruptcy, proposal or receivership for costs of remedying any environmental condition or environmental damage affecting real property or an immovable of the debtor is secured by security on the real property or immovable affected by the environmental condition or environmental damage and on any other real property or immovable of the debtor that is contiguous with that real property or immovable and that is related to the activity that caused the environmental condition or environmental damage, and the security (a)

is enforceable in accordance with the law of the jurisdiction in which the real property or immovable is located, in the same way as a mortgage, hypothec or other security on real property or immovables; and

(b)

ranks above any other claim, right, charge or security against the property, despite any other provision of this Act or anything in any other federal or provincial law.

(8) Claim for clean-up costs - Despite subsection 121(1), a claim against a debtor in a bankruptcy or proposal for the costs of remedying any environmental condition or environmental damage affecting real property or an immovable of the debtor shall be a provable claim, whether the condition arose or the damage occurred before or after the date of the filing of the proposal or the date of the bankruptcy. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 9; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 15; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 16; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 17 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 9; S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 9(3).

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Ss. 14-16

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

14.07 Effect of defect or irregularity in appointment - No defect or irregularity in the appointment of a trustee vitiates any act done by the trustee in good faith. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 9.

Corporations as Trustees 14.08 Majority of officers and directors must hold licences - A body corporate may hold a licence as a trustee only if a majority of its directors and a majority of its officers hold licences as trustees. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 9. 14.09 Acts of body corporate - A body corporate that holds a licence as a trustee may perform the duties and exercise the powers of a trustee only through a director or officer of the body corporate who holds a licence as a trustee. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 9. 14.1 Not carrying on business of trust company - Every body corporate that is incorporated by or under an Act of Parliament and that holds a licence as a trustee may carry on the business of a trustee anywhere in Canada and shall not, in respect of its operations as a trustee, be construed to be carrying on the business of a trust company. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 9.

Official Name 15. Official name in bankruptcy and proposal proceedings - The official name of a trustee acting in bankruptcy proceedings is “The Trustee of the Estate of (insert name of the bankrupt), a bankrupt”, and the official name of a trustee acting with respect to a proposal by an insolvent person is “The Trustee acting in re the proposal of (insert the name of the debtor)”. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 11.

Status of Trustee 15.1 Declaration - A trustee is deemed to be a trustee for the purposes of the definition “trustee” in section 2 of the Criminal Code. S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 16; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 17 (F).

Duties and Powers of Trustees 16. (1) Security to be given by trustee - Every trustee duly appointed shall, as soon as they are appointed, give security in cash or by bond or suretyship of a guaranty company satisfactory to the official receiver for the due accounting for, the payment and the transfer of

34

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

Ss. 16-18

all property received by the trustee as trustee and for the due and faithful performance of the trustee’s duties. (2) Security to be given by trustee - The security required to be given under subsection (1) shall be given to the official receiver in favour of the creditors generally and may be enforced by any succeeding trustee or by any one of the creditors on behalf of all by direction of the court, and may be increased or reduced by the official receiver. (3) Trustee to take possession and make inventory - The trustee shall, as soon as possible, take possession of the deeds, books, records and documents and all property of the bankrupt and make an inventory, and for the purpose of making an inventory the trustee is entitled to enter, subject to subsection (3.1), on any premises on which the deeds, books, records, documents or property of the bankrupt may be, even if they are in the possession of an executing officer, a secured creditor or other claimant to them. (3.1) Warrant required to enter - Where the premises referred to in subsection (3) are occupied by a person other than the bankrupt, the trustee may not enter the premises without the consent of that other person except under the authority of a warrant issued under section 189. (4) Trustee to be receiver - The trustee shall, in relation to and for the purpose of acquiring or retaining possession of the property of the bankrupt, be in the same position as if he were a receiver of the property appointed by the court, and the court may on his application enforce the acquisition or retention accordingly. (5) Right of trustee to books of account, etc. - No person is, as against the trustee, entitled to withhold possession of the books of account belonging to the bankrupt or any papers or documents, including material in electronic form, relating to the accounts or to any trade dealings of the bankrupt or to set up any lien or right of retention thereon. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 16; R.S.C. 1985, c. 31 (1st Supp.), s. 3; S.C. 1994, c. 26, s. 7; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 17; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 18(1) and (2) (E). 17. (1) Property to be delivered to trustee - Where a person has in his possession or power any property of the bankrupt that he is not by law entitled to retain as against the bankrupt or the trustee, that person shall deliver the property to the trustee. (2) Power to act anywhere - For the purpose of obtaining possession of and realizing on the property of the bankrupt, a trustee has power to act as such anywhere. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 12. 18. Conservatory measures - The trustee may when necessary in the interests of the estate of the bankrupt (a)

take conservatory measures and summarily dispose of property that is perishable or likely to depreciate rapidly in value; and

(b)

carry on the business of the bankrupt until the date fixed for the first meeting of creditors.

R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 12.

35

Ss. 19-24

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

19. (1) Legal advice or action before first meeting - The trustee may prior to the first meeting of creditors obtain such legal advice and take such court proceedings as he may consider necessary for the recovery or protection of the property of the bankrupt. (2) In case of emergency - In the case of an emergency where the necessary authority cannot be obtained from the inspectors in time to take appropriate action, the trustee may obtain such legal advice and institute such legal proceedings and take such action as he may deem necessary in the interests of the estate of the bankrupt. (3) [Repealed] - [S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 18, effective September 18, 2009 (SI/2009-68)]. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s.19; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 19(F); S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 18. 20. (1) Divesting property by trustee - The trustee may, with the permission of the inspectors, divest all or any part of the trustee’s right, title or interest in any real property or immovable of the bankrupt by a notice of quit claim or renunciation by the trustee, and the official in charge of the land titles or registry office, as the case may be, where title to the real property or immovable is registered shall accept and register in the land register the notice when tendered for registration. (2) Registration of notice - Registration of a notice under subsection (1) operates as a discharge or release of any documents previously registered in the land register by or on behalf of the trustee with respect to the property referred to in the notice. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 20; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 18; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 20. 21. Verifying bankrupt’s statement of affairs - The trustee shall verify the bankrupt’s statement of affairs referred to in paragraph 158(d). R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 21; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 19. 22. Duties regarding returns - The trustee is not liable to make any return that the bankrupt was required to make more than one year prior to the commencement of the calendar year, or the fiscal year of the bankrupt where that is different from the calendar year, in which he became a bankrupt. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 12. 23. Trustee to permit inspection of records - The trustee shall at all reasonable times permit any authorized person to inspect the books and papers of the bankrupt in order to prepare or verify returns that the bankrupt is by statute required to file. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 12. 24. (1) Insuring property - The trustee shall forthwith temporarily insure and keep insured in his official name all the insurable property of the bankrupt, for such amount and against such hazards as he may deem advisable until the inspectors are appointed, whereupon the inspectors shall determine the amount for which and the hazards against which the bankrupt’s property shall be insured by the trustee. (2) Losses payable to trustee - All insurance covering property of the bankrupt in force at the date of the bankruptcy shall in the event of loss suffered, without any notice to the insurer or

36

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

Ss. 24-26

other action on the part of the trustee and notwithstanding any statute or rule of law or contract or provision to a contrary effect, become payable immediately to the trustee as if the name of the trustee were written in the policy or contract of insurance as that of the insured or as if no change of title or ownership had come about and the trustee were the insured. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 13. 25. (1) Trust account - When acting under the authority of this Act, a trustee shall, without delay, deposit in a bank all funds received for an estate in a separate trust account for each estate. (1.1) Other deposit taking institutions must be insured - The trustee may deposit the funds in a deposit taking institution, other than a bank as defined in section 2, only if deposits held by that institution are insured or guaranteed under a provincial or federal enactment that provides depositors with protection against the loss of funds on deposit with that institution. (1.2) Foreign funds - If the funds are situated in a country other than Canada, the trustee may, if authorized by the Superintendent, deposit them in a financial institution in that country that is similar to a bank. (1.3) Permission needed for certain acts - The trustee shall not withdraw any funds from the trust account of an estate without the permission in writing of the inspectors or, on application, the court, except for the payment of dividends and charges incidental to the administration of the estate. (2) Payment by cheque - All payments made by a trustee under subsection (1) shall be made by cheque drawn on the estate account or in such manner as is specified in directives of the Superintendent. (3) Not in private account - The trustee shall not deposit any funds received by the trustee when acting under the authority of this Act in any banking account kept by the trustee for the trustee’s personal use. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 25; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 10; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 19; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 20(1), (2) (E) and (4) as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 95. 26. (1) Books to be kept by trustee - The trustee shall keep proper books and records of the administration of each estate to which he is appointed, in which shall be entered a record of all moneys received or disbursed by him, a list of all creditors filing claims, the amount and disposition of those claims, a copy of all notices sent out, the original signed copy of all minutes, proceedings had, and resolutions passed at any meeting of creditors or inspectors, court orders and all such other matters or proceedings as may be necessary to give a complete account of his administration of the estate. (2) Trustee’s records to be property of estate - The estate books, records and documents relating to the administration of an estate are deemed to be the property of the estate, and, in the event of any change of trustee, shall forthwith be delivered to the substituted trustee. (3) Records may be inspected - The trustee shall permit the books, records and documents referred to in subsection (2) to be inspected and copies of them made by the Superintendent, the bankrupt or any creditor or their representative at any reasonable time.

37

Ss. 26-29

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 26; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 20; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 21. 27. (1) Reports by trustee - The trustee shall from time to time report, (a)

when required by the inspectors, to every creditor,

(b)

when required by any specific creditor, to the creditor, and

(c)

when required by the Superintendent, to the Superintendent or the creditors,

showing the condition of the bankrupt’s estate, the moneys on hand, if any, and particulars of any property remaining unsold. (2) Disbursements - The trustee is entitled to charge against the estate of the bankrupt, for the preparation and delivery of any report referred to in subsection (1), only his actual disbursements. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 13. 28. (1) Documents to be forwarded to Superintendent - The trustee shall, without delay after their receipt or preparation, send to the Superintendent, in the prescribed manner, true copies of the documents referred to in section 155 and a true copy of (a)

the notice referred to in section 102,

(b)

the statement referred to in paragraph 158(d),

(c)

the trustee’s final statement of receipts and disbursements and the dividend sheet, and

(d)

every order made by the court on the application for discharge of a bankrupt or annulling any bankruptcy,

and file a copy of the documents referred to in paragraphs (b) and (c) in the court. (2) Notices, etc., to be forwarded to Superintendent - The trustee shall forward promptly to the Superintendent copies of all notices, reports and statements sent by him to the creditors and, when required, copies of such other documents as the Superintendent may specify. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 28; S.C. 1992, c. 1, s. 12, c. 27, s. 11; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 21. 29. (1) Duty of trustee on expiration of licence or removal - Where (a)

the licence of a trustee has been cancelled or suspended, or has ceased to be valid by reason of failure to pay fees,

(b)

a trustee has been removed from continuing the administration of an estate, or

(c)

a trustee dies or becomes incapacitated, the trustee or the legal representative of the trustee shall, within such time as is fixed by the Superintendent, prepare and forward to the Superintendent a detailed financial statement of the receipts and disbursements together with a list of and report on the unadministered property of every estate under the trustee’s administration for which the trustee has not been

38

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

Ss. 29-30

discharged, and shall forward to such other trustee as may be appointed in the trustee’s stead or, pending the appointment of the other trustee, to the official receiver all the remaining property of every estate under the trustee’s administration together with all the books, records and documents relating thereto. (2) [Repealed] - [S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 22, effective September 18, 2009 (SI/2009-68)]. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 29; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 21; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 22 30. (1) Powers exercisable by trustee with permission of inspectors - The trustee may, with the permission of the inspectors, do all or any of the following things: (a)

sell or otherwise dispose of for such price or other consideration as the inspectors may approve all or any part of the property of the bankrupt, including the goodwill of the business, if any, and the book debts due or growing due to the bankrupt, by tender, public auction or private contract, with power to transfer the whole thereof to any person or company, or to sell the same in parcels;

(b)

lease any real property or immovable;

(c)

carry on the business of the bankrupt, in so far as may be necessary for the beneficial administration of the estate of the bankrupt;

(d)

bring, institute or defend any action or other legal proceeding relating to the property of the bankrupt;

(e)

employ a barrister or solicitor or, in the Province of Quebec, an advocate, or employ any other representative, to take any proceedings or do any business that may be sanctioned by the inspectors;

(f)

accept as the consideration for the sale of any property of the bankrupt a sum of money payable at a future time, subject to such stipulations as to security and otherwise as the inspectors think fit;

(g)

incur obligations, borrow money and give security on any property of the bankrupt by mortgage, hypothec, charge, lien, assignment, pledge or otherwise, such obligations and money borrowed to be discharged or repaid with interest out of the property of the bankrupt in priority to the claims of the creditors;

(h)

compromise and settle any debts owing to the bankrupt;

(i)

compromise any claim made by or against the estate;

(j)

divide in its existing form among the creditors, according to its estimated value, any property that from its peculiar nature or other special circumstances cannot be readily or advantageously sold;

(k)

elect to retain for the whole part of its unexpired term, or to assign, surrender, disclaim or resiliate any lease of, or other temporary interest or right in, any property of the bankrupt; and

(l)

appoint the bankrupt to aid in administering the estate of the bankrupt in such manner and on such terms as the inspectors may direct.

39

Ss. 30-31

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

(2) Permission limited to particular thing or class - The permission given for the purposes of subsection (1) is not a general permission to do all or any of the things mentioned in that subsection, but is only a permission to do the particular thing or things or class of thing or things that the permission specifies. (3) If no inspectors - If no inspectors are appointed, the trustee may do all or any of the things referred to in subsection (1). (4) Sale or disposal to related persons - The trustee may sell or otherwise dispose of any of the bankrupt’s property to a person who is related to the bankrupt only with the court’s authorization. (5) Related persons - For the purpose of subsection (4), in the case of a bankrupt other than an individual, a person who is related to the bankrupt includes (a)

a director or officer of the bankrupt;

(b)

a person who has or has had, directly or indirectly, control in fact of the bankrupt; and

(c)

a person who is related to a person described in paragraph (a) or (b).

(6) Factors to be considered - In deciding whether to grant the authorization, the court is to consider, among other things, (a)

whether the process leading to the proposed sale or disposition of the property was reasonable in the circumstances;

(b)

the extent to which the creditors were consulted;

(c)

the effects of the proposed sale or disposition on creditors and other interested parties;

(d)

whether the consideration to be received for the property is reasonable and fair, taking into account the market value of the property;

(e)

whether good faith efforts were made to sell or otherwise dispose of the property to persons who are not related to the bankrupt; and

(f)

whether the consideration to be received is superior to the consideration that would be received under any other offer made in accordance with the process leading to the proposed sale or disposition of the property.

R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 30; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 22 (F); S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 22; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 23 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 10. 31. (1) Borrowing powers with permission of court - With the permission of the court, an interim receiver, a receiver within the meaning of subsection 243(2) or a trustee may make necessary or advisable advances, incur obligations, borrow money and give security on the debtor’s property in any amount, on any terms and on any property that may be authorized by the court and those advances, obligations and money borrowed must be repaid out of the debtor’s property in priority to the creditors’ claims.

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Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

Ss. 31-34

(2) Security under Bank Act - For the purpose of giving security under section 427 of the Bank Act, the interim receiver, receiver or trustee, when carrying on the business of the bankrupt, is deemed to be a person engaged in the class of business previously carried on by the bankrupt. (3) Limit of obligations and carrying on of business - The creditors or inspectors may by resolution limit the amount of the obligations that may be incurred, the advances that may be made or moneys that may be borrowed by the trustee and may limit the period of time during which the business of the bankrupt may be carried on by the trustee. (4) Debts deemed to be debts of estate - All debts incurred and credit received in carrying on the business of a bankrupt are deemed to be debts incurred and credit received by the estate of the bankrupt. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 31; S.C. 1991, c. 46, s. 584; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 24. 32. Trustee not obliged to carry on business - The trustee is not under obligation to carry on the business of the bankrupt where in his opinion the realizable value of the property of the bankrupt is insufficient to protect him fully against possible loss occasioned by so doing and the creditors or inspectors, on demand made by the trustee, neglect or refuse to secure him against such possible loss. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 15. 33. Reimbursement only of trustee’s disbursement advances - The court may make an order providing for the sale of any or all of the assets of the estate of the bankrupt, either by tender, private sale or public auction, setting out the terms and conditions of the sale and directing that the proceeds from the sale are to be used for the purpose of reimbursing the trustee in respect of any costs that may be owing to the trustee or of any moneys the trustee may have advanced as disbursements for the benefit of the estate. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 33; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 25. 34. (1) Trustee may apply to court for directions - A trustee may apply to the court for directions in relation to any matter affecting the administration of the estate of a bankrupt and the court shall give in writing such directions, if any, as to it appear proper in the circumstances. (2) To report to court after three years - Where an estate has not been fully administered within three years after the bankruptcy, the trustee shall, if requested to do so by the Superintendent, report that fact to the court as soon as practicable thereafter, and the court shall make such order as it considers fit to expedite the administration. (3) Notice to Superintendent’s division office - The trustee must send notice to the Superintendent’s division office of the day and time when any application for directions made under subsection (1) is to be heard and of the day and time when the trustee intends to report to the court as required by the Superintendent under subsection (2). R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 34; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 12; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 26.

41

Ss. 35-36

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

35. (1) Redirection of mail - Subject to subsection (2), the trustee may, by sending to the Canada Post Corporation (a)

a notice in the prescribed form, and

(b)

a copy of the trustee’s certificate of appointment,

request that any mail addressed to a bankrupt that is directed to any place referred to in the notice be redirected or sent by the Canada Post Corporation to the trustee or to such other person as the trustee may designate and when Canada Post Corporation receives those documents, it shall so redirect or send that mail. (2) Permission for residence - A notice referred to in subsection (1) may refer to a bankrupt’s residence only where the trustee has, on application, obtained permission from the court. (3) Time limitation - If a bankrupt is an individual, a notice referred to in subsection (1) is operative only during the three-month period immediately after the date of the bankruptcy unless the court, on application, extends that period on any terms that it considers fit. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 35; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 13; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 23; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 27. 36. (1) Duty of former trustee on substitution - On the appointment of a substituted trustee, the former trustee shall without delay pass his or her accounts before the court and deliver to the substituted trustee all the property of the estate, together with all books, records and documents of the bankrupt and of the administration of the estate, as well as a statement of receipts and disbursements that contains a complete account of all moneys received by the trustee out of the property of the bankrupt or otherwise, the amount of interest received by the trustee, all moneys disbursed and expenses incurred and the remuneration claimed by the trustee, together with full particulars, description and value of all the bankrupt’s property that has not been sold or realized, setting out the reason why the property has not been sold or realized and the disposition made of the property. (2) Duty of substituted trustee - A substituted trustee shall (a)

[Repealed] – [1992, c. 27, s. 14]

(b)

if appointed by the creditors, file with the court a copy of the minutes of the meeting signed by the chair;

(c)

notify the Superintendent of his appointment;

(d)

if required by the inspectors, register a notice of the appointment in the land register of any land titles or registry office where the assignment or bankruptcy order has been registered; and

(e)

as soon as funds are available, pay to the former trustee his remuneration and disbursements as approved by the court.

R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 36; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 14; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 24; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 23; S.C. 2005, c. 47, ss. 28 and 123(a) (E).

42

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

Ss. 37-39

37. Appeal to court against trustee - Where the bankrupt or any of the creditors or any other person is aggrieved by any act or decision of the trustee, he may apply to the court and the court may confirm, reverse or modify the act or decision complained of and make such order in the premises as it thinks just. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 19. 38. (1) Proceeding by creditor when trustee refuses to act - Where a creditor requests the trustee to take any proceeding that in his opinion would be for the benefit of the estate of a bankrupt and the trustee refuses or neglects to take the proceeding, the creditor may obtain from the court an order authorizing him to take the proceeding in his own name and at his own expense and risk, on notice being given the other creditors of the contemplated proceeding, and on such other terms and conditions as the court may direct. (2) Transfer to creditor - On an order under subsection (1) being made, the trustee shall assign and transfer to the creditor all his right, title and interest in the chose in action or subject-matter of the proceeding, including any document in support thereof. (3) Benefits belong to creditor - Any benefit derived from a proceeding taken pursuant to subsection (1), to the extent of his claim and the costs, belongs exclusively to the creditor instituting the proceeding, and the surplus, if any, belongs to the estate. (4) Trustee may institute proceeding - Where, before an order is made under subsection (1), the trustee, with the permission of the inspectors, signifies to the court his readiness to institute the proceeding for the benefit of the creditors, the order shall fix the time within which he shall do so, and in that case the benefit derived from the proceeding, if instituted within the time so fixed, belongs to the estate. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 38; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 24 (F).

Remuneration of Trustee 39. (1) To be voted by creditors - The remuneration of the trustee shall be such as is voted to the trustee by ordinary resolution at any meeting of creditors. (2) Not to exceed 7 1/2 per cent - Where the remuneration of the trustee has not been fixed under subsection (1), the trustee may insert in his final statement and retain as his remuneration, subject to increase or reduction as hereinafter provided, a sum not exceeding seven and one-half per cent of the amount remaining out of the realization of the property of the debtor after the claims of the secured creditors have been paid or satisfied. (3) For carrying on debtor’s business or in case of a proposal - Where the business of the debtor has been carried on by the trustee or under his supervision, he may be allowed such special remuneration for such services as the creditors or the inspectors may by resolution authorize, and, in the case of a proposal, such special remuneration as may be agreed to by the debtor, or in the absence of agreement with the debtor such amount as may be approved by the court. (4) Successive trustees - In the case of two or more trustees acting in succession, the remuneration shall be apportioned between the trustees in accordance with the services

43

Ss. 39-41

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

rendered by each, and in the absence of agreement between the trustees the court shall determine the amount payable to each. (5) Court may increase or reduce - On application by the trustee, a creditor or the debtor and on notice to such parties as the court may direct, the court may make an order increasing or reducing the remuneration. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 21.

Discharge of Trustee 40. (1) Disposal of unrealizable property - Any property of a bankrupt that is listed in the statement of affairs referred to in paragraph 158(d) or otherwise disclosed to the trustee before the bankrupt’s discharge and that is found incapable of realization must be returned to the bankrupt before the trustee’s application for discharge, but if inspectors have been appointed, the trustee may do so only with their permission. (2) Final disposition of property - Where a trustee is unable to dispose of any property as provided in this section, the court may make such order as it may consider necessary. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 40; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 29. 41. (1) Application to court - When a trustee has completed the duties required of him with respect to the administration of the property of a bankrupt, he shall apply to the court for a discharge. (2) Discharge of trustee - The court may discharge a trustee with respect to any estate on full administration thereof or, for sufficient cause, before full administration. (3) When another trustee has been appointed - A trustee when replaced by another trustee is entitled to be discharged if he has accounted to the satisfaction of the inspectors and the court for all property that came to his hands, and a period of three months has elapsed after the date of the replacement without any undisposed of claim or objection having been made by the bankrupt or any creditor. (4) When estate deemed fully administered - When a trustee’s accounts have been approved by the inspectors and taxed by the court and all objections, applications, oppositions, motions and appeals have been settled or disposed of and all dividends have been paid, the estate is deemed to have been fully administered. (5) Objections to be filed with court and trustee - Any interested person desiring to object to the discharge of a trustee shall, at least five days prior to the date of the hearing, file notice of objection with the registrar of the court setting out the reasons for the objection and serve a copy of the notice on the trustee. (6) Court may grant discharge - The court shall consider the objection filed under subsection (5) and may grant or withhold a discharge accordingly or give such directions as it may deem proper in the circumstances. (7) Fraud or breach of trust - Nothing in or done under authority of this section relieves or discharges or shall be deemed to relieve or discharge a trustee from the results of any fraud.

44

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

Ss. 41-42

(8) Effect of discharge of trustee - The discharge of a trustee discharges him from all liability (a)

in respect of any act done or default made by him in the administration of the property of the bankrupt, and

(b)

in relation to his conduct as trustee,

but any discharge may be revoked by the court on proof that it was obtained by fraud or by suppression or concealment of any material fact. (8.1) Investigation not precluded - Nothing in subsection (8) is to be construed as preventing an inquiry, investigation or proceeding in respect of a trustee under subsection 14.01(1). (9) Security released - The discharge of a trustee under this section operates as a release of the security provided pursuant to subsection 16(1). (10) Trustee remains - Notwithstanding his discharge, the trustee remains the trustee of the estate for the performance of such duties as may be incidental to the full administration of the estate. (11) Appointment of trustee by court to complete administration - The court, on being satisfied that there are assets that have not been realized or distributed, may, on the application of any interested person, appoint a trustee to complete the administration of the estate of the bankrupt, and the trustee shall be governed by the provisions of this Act, in so far as they are applicable. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 41; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 25; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 25(1) and (2) (F); S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 12.

PART II — BANKRUPTCY ORDERS AND ASSIGNMENTS Acts of Bankruptcy 42. (1) Acts of bankruptcy - A debtor commits an act of bankruptcy in each of the following cases: (a)

if in Canada or elsewhere he makes an assignment of his property to a trustee for the benefit of his creditors generally, whether it is an assignment authorized by this Act or not;

(b)

if in Canada or elsewhere the debtor makes a fraudulent gift, delivery or transfer of the debtor’s property or of any part of it;

(c)

if in Canada or elsewhere the debtor makes any transfer of the debtor’s property or any part of it, or creates any charge on it, that would under this Act be void or, in the Province of Quebec, null as a fraudulent preference;

(d)

if, with intent to defeat or delay his creditors, he departs out of Canada, or, being out of Canada, remains out of Canada, or departs from his dwelling house or otherwise absents himself;

45

Ss. 42-43

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

(e)

if the debtor permits any execution or other process issued against the debtor under which any of the debtor’s property is seized, levied on or taken in execution to remain unsatisfied until within five days after the time fixed by the executing officer for the sale of the property or for fifteen days after the seizure, levy or taking in execution, or if any of the debtor’s property has been sold by the executing officer, or if the execution or other process has been held by the executing officer for a period of fifteen days after written demand for payment without seizure, levy or taking in execution or satisfaction by payment, or if it is returned endorsed to the effect that the executing officer can find no property on which to levy or to seize or take, but if interpleader or opposition proceedings have been instituted with respect to the property seized, the time elapsing between the date at which the proceedings were instituted and the date at which the proceedings are finally disposed of, settled or abandoned shall not be taken into account in calculating the period of fifteen days;

(f)

if he exhibits to any meeting of his creditors any statement of his assets and liabilities that shows that he is insolvent, or presents or causes to be presented to any such meeting a written admission of his inability to pay his debts;

(g)

if he assigns, removes, secretes or disposes of or attempts or is about to assign, remove, secrete or dispose of any of his property with intent to defraud, defeat or delay his creditors or any of them;

(h)

if he gives notice to any of his creditors that he has suspended or that he is about to suspend payment of his debts;

(i)

if he defaults in any proposal made under this Act; and

(j)

if he ceases to meet his liabilities generally as they become due.

(2) Unauthorized assignments are void or null - Every assignment of an insolvent debtor’s property other than an assignment authorized by this Act, made by an insolvent debtor for the general benefit of their creditors, is void or, in the Province of Quebec, null. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 42; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 26; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 27(1), (2) (E), (3), (4) (F) and (5)(E).

Application for Bankruptcy Order 43. (1) Bankruptcy application - Subject to this section, one or more creditors may file in court an application for a bankruptcy order against a debtor if it is alleged in the application that (a)

the debt or debts owing to the applicant creditor or creditors amount to one thousand dollars; and

(b)

the debtor has committed an act of bankruptcy within the six months preceding the filing of the application.

(2) If applicant creditor is a secured creditor - If the applicant creditor referred to in subsection (1) is a secured creditor, they shall in their application either state that they are willing to give up their security for the benefit of the creditors, in the event of a bankruptcy order being made against the debtor, or give an estimate of the value of the applicant creditor’s

46

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

S. 43

security, and in the latter case they may be admitted as an applicant creditor to the extent of the balance of the debt due to them after deducting the value so estimated, in the same manner as if they were an unsecured creditor. (3) Affidavit - The application shall be verified by affidavit of the applicant or by someone duly authorized on their behalf having personal knowledge of the facts alleged in the application. (4) Consolidation of applications - If two or more applications are filed against the same debtor or against joint debtors, the court may consolidate the proceedings or any of them on any terms that the court thinks fit. (5) Place of filing - The application shall be filed in the court having jurisdiction in the judicial district of the locality of the debtor. (6) Proof of facts, etc. - At the hearing of the application, the court shall require proof of the facts alleged in the application and of the service of the application, and, if satisfied with the proof, may make a bankruptcy order. (7) Dismissal of application - If the court is not satisfied with the proof of the facts alleged in the application or of the service of the application, or is satisfied by the debtor that the debtor is able to pay their debts, or that for other sufficient cause no order ought to be made, it shall dismiss the application. (8) Dismissal with respect to some respondents only - If there are more respondents than one to an application, the court may dismiss the application with respect to one or more of them, without prejudice to the effect of the application as against the other or others of them. (9) Appointment of trustee - On a bankruptcy order being made, the court shall appoint a licensed trustee as trustee of the property of the bankrupt, having regard, as far as the court considers just, to the wishes of the creditors. (10) Stay of proceedings if facts denied - If the debtor appears at the hearing of the application and denies the truth of the facts alleged in the application, the court may, instead of dismissing the application, stay all proceedings on the application on any terms that it may see fit to impose on the applicant as to costs or on the debtor to prevent alienation of the debtor’s property and for any period of time that may be required for trial of the issue relating to the disputed facts. (11) Stay of proceedings for other reasons - The court may for other sufficient reason make an order staying the proceedings under an application, either altogether or for a limited time, on any terms and subject to any conditions that the court may think just. (12) Security for costs - Applicants who are resident out of Canada may be ordered to give security for costs to the debtor, and proceedings under the application may be stayed until the security is furnished. (13) Bankruptcy order on another application - If proceedings on an application have been stayed or have not been prosecuted with due diligence and effect, the court may, if by reason of the delay or for any other cause it is considered just, substitute or add as applicant any other creditor to whom the debtor may be indebted in the amount required by this Act and make a bankruptcy order on the application of the other creditor, and shall, immediately after making

47

Ss. 43-46

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

the order, dismiss on any terms that it may consider just the application in the stayed or nonprosecuted proceedings. (14) Withdrawing application - An application shall not be withdrawn without the leave of the court. (15) Application against one partner - Any creditor whose claim against a partnership is sufficient to entitle the creditor to present a bankruptcy application may present an application against any one or more partners of the firm without including the others. (16) Court may consolidate proceedings - If a bankruptcy order has been made against one member of a partnership, any other application against a member of the same partnership shall be filed in or transferred to the same court, and the court may give any directions for consolidating the proceedings under the applications that it thinks just. (17) Continuance of proceedings on death of debtor - If a debtor against whom an application has been filed dies, the proceedings shall, unless the court otherwise orders, be continued as if the debtor were alive. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 43; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 15; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 28. 44. (1) Application against estate or succession - Subject to section 43, an application for a bankruptcy order may be filed against the estate or succession of a deceased debtor. (2) Personal liability - After service of an application for a bankruptcy order on the executor or administrator of the estate of a deceased debtor, or liquidator of the succession of a deceased debtor, the person on whom the order was served shall not make payment of any moneys or transfer any property of the deceased debtor, except as required for payment of the proper funeral and testamentary expenses, until the application is disposed of; otherwise, in addition to any penalties to which the person may be subject, the person is personally liable for the payment or transfer. (3) Act done in good faith - Nothing in this section invalidates any payment or transfer of property made or any act or thing done, in good faith, by the executor, administrator of the estate or liquidator of the succession before the service of an application referred to in subsection (2). R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 44; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 28. 45. (1) Costs of application - If a bankruptcy order is made, the costs of the applicant shall be taxed and be payable out of the estate, unless the court otherwise orders. (2) Insufficient proceeds - If the proceeds of the estate are not sufficient for the payment of any costs incurred by the trustee, the court may order the costs to be paid by the applicant. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 45; S.C. 1992, c. 1, s. 14; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 28.

Interim Receivers 46. (1) Appointment of interim receiver - The court may, if it is shown to be necessary for the protection of the estate of a debtor, at any time after the filing of an application for a bankruptcy order and before a bankruptcy order is made, appoint a licensed trustee as interim 48

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

Ss. 46-47

receiver of the property or any part of the property of the debtor and direct the interim receiver to take immediate possession of the property or any part of it on an undertaking being given by the applicant that the court may impose with respect to interference with the debtor’s legal rights and with respect to damages in the event of the application being dismissed. (2) Powers of interim receiver - The interim receiver appointed under subsection (1) may, under the direction of the court, take conservatory measures and summarily dispose of property that is perishable or likely to depreciate rapidly in value and exercise such control over the business of the debtor as the court deems advisable, but the interim receiver shall not unduly interfere with the debtor in the carrying on of his business except as may be necessary for conservatory purposes or to comply with the order of the court. (3) Place of filing - An application under subsection (1) is to be filed in a court having jurisdiction in the judicial district of the locality of the debtor. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 27; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 27 (F); S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 29; S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 13. 47. (1) Appointment of interim receiver - If the court is satisfied that a notice is about to be sent or was sent under subsection 244(1), it may, subject to subsection (3), appoint a trustee as interim receiver of all or any part of the debtor’s property that is subject to the security to which the notice relates until the earliest of (a)

the taking of possession by a receiver, within the meaning of subsection 243(2), of the debtor’s property over which the interim receiver was appointed,

(b)

the taking of possession by a trustee of the debtor’s property over which the interim receiver was appointed, and

(c)

the expiry of 30 days after the day on which the interim receiver was appointed or of any period specified by the court.

(2) Directions to interim receiver - The court may direct an interim receiver appointed under subsection (1) to do any or all of the following: (a)

take possession of all or part of the debtor’s property mentioned in the appointment;

(b)

exercise such control over that property, and over the debtor’s business, as the court considers advisable;

(c)

take conservatory measures; and

(d)

summarily dispose of property that is perishable or likely to depreciate rapidly in value.

(3) When appointment may be made - An appointment of an interim receiver may be made under subsection (1) only if it is shown to the court to be necessary for the protection of (a)

the debtor’s estate; or

(b)

the interests of the creditor who sent the notice under subsection 244(1).

(4) Place of filing - An application under subsection (1) is to be filed in a court having jurisdiction in the judicial district of the locality of the debtor. 49

S. 47

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 47; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 16; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 30 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, ss. 14 and 96; S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 14(2) and (3). 47.1 (1) Appointment of interim receiver - If a notice of intention has been filed under section 50.4 or a proposal has been filed under subsection 62(1), the court may at any time after the filing, subject to subsection (3), appoint as interim receiver of all or any part of the debtor’s property, (a)

the trustee under the notice of intention or proposal;

(b)

another trustee; or

(c)

the trustee under the notice of intention or proposal and another trustee jointly.

(1.1) Duration of appointment - The appointment expires on the earliest of (a)

the taking of possession by a receiver, within the meaning of subsection 243(2), of the debtor’s property over which the interim receiver was appointed,

(b)

the taking of possession by a trustee of the debtor’s property over which the interim receiver was appointed, and

(c)

court approval of the proposal.

(2) Directions to interim receiver - The court may direct an interim receiver appointed under subsection (1) to do any or all of the following: (a)

carry out the duties set out in subsection 50(10) or 50.4(7), in substitution for the trustee referred to in that subsection or jointly with that trustee;

(b)

take possession of all or part of the debtor’s property mentioned in the order of the court;

(c)

exercise such control over that property, and over the debtor’s business, as the court considers advisable;

(d)

take conservatory measures; and

(e)

summarily dispose of property that is perishable or likely to depreciate rapidly in value.

(3) When appointment may be made - An appointment of an interim receiver may be made under subsection (1) only if it is shown to the court to be necessary for the protection of (a)

the debtor’s estate; or

(b)

the interests of one or more creditors, or of the creditors generally.

(4) Place of filing - An application under subsection (1) is to be filed in a court having jurisdiction in the judicial district of the locality of the debtor. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 16; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 31 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, ss. 15 and 97; S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 15(2) and (3).

50

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

Ss. 47-49

47.2 (1) Orders respecting fees and expenses - If an appointment of an interim receiver is made under section 47 or 47.1, the court may make any order respecting the payment of fees and disbursements of the interim receiver that it considers proper, including an order giving the interim receiver security, ranking ahead of any or all secured creditors, over any or all of the assets of the debtor in respect of the interim receiver’s claim for fees or disbursements, but the court shall not make such an order unless it is satisfied that all secured creditors who would be materially affected by the order were given reasonable advance notification and an opportunity to make representations to the court. (2) Meaning of disbursements - In subsection (1), “disbursements” do not include payments made in operating a business of the debtor. (3) Accounts, discharge of interim receivers - With respect to interim receivers appointed under section 46, 47 or 47.1, (a)

the form and content of their accounts, including their final statement of receipts and disbursements,

(b)

the procedure for the preparation and taxation of those accounts, and

(c)

the procedure for the discharge of the interim receiver shall be as prescribed.

S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 16; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 30; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 32. 48. Application of sections 43 to 46 - Sections 43 to 46 do not apply to individuals whose principal occupation and means of livelihood is fishing, farming or the tillage of the soil or to any individual who works for wages, salary, commission or hire at a rate of compensation not exceeding twentyfive hundred dollars per year and does not on their own account carry on business. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 48; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 28.

Assignment in Bankruptcy 49. (1) Assignment for general benefit of creditors - An insolvent person or, if deceased, the executor or administrator of their estate or the liquidator of the succession, with the leave of the court, may make an assignment of all the insolvent person’s property for the general benefit of the insolvent person’s creditors. (2) Sworn statement - The assignment must be accompanied by a sworn statement in the prescribed form showing the debtor’s property that is divisible among his or her creditors, the names and addresses of all his or her creditors and the amounts of their respective claims. (3) Filing of assignment - The assignment made under subsection (1) shall be offered to the official receiver in the locality of the debtor, and it is inoperative until filed with that official receiver, who shall refuse to file the assignment unless it is in the prescribed form or to the like effect and accompanied by the sworn statement required by subsection (2). (4) Appointment of trustee - Where the official receiver files the assignment made under subsection (1), he shall appoint as trustee a licensed trustee whom he shall, as far as possible, select by reference to the wishes of the most interested creditors if ascertainable at the time, and the official receiver shall complete the assignment by inserting therein as grantee the name of the trustee. 51

Ss. 49-50

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

(5) Cancellation of assignment - Where the official receiver is unable to find a licensed trustee who is willing to act, the official receiver shall, after giving the bankrupt five days notice, cancel the assignment. (6) Procedure in small estates - Where the bankrupt is not a corporation and in the opinion of the official receiver the realizable assets of the bankrupt, after the claims of secured creditors are deducted, will not exceed five thousand dollars or such other amount as is prescribed, the provisions of this Act relating to the summary administration of estates shall apply. (7) Future property not to be considered - In the determination of the realizable assets of a bankrupt for the purposes of subsection (6), no regard shall be had to any property that may be acquired by the bankrupt or devolve on the bankrupt before the bankrupt’s discharge. (8) Where subsection (6) ceases to apply - The official receiver may direct that subsection (6) shall cease to apply in respect of the bankrupt where the official receiver determines that (a)

the realizable assets of the bankrupt, after the claims of secured creditors are deducted, exceed five thousand dollars or the amount prescribed, as the case may be, or

(b)

the costs of realization of the assets of the bankrupt are a significant proportion of the realizable value of the assets,

and the official receiver considers that such a direction is appropriate. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 49; S.C. 1992, c. 1, s. 15, c. 27, s. 17; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 29; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 31 (E); S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 33.

PART III — PROPOSALS DIVISION I — GENERAL SCHEME FOR PROPOSALS 50. (1) Who may make a proposal - Subject to subsection (1.1), a proposal may be made by (a)

an insolvent person;

(b)

a receiver, within the meaning of subsection 243(2), but only in relation to an insolvent person;

(c)

a liquidator of an insolvent person’s property;

(d)

a bankrupt; and

(e)

a trustee of the estate of a bankrupt.

(1.1) Where proposal may not be made - A proposal may not be made under this Division with respect to a debtor in respect of whom a consumer proposal has been filed under Division II until the administrator under the consumer proposal has been discharged. (1.2) To whom proposal made - A proposal must be made to the creditors generally, either as a mass or separated into classes as provided in the proposal, and may also be made to secured creditors in respect of any class or classes of secured claim, subject to subsection (1.3).

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(1.3) Idem - Where a proposal is made to one or more secured creditors in respect of secured claims of a particular class, the proposal must be made to all secured creditors in respect of secured claims of that class. (1.4) Classes of secured claims - Secured claims may be included in the same class if the interests or rights of the creditors holding those claims are sufficiently similar to give them a commonality of interest, taking into account (a)

the nature of the debts giving rise to the claims;

(b)

the nature and rank of the security in respect of the claims;

(c)

the remedies available to the creditors in the absence of the proposal, and the extent to which the creditors would recover their claims by exercising those remedies;

(d)

the treatment of the claims under the proposal, and the extent to which the claims would be paid under the proposal; and

(e)

such further criteria, consistent with those set out in paragraphs (a) to (d), as are prescribed.

(1.5) Court may determine classes - The court may, on application made at any time after a notice of intention or a proposal is filed, determine, in accordance with subsection (1.4), the classes of secured claims appropriate to a proposal, and the class into which any particular secured claim falls. (1.6) Creditors’ response - Subject to section 50.1 as regards included secured creditors, any creditor may respond to the proposal as made to the creditors generally, by filing with the trustee a proof of claim in the manner provided for in (a)

sections 124 to 126, in the case of unsecured creditors; or

(b)

sections 124 to 134, in the case of secured creditors.

(1.7) Effect of filing proof of claim - Hereinafter in this Division, a reference to an unsecured creditor shall be deemed to include a secured creditor who has filed a proof of claim under subsection (1.6), and a reference to an unsecured claim shall be deemed to include that secured creditor’s claim. (1.8) Voting - All questions relating to a proposal, except the question of accepting or refusing the proposal, shall be decided by ordinary resolution of the creditors to whom the proposal was made. (2) Documents to be filed - Subject to section 50.4, proceedings for a proposal shall be commenced, in the case of an insolvent person, by filing with a licensed trustee, and in the case of a bankrupt, by filing with the trustee of the estate, (a)

a copy of the proposal in writing setting out the terms of the proposal and the particulars of any securities or sureties proposed, signed by the person making the proposal and the proposed sureties if any; and

(b)

the prescribed statement of affairs.

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(2.1) Filing of documents with the official receiver - Copies of the documents referred to in subsection (2) must, at the time the proposal is filed under subsection 62(1), also be filed by the trustee with the official receiver in the locality of the debtor. (3) Approval of inspectors - A proposal made in respect of a bankrupt shall be approved by the inspectors before any further action is taken thereon. (4) Proposal, etc., not to be withdrawn - No proposal or any security, guarantee or suretyship tendered with the proposal may be withdrawn pending the decision of the creditors and the court. (4.1) Assignment not prevented - Subsection (4) shall not be construed as preventing an insolvent person in respect of whom a proposal has been made from subsequently making an assignment. (5) Duties of trustee - The trustee shall make or cause to be made such an appraisal and investigation of the affairs and property of the debtor as to enable the trustee to estimate with reasonable accuracy the financial situation of the debtor and the cause of the debtor’s financial difficulties or insolvency and report the result thereof to the meeting of the creditors. (6) Trustee to file cash-flow statement - The trustee shall, when filing a proposal under subsection 62(1) in respect of an insolvent person, file with the proposal (a)

a statement - or a revised cash-flow statement if a cash-flow statement had previously been filed under subsection 50.4(2) in respect of that insolvent person (in this section referred to as a “cash-flow statement”) indicating the projected cash-flow of the insolvent person on at least a monthly basis, prepared by the person making the proposal, reviewed for its reasonableness by the trustee and signed by the trustee and the person making the proposal;

(b)

a report on the reasonableness of the cash-flow statement, in the prescribed form, prepared and signed by the trustee; and

(c)

a report containing prescribed representations by the person making the proposal regarding the preparation of the cash-flow statement, in the prescribed form, prepared and signed by the person making the proposal.

(7) Creditors may obtain statement - Subject to subsection (8), any creditor may obtain a copy of the cash-flow statement on request made to the trustee. (8) Exception - The court may order that a cash-flow statement or any part thereof not be released to some or all of the creditors pursuant to subsection (7) where it is satisfied that (a)

such release would unduly prejudice the insolvent person; and

(b)

non-release would not unduly prejudice the creditor or creditors in question.

(9) Trustee protected - If the trustee acts in good faith and takes reasonable care in reviewing the cash-flow statement, he is not liable for loss or damage to any person resulting from that person’s reliance on the cash-flow statement. (10) Trustee to monitor and report - Subject to any direction of the court under paragraph 47.1(2)(a), the trustee under a proposal in respect of an insolvent person shall, for the purpose

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of monitoring the insolvent person’s business and financial affairs, have access to and examine the insolvent person’s property, including his premises, books, records and other financial documents, to the extent necessary to adequately assess the insolvent person’s business and financial affairs, from the filing of the proposal until the proposal is approved by the court or the insolvent person becomes bankrupt, and shall (a)

file a report on the state of the insolvent person’s business and financial affairs containing the prescribed information, if any (i)

with the official receiver without delay after ascertaining a material adverse change in the insolvent person’s projected cash-flow or financial circumstances, and

(ii)

with the court at any time that the court may order; and

(a.1) send a report about the material adverse change to the creditors without delay after ascertaining the change; and (b)

send, in the prescribed manner, a report on the state of the insolvent person’s business and financial affairs - containing the trustee’s opinion as to the reasonableness of a decision, if any, to include in a proposal a provision that sections 95 to 101 do not apply in respect of the proposal and containing the prescribed information, if any - to the creditors and the official receiver at least 10 days before the day on which the meeting of creditors referred to in subsection 51(1) is to be held.

(11) Report to creditors - An interim receiver who has been directed under subsection 47.1(2) to carry out the duties set out in subsection (10) in substitution for the trustee shall deliver a report on the state of the insolvent person’s business and financial affairs, containing any prescribed information, to the trustee at least fifteen days before the meeting of creditors referred to in subsection 51(1), and the trustee shall send the report to the creditors and the official receiver, in the prescribed manner, at least ten days before the meeting of creditors referred to in that subsection. (12) Court may declare proposal as deemed refused by creditors - The court may, on application by the trustee, the interim receiver, if any, appointed under section 47.1 or a creditor, at any time before the meeting of creditors, declare that the proposal is deemed to have been refused by the creditors if the court is satisfied that (a)

the debtor has not acted, or is not acting, in good faith and with due diligence;

(b)

the proposal will not likely be accepted by the creditors; or

(c)

the creditors as a whole would be materially prejudiced if the application under this subsection is rejected.

(12.1) Effect of declaration - If the court declares that the proposal is deemed to have been refused by the creditors, paragraphs 57(a) to (c) apply. (13) Claims against directors - compromise - A proposal made in respect of a corporation may include in its terms provision for the compromise of claims against directors of the corporation that arose before the commencement of proceedings under this Act and that relate

55

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Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

to the obligations of the corporation where the directors are by law liable in their capacity as directors for the payment of such obligations. (14) Exception - A provision for the compromise of claims against directors may not include claims that (a)

relate to contractual rights of one or more creditors arising from contracts with one or more directors; or

(b)

are based on allegations of misrepresentation made by directors to creditors or of wrongful or oppressive conduct by directors.

(15) Powers of court - The court may declare that a claim against directors shall not be compromised if it is satisfied that the compromise would not be just and equitable in the circumstances. (16) Application of other provisions - Subsection 62(2) and section 122 apply, with such modifications as the circumstances require, in respect of claims against directors compromised under a proposal of a debtor corporation. (17) Determination of classes of claims - The court, on application made at any time after a proposal is filed, may determine the classes of claims of claimants against directors and the class into which any particular claimant’s claim falls. (18) Resignation or removal of directors - Where all of the directors have resigned or have been removed by the shareholders without replacement, any person who manages or supervises the management of the business and affairs of the corporation shall be deemed to be a director for the purposes of this section. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 50; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 18; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 30; S.C. 2001, c. 4, s. 27; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 32(1), (2) and (3) (F); S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 34 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 16; S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 16(2) and (3). 50.1 (1) Secured creditor may file proof of secured claim - Subject to subsections (2) to (4), a secured creditor to whom a proposal has been made in respect of a particular secured claim may respond to the proposal by filing with the trustee a proof of secured claim in the prescribed form, and may vote, on all questions relating to the proposal, in respect of that entire claim, and sections 124 to 126 apply, in so far as they are applicable, with such modifications as the circumstances require, to proofs of secured claim. (2) Proposed assessed value - Where a proposal made to a secured creditor in respect of a claim includes a proposed assessed value of the security in respect of the claim, the secured creditor may file with the trustee a proof of secured claim in the prescribed form, and may vote as a secured creditor on all questions relating to the proposal in respect of an amount equal to the lesser of (a)

the amount of the claim, and

(b)

the proposed assessed value of the security.

(3) Idem - Where the proposed assessed value is less than the amount of the secured creditor’s claim, the secured creditor may file with the trustee a proof of claim in the prescribed form, and may vote as an unsecured creditor on all questions relating to the proposal in respect of an

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amount equal to the difference between the amount of the claim and the proposed assessed value. (4) Idem - Where a secured creditor is dissatisfied with the proposed assessed value of his security, the secured creditor may apply to the court, within fifteen days after the proposal is sent to the creditors, to have the proposed assessed value revised, and the court may revise the proposed assessed value, in which case the revised value henceforth applies for the purposes of this Part. (5) Where no secured creditor in a class takes action - Where no secured creditor having a secured claim of a particular class files a proof of secured claim at or before the meeting of creditors, the secured creditors having claims of that class shall be deemed to have voted for the refusal of the proposal. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 19; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 31 (F). 50.2 Excluded secured creditor - A secured creditor to whom a proposal has not been made in respect of a particular secured claim may not file a proof of secured claim in respect of that claim. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 19. 50.3 Rights in bankruptcy - On the bankruptcy of an insolvent person who made a proposal to one or more secured creditors in respect of secured claims, any proof of secured claim filed pursuant to section 50.1 ceases to be valid or effective, and sections 112 and 127 to 134 apply in respect of a proof of claim filed by any secured creditor in the bankruptcy. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 19. 50.4 (1) Notice of intention - Before filing a copy of a proposal with a licensed trustee, an insolvent person may file a notice of intention, in the prescribed form, with the official receiver in the insolvent person’s locality, stating (a)

the insolvent person’s intention to make a proposal,

(b)

the name and address of the licensed trustee who has consented, in writing, to act as the trustee under the proposal, and

(c)

the names of the creditors with claims amounting to two hundred and fifty dollars or more and the amounts of their claims as known or shown by the debtor’s books,

and attaching thereto a copy of the consent referred to in paragraph (b). (2) Certain things to be filed - Within ten days after filing a notice of intention under subsection (1), the insolvent person shall file with the official receiver (a)

a statement (in this section referred to as a “cash-flow statement”) indicating the projected cash flow of the insolvent person on at least a monthly basis, prepared by the insolvent person, reviewed for its reasonableness by the trustee under the notice of intention and signed by the trustee and the insolvent person;

(b)

a report on the reasonableness of the cash-flow statement, in the prescribed form, prepared and signed by the trustee; and 57

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(c)

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

a report containing prescribed representations by the insolvent person regarding the preparation of the cash-flow statement, in the prescribed form, prepared and signed by the insolvent person.

(3) Creditors may obtain statement - Subject to subsection (4), any creditor may obtain a copy of the cash-flow statement on request made to the trustee. (4) Exception - The court may order that a cash-flow statement or any part thereof not be released to some or all of the creditors pursuant to subsection (3) where it is satisfied that (a)

such release would unduly prejudice the insolvent person; and

(b)

non-release would not unduly prejudice the creditor or creditors in question.

(5) Trustee protected - If the trustee acts in good faith and takes reasonable care in reviewing the cash-flow statement, the trustee is not liable for loss or damage to any person resulting from that person’s reliance on the cash-flow statement. (6) Trustee to notify creditors - Within five days after the filing of a notice of intention under subsection (1), the trustee named in the notice shall send to every known creditor, in the prescribed manner, a copy of the notice including all of the information referred to in paragraphs (1) (a) to (c). (7) Trustee to monitor and report - Subject to any direction of the court under paragraph 47.1(2)(a), the trustee under a notice of intention in respect of an insolvent person (a)

shall, for the purpose of monitoring the insolvent person’s business and financial affairs, have access to and examine the insolvent person’s property, including his premises, books, records and other financial documents, to the extent necessary to adequately assess the insolvent person’s business and financial affairs, from the filing of the notice of intention until a proposal is filed or the insolvent person becomes bankrupt;

(b)

shall file a report on the state of the insolvent person’s business and financial affairs - containing the prescribed information, if any -

(c)

(i)

with the official receiver without delay after ascertaining a material adverse change in the insolvent person’s projected cash-flow or financial circumstances, and

(ii)

with the court at or before the hearing by the court of any application under subsection (9) and at any other time that the court may order; and

shall send a report about the material adverse change to the creditors without delay after ascertaining the change.

(8) Where assignment deemed to have been made - Where an insolvent person fails to comply with subsection (2), or where the trustee fails to file a proposal with the official receiver under subsection 62(1) within a period of thirty days after the day the notice of intention was filed under subsection (1), or within any extension of that period granted under subsection (9),

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(a)

the insolvent person is, on the expiration of that period or that extension, as the case may be, deemed to have thereupon made an assignment;

(b)

the trustee shall, without delay, file with the official receiver, in the prescribed form, a report of the deemed assignment;

(b.1) the official receiver shall issue a certificate of assignment, in the prescribed form, which has the same effect for the purposes of this Act as an assignment filed under section 49; and (c)

the trustee shall, within five days after the day the certificate mentioned in paragraph (b) is issued, send notice of the meeting of creditors under section 102, at which meeting the creditors may by ordinary resolution, notwithstanding section 14, affirm the appointment of the trustee or appoint another licensed trustee in lieu of that trustee.

(9) Extension of time for filing proposal - The insolvent person may, before the expiry of the 30-day period referred to in subsection (8) or of any extension granted under this subsection, apply to the court for an extension, or further extension, as the case may be, of that period, and the court, on notice to any interested persons that the court may direct, may grant the extensions, not exceeding 45 days for any individual extension and not exceeding in the aggregate five months after the expiry of the 30-day period referred to in subsection (8), if satisfied on each application that (a)

the insolvent person has acted, and is acting, in good faith and with due diligence;

(b)

the insolvent person would likely be able to make a viable proposal if the extension being applied for were granted; and

(c)

no creditor would be materially prejudiced if the extension being applied for were granted.

(10) Court may not extend time - Subsection 187(11) does not apply in respect of time limitations imposed by subsection (9). (11) Court may terminate period for making proposal - The court may, on application by the trustee, the interim receiver, if any, appointed under section 47.1, or a creditor, declare terminated, before its actual expiration, the thirty day period mentioned in subsection (8) or any extension thereof granted under subsection (9) if the court is satisfied that (a)

the insolvent person has not acted, or is not acting, in good faith and with due diligence,

(b)

the insolvent person will not likely be able to make a viable proposal before the expiration of the period in question,

(c)

the insolvent person will not likely be able to make a proposal, before the expiration of the period in question, that will be accepted by the creditors, or

(d)

the creditors as a whole would be materially prejudiced were the application under this subsection rejected,

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and where the court declares the period in question terminated, paragraphs (8)(a) to (c) thereupon apply as if that period had expired. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 19; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 32; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 33 (F); S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 35(1) (E), (2) as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 17(1), (3) to (6); S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 17(2) (E). 50.5 Trustee to help prepare proposal - The trustee under a notice of intention shall, between the filing of the notice of intention and the filing of a proposal, advise on and participate in the preparation of the proposal, including negotiations thereon. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 19. 50.6 (1) Order - interim financing - On application by a debtor in respect of whom a notice of intention was filed under section 50.4 or a proposal was filed under subsection 62(1) and on notice to the secured creditors who are likely to be affected by the security or charge, a court may make an order declaring that all or part of the debtor’s property is subject to a security or charge - in an amount that the court considers appropriate - in favour of a person specified in the order who agrees to lend to the debtor an amount approved by the court as being required by the debtor, having regard to the debtor’s cash-flow statement referred to in paragraph 50(6)(a) or 50.4(2)(a), as the case may be. The security or charge may not secure an obligation that exists before the order is made. (2) Individuals - In the case of an individual, (a)

they may not make an application under subsection (1) unless they are carrying on a business; and

(b)

only property acquired for or used in relation to the business may be subject to a security or charge.

(3) Priority - The court may order that the security or charge rank in priority over the claim of any secured creditor of the debtor. (4) Priority - previous orders - The court may order that the security or charge rank in priority over any security or charge arising from a previous order made under subsection (1) only with the consent of the person in whose favour the previous order was made. (5) Factors to be considered - In deciding whether to make an order, the court is to consider, among other things, (a)

the period during which the debtor is expected to be subject to proceedings under this Act;

(b)

how the debtor’s business and financial affairs are to be managed during the proceedings;

(c)

whether the debtor’s management has the confidence of its major creditors;

(d)

whether the loan would enhance the prospects of a viable proposal being made in respect of the debtor;

(e)

the nature and value of the debtor’s property;

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(f)

whether any creditor would be materially prejudiced as a result of the security or charge; and

(g)

the trustee’s report referred to in paragraph 50(6)(b) or 50.4(2)(b), as the case may be.

S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 36 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 18. 51. (1) Calling of meeting of creditors - The trustee shall call a meeting of the creditors, to be held within twenty-one days after the filing of the proposal with the official receiver under subsection 62(1), by sending in the prescribed manner to every known creditor and to the official receiver, at least ten days before the meeting, (a)

a notice of the date, time and place of the meeting;

(b)

a condensed statement of the assets and liabilities;

(c)

a list of the creditors with claims amounting to two hundred and fifty dollars or more and the amounts of their claims as known or shown by the debtor’s books;

(d)

a copy of the proposal;

(e)

the prescribed forms, in blank, of (i)

proof of claim,

(ii)

in the case of a secured creditor to whom the proposal was made, proof of secured claim, and

(iii)

proxy,

if not already sent; and (f)

a voting letter as prescribed.

(2) In case of a prior meeting - Where a meeting of his creditors at which a statement or list of the debtor’s assets, liabilities and creditors was presented was held before the trustee is required by this section to convene a meeting to consider the proposal and at the time when the debtor requires the convening of the meeting the condition of the debtor’s estate remains substantially the same as at the time of the former meeting, the trustee may omit observance of the provisions of paragraphs (1)(b) and (c). (3) Chair of first meeting - The official receiver, or the nominee thereof, shall be the chair of the meeting referred to in subsection (1) and shall decide any questions or disputes arising at the meeting, and any creditor may appeal any such decision to the court. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 51; S.C. 1992, c. 1, s. 20, c. 27, s. 20; S.C. 1999, c. 31, s. 19 (F); S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 123(b) (E). 52. Adjournment of meeting for further investigation and examination - Where the creditors by ordinary resolution at the meeting at which a proposal is being considered so require, the meeting shall be adjourned to such time and place as may be fixed by the chair (a)

to enable a further appraisal and investigation of the affairs and property of the debtor to be made; or 61

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for the examination under oath of the debtor or of such other person as may be believed to have knowledge of the affairs or property of the debtor, and the testimony of the debtor or such other person, if transcribed, shall be placed before the adjourned meeting or may be read in court on the application for the approval of the proposal.

R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 52; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 123(c) (E). 53. Creditor may assent or dissent - Any creditor who has proved a claim, whether secured or unsecured, may indicate assent to or dissent from the proposal in the prescribed manner to the trustee prior to the meeting, and any assent or dissent, if received by the trustee at or prior to the meeting, has effect as if the creditor had been present and had voted at the meeting. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 53; S.C. 1992, c. 1, s. 20, c. 27, s. 21. 54. (1) Vote on proposal by creditors - The creditors may, in accordance with this section, resolve to accept or may refuse the proposal as made or as altered at the meeting or any adjournment thereof. (2) Voting system - For the purpose of subsection (1), (a)

(b)

the following creditors with proven claims are entitled to vote: (i)

all unsecured creditors, and

(ii)

those secured creditors in respect of whose secured claims the proposal was made;

the creditors shall vote by class, according to the class of their respective claims, and for that purpose (i)

all unsecured claims constitute one class, unless the proposal provides for more than one class of unsecured claim, and

(ii)

the classes of secured claims shall be determined as provided by subsection 50(1.4);

(c)

the votes of the secured creditors do not count for the purpose of this section, but are relevant only for the purpose of subsection 62(2); and

(d)

the proposal is deemed to be accepted by the creditors if, and only if, all classes of unsecured creditors - other than, unless the court orders otherwise, a class of creditors having equity claims - vote for the acceptance of the proposal by a majority in number and two thirds in value of the unsecured creditors of each class present, personally or by proxy, at the meeting and voting on the resolution.

(2.1) Certain Crown claims - For greater certainty, subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act shall not be construed as classifying as secured claims, for the purpose of subsection (2), claims of Her Majesty in right of Canada or a province for amounts that could be subject to a demand under (a)

subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act;

(b)

any provision of the Canada Pension Plan or of the Employment Insurance Act that refers to subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act and provides for the

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Ss. 54-57

collection of a contribution, as defined in the Canada Pension Plan, or an employee’s premium, or employer’s premium, as defined in the Employment Insurance Act, and of any related interest, penalties or other amounts; or (c)

any provision of provincial legislation that has a similar purpose to subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act, or that refers to that subsection, to the extent that it provides for the collection of a sum, and of any related interest, penalties or other amounts, where the sum (i)

has been withheld or deducted by a person from a payment to another person and is in respect of a tax similar in nature to the income tax imposed on individuals under the Income Tax Act, or

(ii)

is of the same nature as a contribution under the Canada Pension Plan if the province is a “province providing a comprehensive pension plan” as defined in subsection 3(1) of the Canada Pension Plan and the provincial legislation establishes a “provincial pension plan” as defined in that subsection.

(2.2) Where no quorum in a class - Where there is no quorum of secured creditors in respect of a particular class of secured claims, the secured creditors having claims of that class shall be deemed to have voted for the refusal of the proposal. (3) Related creditor - A creditor who is related to the debtor may vote against but not for the acceptance of the proposal. (4) Voting by trustee - The trustee, as a creditor, may not vote on the proposal. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 54; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 22; S.C. 2000, c. 30, s. 143; S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 19. 54.1 Class - creditors having equity claims - Despite paragraphs 54(2)(a) and (b), creditors having equity claims are to be in the same class of creditors in relation to those claims unless the court orders otherwise and may not, as members of that class, vote at any meeting unless the court orders otherwise. 55. Creditors may provide for supervision of debtor’s affairs - At a meeting to consider a proposal, the creditors, with the consent of the debtor, may include such provisions or terms in the proposal with respect to the supervision of the affairs of the debtor as they may deem advisable. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 37. 56. Appointment of inspectors - The creditors may appoint one or more, but not exceeding five, inspectors of the estate of the debtor, who shall have the powers of an inspector under this Act, subject to any extension or restriction of those powers by the terms of the proposal. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 38. 57. Result of refusal of proposal - Where the creditors refuse a proposal in respect of an insolvent person, (a)

the insolvent person is deemed to have thereupon made an assignment;

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Ss. 57-59

(b)

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

the trustee shall, without delay, file with the official receiver, in the prescribed form, a report of the deemed assignment;

(b.1) the official receiver shall issue a certificate of assignment, in the prescribed form, which has the same effect for the purposes of this Act as an assignment filed under section 49; and (c)

the trustee shall either (i)

forthwith call a meeting of creditors present at that time, which meeting shall be deemed to be a meeting called under section 102, or

(ii)

if no quorum exists for the purpose of subparagraph (i), send notice, within five days after the day the certificate mentioned in paragraph (b) is issued, of the meeting of creditors under section 102,

and at either meeting the creditors may by ordinary resolution, notwithstanding section 14, affirm the appointment of the trustee or appoint another licensed trustee in lieu of that trustee. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 57; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 23; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 33; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 38. 57.1 Appointment of new trustee - Where a declaration has been made under subsection 50(12) or 50.4(11), the court may, if it is satisfied that it would be in the best interests of the creditors to do so, appoint a trustee in lieu of the trustee appointed under the notice of intention or proposal that was filed. S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 34. 58. Application for court approval - On acceptance of a proposal by the creditors, the trustee shall (a)

within five days after the acceptance, apply to the court for an appointment for a hearing of the application for the court’s approval of the proposal;

(b)

send a notice of the hearing of the application, in the prescribed manner and at least fifteen days before the date of the hearing, to the debtor, to every creditor who has proved a claim, whether secured or unsecured, to the person making the proposal and to the official receiver;

(c)

forward a copy of the report referred to in paragraph (d) to the official receiver at least ten days before the date of the hearing; and

(d)

at least two days before the date of the hearing, file with the court, in the prescribed form, a report on the proposal.

R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 58; S.C. 1992, c. 1, s. 20, c. 27, s. 23; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 35. 59. (1) Court to hear report of trustee, etc. - The court shall, before approving the proposal, hear a report of the trustee in the prescribed form respecting the terms thereof and the conduct of the debtor, and, in addition, shall hear the trustee, the debtor, the person making the proposal, any opposing, objecting or dissenting creditor and such further evidence as the court may require. 64

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Ss. 59-60

(2) Court may refuse to approve the proposal - Where the court is of the opinion that the terms of the proposal are not reasonable or are not calculated to benefit the general body of creditors, the court shall refuse to approve the proposal, and the court may refuse to approve the proposal whenever it is established that the debtor has committed any one of the offences mentioned in sections 198 to 200. (3) Reasonable security - Where any of the facts mentioned in section 173 are proved against the debtor, the court shall refuse to approve the proposal unless it provides reasonable security for the payment of not less than fifty cents on the dollar on all the unsecured claims provable against the debtor’s estate or such percentage thereof as the court may direct. (4) Court may order amendment - If a court approves a proposal, it may order that the debtor’s constating instrument be amended in accordance with the proposal to reflect any change that may lawfully be made under federal or provincial law. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 59; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 36; S.C. 2000, c. 12, s. 10; S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 21. 60. (1) Priority of claims - No proposal shall be approved by the court that does not provide for the payment in priority to other claims of all claims directed to be so paid in the distribution of the property of a debtor and for the payment of all proper fees and expenses of the trustee on and incidental to the proceedings arising out of the proposal or in the bankruptcy. (1.1) Certain Crown claims - Unless Her Majesty consents, no proposal shall be approved by the court that does not provide for the payment in full to Her Majesty in right of Canada or a province, within six months after court approval of the proposal, of all amounts that were outstanding at the time of the filing of the notice of intention or of the proposal, if no notice of intention was filed, and are of a kind that could be subject to a demand under (a)

subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act;

(b)

any provision of the Canada Pension Plan or of the Employment Insurance Act that refers to subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act and provides for the collection of a contribution, as defined in the Canada Pension Plan, or an employee’s premium, or employer’s premium, as defined in the Employment Insurance Act, and of any related interest, penalties or other amounts; or

(c)

any provision of provincial legislation that has a similar purpose to subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act, or that refers to that subsection, to the extent that it provides for the collection of a sum, and of any related interest, penalties or other amounts, where the sum (i)

has been withheld or deducted by a person from a payment to another person and is in respect of a tax similar in nature to the income tax imposed on individuals under the Income Tax Act, or

(ii)

is of the same nature as a contribution under the Canada Pension Plan if the province is a “province providing a comprehensive pension plan” as defined in subsection 3(1) of the Canada Pension Plan and the provincial legislation establishes a “provincial pension plan” as defined in that subsection.

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(1.2) Idem - No proposal shall be approved by the court if, at the time the court hears the application for approval, Her Majesty in right of Canada or a province satisfies the court that the debtor is in default on any remittance of an amount referred to in subsection (1.1) that became due after the filing (a)

of the notice of intention; or

(b)

of the proposal, if no notice of intention was filed.

(1.3) Proposals by employers - No proposal in respect of an employer shall be approved by the court unless (a)

it provides for payment to the employees and former employees, immediately after court approval of the proposal, of amounts at least equal to the amounts that they would be qualified to receive under paragraph 136(1)(d) if the employer became bankrupt on the date of the filing of the notice of intention, or proposal if no notice of intention was filed, as well as wages, salaries, commissions or compensation for services rendered after that date and before the court approval of the proposal, together with, in the case of travelling salespersons, disbursements properly incurred by them in and about the bankrupt’s business during the same period; and

(b)

the court is satisfied that the employer can and will make the payments as required under paragraph (a).

(1.4) Voting on proposal - For the purpose of voting on any question relating to a proposal in respect of an employer, no person has a claim for an amount referred to in paragraph (1.3)(a). (1.5) Proposals by employers - prescribed pension plans - No proposal in respect of an employer who participates in a prescribed pension plan for the benefit of its employees shall be approved by the court unless (a)

the proposal provides for payment of the following amounts that are unpaid to the fund established for the purpose of the pension plan: (i)

an amount equal to the sum of all amounts that were deducted from the employees’ remuneration for payment to the fund,

(ii)

if the prescribed pension plan is regulated by an Act of Parliament,

(iii)

(A)

an amount equal to the normal cost, within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Pension Benefits Standards Regulations, 1985, that was required to be paid by the employer to the fund, and

(B)

an amount equal to the sum of all amounts that were required to be paid by the employer to the fund under a defined contribution provision, within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Pension Benefits Standards Act, 1985; and

in the case of any other prescribed pension plan, (A)

an amount equal to the amount that would be the normal cost, within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Pension Benefits

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Ss. 60-61

Standards Regulations, 1985, that the employer would be required to pay to the fund if the prescribed plan were regulated by an Act of Parliament, and (B)

(b)

an amount equal to the sum of all amounts that would have been required to be paid by the employer to the fund under a defined contribution provision, within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Pension Benefits Standards Act, 1985, if the prescribed plan were regulated by an Act of Parliament; and

the court is satisfied that the employer can and will make the payments as required under paragraph (a).

(1.6) Non-application of subsection (1.5) - Despite subsection (1.5), the court may approve a proposal that does not allow for the payment of the amounts referred to in that subsection if it is satisfied that the relevant parties have entered into an agreement, approved by the relevant pension regulator, respecting the payment of those amounts. (1.7) Payment - equity claims - No proposal that provides for the payment of an equity claim is to be approved by the court unless the proposal provides that all claims that are not equity claims are to be paid in full before the equity claim is to be paid. (2) Payment to trustee - All moneys payable under the proposal shall be paid to the trustee and, after payment of all proper fees and expenses mentioned in subsection (1), shall be distributed by him to the creditors. (3) Distribution of promissory notes, stock, etc., of debtor - Where the proposal provides for the distribution of property in the nature of promissory notes or other evidence of obligations by or on behalf of the debtor or, when the debtor is a corporation, shares in the capital stock of the corporation, the property shall be dealt with in the manner prescribed in subsection (2) as nearly as may be. (4) Section 147 applies - Section 147 applies to all distributions made to the creditors by the trustee pursuant to subsection (2) or (3). (5) Power of court - Subject to subsections (1) to (1.7), the court may either approve or refuse to approve the proposal. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 60; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 24; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 37; S.C. 2000, c. 30, s. 144; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 39; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 36 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 99; S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 22. 61. (1) Annulment of bankruptcy - The approval by the court of a proposal made after bankruptcy operates to annul the bankruptcy and to revest in the debtor, or in such other person as the court may approve, all the right, title and interest of the trustee in the property of the debtor, unless the terms of the proposal otherwise provide. (2) Non-approval of proposal by court - Where the court refuses to approve a proposal in respect of an insolvent person a copy of which has been filed under section 62, (a)

the insolvent person is deemed to have thereupon made an assignment;

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(b)

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

the trustee shall, without delay, file with the official receiver, in the prescribed form, a report of the deemed assignment;

(b.1) the official receiver shall issue a certificate of assignment, in the prescribed form, which has the same effect for the purposes of this Act as an assignment filed under section 49; and (c)

the trustee shall, within five days after the day the certificate mentioned in paragraph (b) is issued, send notice of the meeting of creditors under section 102, at which meeting the creditors may by ordinary resolution, notwithstanding section 14, affirm the appointment of the trustee or appoint another licensed trustee in lieu of that trustee.

(3) [Repealed] – [1992, c. 27, s. 25] (4) Costs when proposal refused - No costs incurred by a debtor on or incidental to an application to approve a proposal, other than the costs incurred by the trustee, shall be allowed out of the estate of the debtor if the court refuses to approve the proposal. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 61; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 25; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 38; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 40. 62. (1) Filing of proposal - If a proposal is made in respect of an insolvent person, the trustee shall file with the official receiver a copy of the proposal and the prescribed statement of affairs. (1.1) Determination of claims - Except in respect of claims referred to in subsection 14.06(8), where a proposal is made in respect of an insolvent person, the time with respect to which the claims of creditors shall be determined is the time of the filing of (a)

the notice of intention; or

(b)

the proposal, if no notice of intention was filed.

(1.2) Determination of claims re bankrupt - Except in respect of claims referred to in subsection 14.06(8), where a proposal is made in respect of a bankrupt, the time with respect to which the claims of creditors shall be determined is the date on which the bankrupt became bankrupt. (2) On whom approval binding - Subject to subsection (2.1), a proposal accepted by the creditors and approved by the court is binding on creditors in respect of (a)

all unsecured claims; and

(b)

the secured claims in respect of which the proposal was made and that were in classes in which the secured creditors voted for the acceptance of the proposal by a majority in number and two thirds in value of the secured creditors present, or represented by a proxyholder, at the meeting and voting on the resolution to accept the proposal.

(2.1) When insolvent person is released from debt - A proposal accepted by the creditors and approved by the court does not release the insolvent person from any particular debt or liability referred to in subsection 178(1) unless the proposal explicitly provides for the compromise of that debt or liability and the creditor in relation to that debt or liability voted for the acceptance of the proposal.

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Ss. 62-63

(3) Certain persons not released - The acceptance of a proposal by a creditor does not release any person who would not be released under this Act by the discharge of the debtor. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 62; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 26; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 39; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 41 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 23. 62.1 Default in performance of proposal - Where (a)

default is made in the performance of any provision in a proposal,

(b)

the default is not waived

(c)

(i)

by the inspectors, or

(ii)

if there are no inspectors, by the creditors, and

the default is not remedied by the insolvent person within the prescribed time,

the trustee shall, within such time and in such form and manner as are prescribed, so inform all the creditors and the official receiver. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 27. 63. (1) Receiving order on default, etc. - Where default is made in the performance of any provision in a proposal, or where it appears to the court that the proposal cannot continue without injustice or undue delay or that the approval of the court was obtained by fraud, the court may, on application thereto, with such notice as the court may direct to the debtor, and, if applicable to the trustee and to the creditors, annul the proposal. (2) Validity of things done - An order made under subsection (1) shall be made without prejudice to the validity of any sale, disposition of property or payment duly made, or anything duly done under or in pursuance of the proposal, and notwithstanding the annulment of the proposal, a guarantee given pursuant to the proposal remains in full force and effect in accordance with its terms. (3) Annulment for offence - A proposal, although accepted or approved, may be annulled by order of the court at the request of the trustee or of any creditor whenever the debtor is afterwards convicted of any offence under this Act. (4) Effect of annulling order - On the annulment of a proposal, the debtor shall be deemed to have thereupon made an assignment and the order annulling the proposal shall so state. (5) Meeting of creditors to be called - Where an order annulling a proposal has been made, the trustee shall, within five days after the order is made, send notice of the meeting of creditors under section 102, at which meeting the creditors may by ordinary resolution, notwithstanding section 14, affirm the appointment of the trustee or appoint another licensed trustee in lieu of that trustee. (6) Consequences of annulment - Where an order annulling the proposal described in subsection (5) has been made, the trustee shall forthwith file a report thereof in the prescribed form with the official receiver, who shall thereupon issue a certificate of assignment in the prescribed form, which has the same effect for the purposes of this Act as an assignment filed pursuant to section 49.

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R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 63; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 28; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 34 (F). 64. (1) Removal of directors - The court may, on the application of any person interested in the matter, make an order removing from office any director of a debtor in respect of whom a notice of intention has been filed under section 50.4 or a proposal has been filed under subsection 62(1) if the court is satisfied that the director is unreasonably impairing or is likely to unreasonably impair the possibility of a viable proposal being made in respect of the debtor or is acting or is likely to act inappropriately as a director in the circumstances. (2) Filling vacancy - The court may, by order, fill any vacancy created under subsection (1). R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 64; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 29; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 40; S.C. 1999, c. 31, s. 20; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 42. 64.1 (1) Security or charge relating to director’s indemnification - On application by a person in respect of whom a notice of intention is filed under section 50.4 or a proposal is filed under subsection 62(1) and on notice to the secured creditors who are likely to be affected by the security or charge, a court may make an order declaring that all or part of the property of the person is subject to a security or charge - in an amount that the court considers appropriate - in favour of any director or officer of the person to indemnify the director or officer against obligations and liabilities that they may incur as a director or officer after the filing of the notice of intention or the proposal, as the case may be. (2) Priority - The court may order that the security or charge rank in priority over the claim of any secured creditor of the person. (3) Restriction - indemnification insurance - The court may not make the order if in its opinion the person could obtain adequate indemnification insurance for the director or officer at a reasonable cost. (4) Negligence, misconduct or fault - The court shall make an order declaring that the security or charge does not apply in respect of a specific obligation or liability incurred by a director or officer if in its opinion the obligation or liability was incurred as a result of the director’s or officer’s gross negligence or wilful misconduct or, in Quebec, the director’s or officer’s gross or intentional fault. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 42 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 24. 64.2 (1) Court may order security or charge to cover certain costs - On notice to the secured creditors who are likely to be affected by the security or charge, the court may make an order declaring that all or part of the property of a person in respect of whom a notice of intention is filed under section 50.4 or a proposal is filed under subsection 62(1) is subject to a security or charge, in an amount that the court considers appropriate, in respect of the fees and expenses of (a)

the trustee, including the fees and expenses of any financial, legal or other experts engaged by the trustee in the performance of the trustee’s duties;

(b)

any financial, legal or other experts engaged by the person for the purpose of proceedings under this Division; and

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(c)

Ss. 64-65

any financial, legal or other experts engaged by any other interested person if the court is satisfied that the security or charge is necessary for the effective participation of that person in proceedings under this Division.

(2) Priority - The court may order that the security or charge rank in priority over the claim of any secured creditor of the person. (3) Individual - In the case of an individual, (a)

the court may not make the order unless the individual is carrying on a business; and

(b)

only property acquired for or used in relation to the business may be subject to a security or charge.

S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 42 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 24. 65. Where proposal is conditional on purchase of new securities - A proposal made conditional on the purchase of shares or securities or on any other payment or contribution by the creditors shall provide that the claim of any creditor who elects not to participate in the proposal shall be valued by the court and shall be paid in cash on approval of the proposal. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 65; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 35 (F). 65.1 (1) Certain rights limited - If a notice of intention or a proposal has been filed in respect of an insolvent person, no person may terminate or amend any agreement, including a security agreement, with the insolvent person, or claim an accelerated payment, or a forfeiture of the term, under any agreement, including a security agreement, with the insolvent person, by reason only that (a)

the insolvent person is insolvent; or

(b)

a notice of intention or a proposal has been filed in respect of the insolvent person.

(2) Idem - Where the agreement referred to in subsection (1) is a lease or a licensing agreement, subsection (1) shall be read as including the following paragraph: “(c) the insolvent person has not paid rent or royalties, as the case may be, or other payments of a similar nature, in respect of a period preceding the filing of (i)

the notice of intention, if one was filed, or

(ii)

the proposal, if no notice of intention was filed.”

(3) Idem - Where a notice of intention or a proposal has been filed in respect of an insolvent person, no public utility may discontinue service to that insolvent person by reason only that (a)

the insolvent person is insolvent;

(b)

a notice of intention or a proposal has been filed in respect of the insolvent person; or

(c)

the insolvent person has not paid for services rendered, or material provided, before the filing of 71

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(i)

the notice of intention, if one was filed, or

(ii)

the proposal, if no notice of intention was filed.

(4) Certain acts not prevented - Nothing in subsections (1) to (3) shall be construed (a)

as prohibiting a person from requiring immediate payment for goods, services, use of leased or licensed property or other valuable consideration provided after the filing of (i)

the notice of intention, if one was filed, or

(ii)

the proposal, if no notice of intention was filed;

(b)

as requiring the further advance of money or credit; or

(c)

as preventing a lessor of aircraft objects under an agreement with the insolvent person from taking possession of the aircraft objects (i)

if, after the commencement of proceedings under this Act, the insolvent person defaults in protecting or maintaining the aircraft objects in accordance with the agreement,

(ii)

60 days after the commencement of proceedings under this Act unless, during that period, the insolvent person

(iii)

(A)

remedied the default of every other obligation under the agreement, other than a default constituted by the commencement of proceedings under this Act or the breach of a provision in the agreement relating to the insolvent person’s financial condition,

(B)

agreed to perform the obligations under the agreement, other than an obligation not to become insolvent or an obligation relating to the insolvent person’s financial condition, until the day on which proceedings under this Act end, and

(C)

agreed to perform all the obligations arising under the agreement after the proceedings under this Act end, or

if, during the period that begins on the expiry of the 60-day period and ends on the day on which proceedings under this Act end, the insolvent person defaults in performing an obligation under the agreement, other than an obligation not to become insolvent or an obligation relating to the insolvent person’s financial condition.

(5) Provisions of section override agreement - Any provision in an agreement that has the effect of providing for, or permitting, anything that, in substance, is contrary to subsections (1) to (3) is of no force or effect. (6) Powers of court - The court may, on application by a party to an agreement or by a public utility, declare that subsections (1) to (3) do not apply, or apply only to the extent declared by the court, where the applicant satisfies the court that the operation of those subsections would likely cause it significant financial hardship. 72

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S. 65

(7) Eligible financial contracts - Subsection (1) does not apply (a)

in respect of an eligible financial contract; or

(b)

to prevent a member of the Canadian Payments Association established by the Canadian Payments Act from ceasing to act as a clearing agent or group clearer for an insolvent person in accordance with that Act and the by-laws and rules of that Association.

(8) [Repealed] - [S.C. 2007, c. 29, s. 92(1), effective June 22, 2007 (R.A.)]. (9) Permitted actions - Despite subsections 69(1) and 69.1(1), the following actions are permitted in respect of an eligible financial contract that is entered into before the filing, in respect of an insolvent person of a notice of intention or, where no notice of intention is filed, a proposal, and that is terminated on or after that filing, but only in accordance with the provisions of that contract: (a)

the netting or setting off or compensation of obligations between the insolvent person and the other parties to the eligible financial contract; and

(b)

any dealing with financial collateral including (i)

the sale or foreclosure or, in the Province of Quebec, the surrender of financial collateral, and

(ii)

the setting off or compensation of financial collateral or the application of the proceeds or value of financial collateral.

(10) Net termination values - If net termination values determined in accordance with an eligible financial contract referred to in subsection (9) are owed by the insolvent person to another party to the eligible financial contract, that other party is deemed, for the purposes of paragraphs 69(1)(a) and 69.1(1)(a), to be a creditor of the insolvent person with a claim provable in bankruptcy in respect of those net termination values. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 30; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 41; S.C. 2001, c. 9, s. 573; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 36 (E); S.C. 2007, c. 29, s. 92; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 43. 65.11(1) Disclaimer or resiliation of agreements - Subject to subsections (3) and (4), a debtor in respect of whom a notice of intention was filed under section 50.4 or a proposal was filed under subsection 62(1) may - on notice given in the prescribed form and manner to the other parties to the agreement and the trustee - disclaim or resiliate any agreement to which the debtor is a party on the day on which the notice of intention or proposal was filed. The debtor may not give notice unless the trustee approves the proposed disclaimer or resiliation. (2) Individuals - In the case of an individual, (a)

they may not disclaim or resiliate an agreement under subsection (1) unless they are carrying on a business; and

(b)

only an agreement in relation to the business may be disclaimed or resiliated.

(3) Court may prohibit disclaimer or resiliation - Within 15 days after the day on which the debtor gives notice under subsection (1), a party to the agreement may, on notice to the other

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parties to the agreement and the trustee, apply to a court for an order that the agreement is not to be disclaimed or resiliated. (4) Court ordered disclaimer or resiliation - If the trustee does not approve the proposed disclaimer or resiliation, the debtor may, on notice to the other parties to the agreement and the trustee, apply to a court for an order that the agreement be disclaimed or resiliated. (5) Factors to be considered - In deciding whether to make the order, the court is to consider, among other things, (a)

whether the trustee approved the proposed disclaimer or resiliation;

(b)

whether the disclaimer or resiliation would enhance the prospects of a viable proposal being made in respect of the debtor; and

(c)

whether the disclaimer or resiliation would likely cause significant financial hardship to a party to the agreement.

(6) Date of disclaimer or resiliation - An agreement is disclaimed or resiliated (a)

if no application is made under subsection (3), on the day that is 30 days after the day on which the debtor gives notice under subsection (1);

(b)

if the court dismisses the application made under subsection (3), on the day that is 30 days after the day on which the debtor gives notice under subsection (1) or any later day fixed by the court; or

(c)

if the court orders that the agreement is disclaimed or resiliated under subsection (4), on the day that is 30 days after the day on which the debtor gives notice or any later day fixed by the court.

(7) Intellectual property - If the debtor has granted a right to use intellectual property to a party to an agreement, the disclaimer or resiliation does not affect the party’s right to use the intellectual property - including the party’s right to enforce an exclusive use - during the term of the agreement, including any period for which the party extends the agreement as of right, as long as the party continues to perform its obligations under the agreement in relation to the use of the intellectual property. (8) Loss related to disclaimer or resiliation - If an agreement is disclaimed or resiliated, a party to the agreement who suffers a loss in relation to the disclaimer or resiliation is considered to have a provable claim. (9) Reasons for disclaimer or resiliation - A debtor shall, on request by a party to the agreement, provide in writing the reasons for the proposed disclaimer or resiliation within five days after the day on which the party requests them. (10) Exceptions - This section does not apply in respect of (a)

an eligible financial contract;

(b)

a lease referred to in subsection 65.2(1);

(c)

a collective agreement;

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(d)

a financing agreement if the debtor is the borrower; or

(e)

a lease of real property or of an immovable if the debtor is the lessor.

S. 65

S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 44 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 29, s. 93 and c. 36, ss. 26 and 112(4). 65.12 (1) Application for authorization to serve a notice to bargain - An insolvent person in respect of whom a notice of intention is filed under section 50.4 or a proposal is filed under subsection 62(1) who is a party to a collective agreement and who is unable to reach a voluntary agreement with the bargaining agent to revise any of its provisions may, on giving five days notice to the bargaining agent, apply to the court for an order authorizing the insolvent person to serve a notice to bargain under the laws of the jurisdiction governing collective bargaining between the insolvent person and the bargaining agent. (2) Conditions for issuance of order - The court may issue the order only if it is satisfied that (a)

the insolvent person would not be able to make a viable proposal, taking into account the terms of the collective agreement;

(b)

the insolvent person has made good faith efforts to renegotiate the provisions of the collective agreement; and

(c)

the failure to issue the order is likely to result in irreparable damage to the insolvent person.

(3) No delay on vote on proposal - The vote of the creditors in respect of a proposal may not be delayed solely because the period provided in the laws of the jurisdiction governing collective bargaining between the insolvent person and the bargaining agent has not expired. (4) Claims arising from revision of collective agreement - If the parties to the collective agreement agree to revise the collective agreement after proceedings have been commenced under this Act in respect of the insolvent person, the bargaining agent that is a party to the agreement has a claim, as an unsecured creditor, for an amount equal to the value of concessions granted by the bargaining agent with respect to the remaining term of the collective agreement. (5) Order to disclose information - On the application of the bargaining agent and on notice to the person to whom the application relates, the court may, subject to any terms and conditions it specifies, make an order requiring the person to make available to the bargaining agent any information specified by the court in the person’s possession or control that relates to the insolvent person’s business or financial affairs and that is relevant to the collective bargaining between the insolvent person and the bargaining agent. The court may make the order only after the insolvent person has been authorized to serve a notice to bargain under subsection (1). (6) Unrevised collective agreements remain in force - For greater certainty, any collective agreement that the insolvent person and the bargaining agent have not agreed to revise remains in force. (7) Parties - For the purpose of this section, the parties to a collective agreement are the insolvent person and the bargaining agent who are bound by the collective agreement. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 44.

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65.13 (1) Restriction on disposition of assets - An insolvent person in respect of whom a notice of intention is filed under section 50.4 or a proposal is filed under subsection 62(1) may not sell or otherwise dispose of assets outside the ordinary course of business unless authorized to do so by a court. Despite any requirement for shareholder approval, including one under federal or provincial law, the court may authorize the sale or disposition even if shareholder approval was not obtained. (2) Individuals - In the case of an individual who is carrying on a business, the court may authorize the sale or disposition only if the assets were acquired for or used in relation to the business. (3) Notice to secured creditors - An insolvent person who applies to the court for an authorization shall give notice of the application to the secured creditors who are likely to be affected by the proposed sale or disposition. (4) Factors to be considered - In deciding whether to grant the authorization, the court is to consider, among other things, (a)

whether the process leading to the proposed sale or disposition was reasonable in the circumstances;

(b)

whether the trustee approved the process leading to the proposed sale or disposition;

(c)

whether the trustee filed with the court a report stating that in their opinion the sale or disposition would be more beneficial to the creditors than a sale or disposition under a bankruptcy;

(d)

the extent to which the creditors were consulted;

(e)

the effects of the proposed sale or disposition on the creditors and other interested parties; and

(f)

whether the consideration to be received for the assets is reasonable and fair, taking into account their market value.

(5) Additional factors - related persons - If the proposed sale or disposition is to a person who is related to the insolvent person, the court may, after considering the factors referred to in subsection (4), grant the authorization only if it is satisfied that (a)

good faith efforts were made to sell or otherwise dispose of the assets to persons who are not related to the insolvent person; and

(b)

the consideration to be received is superior to the consideration that would be received under any other offer made in accordance with the process leading to the proposed sale or disposition.

(6) Related persons - For the purpose of subsection (5), a person who is related to the insolvent person includes (a)

a director or officer of the insolvent person;

(b)

a person who has or has had, directly or indirectly, control in fact of the insolvent person; and 76

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(c)

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a person who is related to a person described in paragraph (a) or (b).

(7) Assets may be disposed of free and clear - The court may authorize a sale or disposition free and clear of any security, charge or other restriction and, if it does, it shall also order that other assets of the insolvent person or the proceeds of the sale or disposition be subject to a security, charge or other restriction in favour of the creditor whose security, charge or other restriction is to be affected by the order. (8) Restriction – employers - The court may grant the authorization only if the court is satisfied that the insolvent person can and will make the payments that would have been required under paragraphs 60(1.3)(a) and (1.5)(a) if the court had approved the proposal. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 44 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 27. 65.2 (1) Insolvent person may disclaim or resiliate commercial lease - At any time between the filing of a notice of intention and the filing of a proposal, or on the filing of a proposal, in respect of an insolvent person who is a commercial lessee under a lease of real property or an immovable, the insolvent person may disclaim or resiliate the lease on giving thirty days notice to the lessor in the prescribed manner, subject to subsection (2). (2) Lessor may challenge - Within fifteen days after being given notice of the disclaimer or resiliation of a lease under subsection (1), the lessor may apply to the court for a declaration that subsection (1) does not apply in respect of that lease, and the court, on notice to any parties that it may direct, shall, subject to subsection (3), make that declaration. (3) Circumstances for not making declaration - No declaration under subsection (2) shall be made if the court is satisfied that the insolvent person would not be able to make a viable proposal without the disclaimer or resiliation of the lease and all other leases that the lessee has disclaimed or resiliated under subsection (1). (4) Effects of disclaimer or resiliation - If a lease is disclaimed or resiliated under subsection (1), (a)

the lessor has no claim for accelerated rent;

(b)

the proposal must indicate whether the lessor may file a proof of claim for the actual losses resulting from the disclaimer or resiliation, or for an amount equal to the lesser of (i)

(ii) (c)

the aggregate of (A)

the rent provided for in the lease for the first year of the lease following the date on which the disclaimer or resiliation becomes effective, and

(B)

fifteen per cent of the rent for the remainder of the term of the lease after that year, and

three years’ rent; and

the lessor may file a proof of claim as indicated in the proposal.

(5) Classification of claim - The lessor’s claim shall be included in either (a)

a separate class of similar claims of lessors; or

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a class of unsecured claims that includes claims of creditors who are not lessors.

(6) Lessor’s vote on proposal - The lessor is entitled to vote on the proposal in whichever class referred to in subsection (5) the lessor’s claim is included, and for the amount of the claim as proven. (7) Determination of classes - The court may, on application made at any time after the proposal is filed, determine the classes of claims of lessors and the class into which the claim of any of those particular lessors falls. (8) Section 146 not affected - Nothing in subsections (1) to (7) affects the operation of section 146 in the event of bankruptcy. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 30; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 42; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 37(1) and (2) (E). 65.21 Lease disclaimer or resiliation if lessee is a bankrupt - If, in respect of a proposal concerning a bankrupt person who is a commercial lessee under a lease of real property or an immovable, the lessee’s lease has been surrendered, disclaimed or resiliated in the bankruptcy proceedings, subsections 65.2(3) to (7) apply in the same manner and to the same extent as if the person was not a bankrupt but was an insolvent person in respect of which a disclaimer or resiliation referred to in those subsections applies. S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 43; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 38. 65.22 Bankruptcy after court approval - If an insolvent person who has disclaimed or resiliated a lease under subsection 65.2(1) becomes bankrupt after the court approval of the proposal and before the proposal is fully performed, any claim of the lessor in respect of losses resulting from the disclaimer or resiliation, including any claim for accelerated rent, shall be reduced by the amount of compensation paid under the proposal for losses resulting from the disclaimer or resiliation. S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 43; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 39 (E). 65.3 Certificate where proposal performed - Where a proposal is fully performed, the trustee shall give a certificate to that effect, in the prescribed form, to the debtor and to the official receiver. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 30. 66. (1) Act to apply - All the provisions of this Act, except Division II of this Part, in so far as they are applicable, apply, with such modifications as the circumstances require, to proposals made under this Division. (1.1) Assignments - For the purposes of subsection (1), in deciding whether to make an order under subsection 84.1(1), the court is to consider, in addition to the factors referred to in subsection 84.1(3), whether the trustee approved the proposed assignment. (1.2) Final statement of receipts and disbursements - For the purposes of subsection (1), the trustee is to prepare the final statement of receipts and disbursements referred to in section 151 without delay after (a)

the debtor files or is deemed to have filed an assignment;

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(b)

the trustee informs the creditors and the official receiver of a default made in the performance of any provision in a proposal; or

(c)

the trustee gives the certificate referred to in section 65.3 in respect of the proposal.

(1.3) Examination by official receiver - For the purposes of subsection (1), the examination under oath by the official receiver under subsection 161(1) is to be held - on the attendance of the person in respect of whom a notice of intention is filed under section 50.4 or a proposal is filed under subsection 62(1) - before the proposal is approved by the court or the person becomes bankrupt. (1.4) Division to be applied conjointly with other Acts - The provisions of this Division may be applied together with the provisions of an Act of Parliament, or of the legislature of a province, that authorizes or provides for the sanction of compromises or arrangements between a corporation and its shareholders or any class of its shareholders. (2) Effect of Companies’ Creditors Arrangement Act - Notwithstanding the Companies’ Creditors Arrangement Act, (a)

proceedings commenced under that Act shall not be dealt with or continued under this Act; and

(b)

proceedings shall not be commenced under Part III of this Act in respect of a company if a compromise or arrangement has been proposed in respect of the company under the Companies’ Creditors Arrangement Act and the compromise or arrangement has not been agreed to by the creditors or sanctioned by the court under that Act.

R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 66; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 31; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 44; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 45 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 28.

DIVISION II — CONSUMER PROPOSALS 66.11 Definitions - In this Division, “administrator” means (a)

a trustee, or

(b)

a person appointed or designated by the Superintendent to administer consumer proposals; (“administrateur”)

“consumer debtor” means an individual who is bankrupt or insolvent and whose aggregate debts, excluding any debts secured by the individual’s principal residence, are not more than $250,000 or any other prescribed amount; (“débiteur consommateur”) “consumer proposal” means a proposal made under this Division. (“proposition de consommateur”) S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 32; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 45; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 46.

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66.12 (1) Consumer proposal - A consumer proposal may be made by a consumer debtor, subject to subsections (2) and 66.32(1). (1.1) Dealing with certain consumer proposals together - Two or more consumer proposals may, in such circumstances as are specified in directives of the Superintendent, be dealt with as one consumer proposal where they could reasonably be dealt with together because of the financial relationship of the consumer debtors involved. (2) Restriction - A consumer debtor who has filed a notice of intention or a proposal under Division I may not make a consumer proposal until the trustee appointed in respect of the notice of intention or proposal under Division I has been discharged. (3) To whom consumer proposal is made - A consumer proposal shall be made to the creditors generally. (4) Creditors’ response - Any creditor may respond to a consumer proposal by filing with the administrator a proof of claim in the manner provided for in (a)

sections 124 to 126, in the case of unsecured creditors; or

(b)

sections 124 to 134, in the case of secured creditors.

(5) Term of consumer proposal - A consumer proposal must provide that its performance is to be completed within five years. (6) Priority of claims, fees - A consumer proposal must provide (a)

for the payment in priority to other claims of all claims directed to be so paid in the distribution of the property of the consumer debtor;

(b)

for the payment of all prescribed fees and expenses

(c)

(i)

of the administrator on and incidental to proceedings arising out of the consumer proposal, and

(ii)

of any person in respect of counselling provided pursuant to paragraph 66.13(2)(b); and

for the manner of distributing dividends.

S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 32; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 46; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 47 (E). 66.13 (1) Commencement of proceedings - A consumer debtor who wishes to make a consumer proposal shall commence proceedings by (a)

obtaining the assistance of an administrator in preparing the consumer proposal; and

(b)

providing the administrator with the prescribed information on the consumer debtor’s current financial situation.

(2) Duties of administrator - An administrator who agrees to assist a consumer debtor shall

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(a)

investigate, or cause to be investigated, the consumer debtor’s property and financial affairs so as to be able to assess with reasonable accuracy the consumer debtor’s financial situation and the cause of his insolvency;

(b)

provide, or provide for, counselling in accordance with directives issued by the Superintendent pursuant to paragraph 5(4)(b);

(c)

prepare a consumer proposal in the prescribed form; and

(d)

subject to subsection (3), file with the official receiver a copy of the consumer proposal, signed by the consumer debtor, and the prescribed statement of affairs.

(3) Where consumer proposal not to be filed - The administrator shall not file a consumer proposal under paragraph (2)(d) if he has reason to believe that (a)

the debtor is not eligible to make a consumer proposal; or

(b)

there has been non compliance with anything required by this section or section 66.12.

(4) Where consumer proposal wrongly filed - Where the administrator determines, after filing a consumer proposal under paragraph (2)(d), that it should not have been filed because the debtor was not eligible to make a consumer proposal, the administrator shall forthwith so inform the creditors and the official receiver, but the consumer proposal is not invalid by reason only that the debtor was not eligible to make the consumer proposal. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 32; S.C. 1999, c. 31, s. 21 (E); S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 48. 66.14 Duties of administrator - The administrator shall, within ten days after filing a consumer proposal with the official receiver, (a)

(b)

prepare and file with the official receiver a report in the prescribed form setting out (i)

the results of the investigation made under paragraph 66.13(2)(a),

(ii)

the administrator’s opinion as to whether the consumer proposal is reasonable and fair to the consumer debtor and the creditors, and whether the consumer debtor will be able to perform it, and

(iii)

[Repealed] – [S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 49(1), effective September 18, 2009 (SI/2009-68)].

(iv)

a list of the creditors whose claims exceed two hundred and fifty dollars; and

send to every known creditor, in the prescribed form and manner, (i)

a copy of the consumer proposal and a copy of the statement of affairs referred to in paragraph 66.13(2)(d),

(ii)

a copy of the report referred to in paragraph (a),

(iii)

a form of proof of claim as prescribed, and

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(iv)

a statement explaining that a meeting of creditors will be called only if required under section 66.15 and that a review of the consumer proposal by a court will be made only if it is requested in accordance with subsection 66.22(1).

S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 32; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 47; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 49. 66.15 (1) Meeting of creditors - The official receiver may, at any time within the forty-five day period following the filing of the consumer proposal, direct the administrator to call a meeting of creditors. (2) Idem - The administrator shall call a meeting of creditors (a)

forthwith after being so directed by the official receiver under subsection (1), or

(b)

at the expiration of the forty-five day period following the filing of the consumer proposal, if at that time creditors having in the aggregate at least twenty-five per cent in value of the proven claims have so requested,

and any meeting of creditors must be held within twenty-one days after being called. (3) Notice to be sent to creditors - The administrator shall, at least ten days before a meeting called pursuant to this section, send to the consumer debtor, every known creditor and the official receiver, in the prescribed form and manner, a notice setting out (a)

the time and place of the meeting;

(b)

a form of proxy as prescribed; and

(c)

such other information and documentation as is prescribed.

S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 32; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 48. 66.16 (1) Chair of meeting - The official receiver, or the nominee thereof, shall be the chair of a meeting called pursuant to section 66.15 and subsection 66.37(1) and shall decide any questions or disputes arising at the meeting, and any creditor may appeal any such decision to the court. (2) Adjournment of meeting for further investigation and examination - Where the creditors by ordinary resolution at the meeting so require, the meeting shall be adjourned to such time and place as may be fixed by the chair (a)

to enable a further appraisal and investigation of the affairs and property of the consumer debtor to be made; or

(b)

for the examination under oath of the consumer debtor or of such other person as may be believed to have knowledge of the affairs or property of the consumer debtor, and the testimony of the consumer debtor or such other person, if transcribed, shall be placed before the adjourned meeting or may be read in court on the application, if any, for the approval of the consumer proposal.

S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 32; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 123(d) (E). 66.17 (1) Creditor may indicate assent or dissent - Any creditor who has proved a claim may indicate assent to or dissent from the consumer proposal in the prescribed manner to the

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administrator at or prior to a meeting of creditors, or prior to the expiration of the forty-five day period following the filing of the consumer proposal. (2) Effect of assent or dissent - Unless it is rescinded, any assent or dissent received by the administrator at or before a meeting of creditors has effect as if the creditor had been present and had voted at the meeting. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 32; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 49; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 50. 66.18 (1) Where consumer proposal deemed accepted - Where, at the expiration of the forty-five day period following the filing of the consumer proposal, no obligation has arisen under subsection 66.15(2) to call a meeting of creditors, the consumer proposal is deemed to be accepted by the creditors. (2) Idem - Where there is no quorum at a meeting of creditors, the consumer proposal shall be deemed to be accepted by the creditors. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 32; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 50. 66.19 (1) Voting on consumer proposal - At a meeting of creditors, the creditors may by ordinary resolution, voting all as one class, accept or refuse the consumer proposal as filed or as altered at the meeting or any adjournment thereof, subject to the rights of secured creditors. (2) Related creditor - A creditor who is related to the consumer debtor may vote against but not for the acceptance of the consumer proposal. (3) Voting by administrator - The administrator, as a creditor, may not vote on the consumer proposal. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 32. 66.2 Creditors may provide for supervision of consumer debtor’s affairs - The creditors, with the consent of the consumer debtor, may include such provisions or terms in the consumer proposal with respect to the supervision of the affairs of the consumer debtor as they may deem advisable. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 32. 66.21 Appointment of inspectors - The creditors may appoint up to three inspectors of the estate of the consumer debtor, who shall have the powers of an inspector under this Act, subject to any extension or restriction of those powers by the terms of the consumer proposal. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 32. 66.22 (1) Application to court - Where a consumer proposal is accepted or deemed accepted by the creditors, the administrator shall, if requested by the official receiver or any other interested party within fifteen days after the day of acceptance or deemed acceptance, forthwith apply to the court to have the consumer proposal reviewed. (2) Where consumer proposal deemed approved by court - Where, at the expiration of the fifteenth day after the day of acceptance or deemed acceptance of the consumer proposal by

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the creditors, no obligation has arisen under subsection (1) to apply to the court, the consumer proposal is deemed to be approved by the court. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 32; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 51. 66.23 Procedure for application to court - Where the administrator applies to the court pursuant to subsection 66.22(1), the administrator shall (a)

send a notice of the hearing of the application, in the prescribed manner and at least fifteen days before the date of the hearing, to the consumer debtor, to every creditor who has proved a claim and to the official receiver;

(b)

forward a copy of the report referred to in paragraph (c) to the official receiver at least ten days before the date of the hearing; and

(c)

at least two days before the date of the hearing, file with the court a report in the prescribed form on the consumer proposal and the conduct of the consumer debtor.

S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 32; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 52. 66.24 (1) Court to hear report of administrator, etc. - The court shall, before approving the consumer proposal, hear the report mentioned in paragraph 66.23(c) and, in addition, shall hear the official receiver, the administrator, the consumer debtor, any opposing, objecting or dissenting creditor or other interested party, and such further evidence as the court may require. (2) Refusal to approve the consumer proposal - Where the court is of the opinion that the terms of the consumer proposal are not reasonable or are not fair to the consumer debtor and the creditors, the court shall refuse to approve the consumer proposal, and the court may refuse to approve the consumer proposal whenever it is established that the consumer debtor (a)

has committed any one of the offences mentioned in sections 198 to 200; or

(b)

was not eligible to make a consumer proposal when the consumer proposal was filed with the official receiver.

(3) Proposal must comply with Act - The court shall refuse to approve a consumer proposal if it does not comply with subsections 66.12(5) and (6). (4) Power of court - Subject to subsections (1) to (3), the court may either approve or refuse to approve the consumer proposal. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 32. 66.25 Withdrawal of consumer proposal - A consumer debtor may withdraw a consumer proposal (a)

at any time before its deemed approval by the court by virtue of subsection 66.22(2), where no court review is requested; or

(b)

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S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 32. 66.25 (1) Where periodic payments not provided for - Where a proposal is approved or deemed approved by the court and the terms of the proposal do not provide for the distribution of available moneys at least once every three months, the administrator shall forthwith, upon ascertaining any change in the consumer debtor’s circumstances that leads the administrator to conclude, after consultation with the debtor where practicable, that such change could jeopardize the consumer debtor’s ability to meet the terms of the proposal, in writing, notify the official receiver and every known creditor of the change. S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 53. 66.26 (1) Payments to administrator - All moneys payable under the consumer proposal shall be paid to the administrator and, after payment of all fees and expenses mentioned in paragraph 66.12(6)(b), the administrator shall distribute available moneys to the creditors in accordance with the terms of the consumer proposal. (2) Deposit of moneys - In such circumstances as are specified in directives of the Superintendent and with the approval of the Superintendent, the administrator may deposit all moneys relating to the administration of consumer proposals in a single trust account. (3) Section 147 applies - Section 147 applies, with such modifications as the circumstances require, to all distributions made to the creditors by the administrator pursuant to subsection (1). S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 32; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 54. 66.27 Notifications - The administrator shall, within five days after (a)

the refusal of a consumer proposal by the creditors,

(b)

the refusal of a consumer proposal by the court, and

(c)

the withdrawal of a consumer proposal by the consumer debtor,

so notify in the prescribed form and manner the consumer debtor, every known creditor and the official receiver. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 32; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 55. 66.28 (1) Time for determining claims - The time with respect to which the claims of creditors shall be determined is the time of the filing of the consumer proposal. (2) On whom approval binding - Subject to subsection (2.1), a consumer proposal accepted, or deemed accepted, by the creditors and approved, or deemed approved, by the court is binding on creditors in respect of (a)

all unsecured claims; and

(b)

secured claims for which proofs of claim have been filed in the manner provided for in sections 124 to 134.

(2.1) When consumer debtor is released from debt - A consumer proposal accepted, or deemed accepted, by the creditors and approved, or deemed approved, by the court does not 85

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release the consumer debtor from any particular debt or liability referred to in subsection 178(1) unless the consumer proposal explicitly provides for the compromise of that debt or liability and the creditor in relation to that debt or liability voted for the acceptance of the consumer proposal. (3) Certain persons not released - The acceptance of a consumer proposal by a creditor does not release any person who would not be released under this Act by the discharge of the consumer debtor. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 32; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 51 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 29. 66.29 (1) Administrator may issue certificate - If a consumer proposal is approved or deemed approved by the court, the administrator may, if the administrator believes on reasonable grounds that the debtor owns land or other valuable property, issue a certificate in respect of the proposal, and may cause the certificate to be filed in any place where a certificate of judgment, writ of seizure and sale or other like document may be filed or where a legal hypothec of judgment creditors may be registered. (2) Effect of filing certificate - A certificate filed under subsection (1) operates as a certificate of judgment, writ of execution or legal hypothec of judgment creditors until the proposal is fully performed. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 32; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 40. 66.3 (1) Annulment of consumer proposal - Where default is made in the performance of any provision in a consumer proposal, or where it appears to the court (a)

that the debtor was not eligible to make a consumer proposal when the consumer proposal was filed,

(b)

that the consumer proposal cannot continue without injustice or undue delay, or

(c)

that the approval of the court was obtained by fraud,

the court may, on application, with such notice as the court may direct to the consumer debtor and, if applicable, to the administrator and to the creditors, annul the consumer proposal. (2) Validity of things done - An order made under subsection (1) shall be made without prejudice to the validity of any sale, disposition of property or payment duly made, or anything duly done under or in pursuance of the consumer proposal, and notwithstanding the annulment of the consumer proposal, a guarantee given pursuant to the consumer proposal remains in full force and effect in accordance with its terms. (3) Annulment for offence - A consumer proposal, although accepted or approved, may be annulled by order of the court at the request of the administrator or of any creditor whenever the consumer debtor is afterwards convicted of any offence under this Act. (4) Notification of annulment - Where an order annulling the consumer proposal of a consumer debtor who is not a bankrupt has been made pursuant to this section, the administrator shall forthwith so inform the creditors and file a report thereof in the prescribed form with the official receiver. (5) Annulment effect - Where a consumer proposal made by a bankrupt is annulled, 86

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(a)

the consumer debtor is deemed on the annulment to have made an assignment and the order annulling the proposal shall so state;

(b)

the trustee who is the administrator of the proposal shall, within five days after the order is made, send notice of the meeting of creditors under section 102, at which meeting the creditors may by ordinary resolution, notwithstanding section 14, affirm the appointment of the trustee or appoint another trustee in lieu of that trustee; and

(c)

the trustee shall forthwith file a report thereof in the prescribed form with the official receiver, who shall thereupon issue a certificate of assignment in the prescribed form, which has the same effect for the purposes of this Act as an assignment filed pursuant to section 49.

S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 32; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 56. 66.31 (1) Deemed annulment - default of payment - Unless the court has previously ordered otherwise or unless an amendment to the consumer proposal has previously been filed, a consumer proposal is deemed to be annulled on (a)

in the case when payments under the consumer proposal are to be made monthly or more frequently, the day on which the consumer debtor is in default for an amount that is equal to or more than the amount of three payments; or

(b)

in the case when payments under the consumer proposal are to be made less frequently than monthly, the day that is three months after the day on which the consumer debtor is in default in respect of any payment.

(2) Deemed annulment - amendment withdrawn or refused - If an amendment to a consumer proposal filed before the deemed annulment of the consumer proposal under subsection (1) is withdrawn or refused by the creditors or the court, the consumer proposal is deemed to be annulled at the time that the amendment is withdrawn or refused. (3) Duties of administrator in relation to deemed annulment - Without delay after a consumer proposal is deemed to be annulled, the administrator shall (a)

file with the official receiver a report in the prescribed form in relation to the deemed annulment; and

(b)

send a notice to the creditors informing them of the deemed annulment.

(4) Effects of deemed annulment - consumer proposal made by a bankrupt - If a consumer proposal made by a bankrupt is deemed to be annulled, (a)

the consumer debtor is deemed to have made an assignment on the day on which the consumer proposal is deemed to be annulled;

(b)

the trustee who is the administrator of the consumer proposal shall, within five days after the day on which the consumer proposal is deemed to be annulled, send notice of the meeting of creditors under section 102, at which meeting the creditors may by ordinary resolution, despite section 14, affirm the appointment of the trustee or appoint another trustee in lieu of that trustee; and

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(c)

the trustee shall, without delay, file with the official receiver, in the prescribed form, a report of the deemed annulment and the official receiver shall, without delay, issue a certificate of assignment, in the prescribed form, which has the same effect for the purposes of this Act as an assignment filed under section 49.

(5) Validity of things done before deemed annulment - A deemed annulment of a consumer proposal does not prejudice the validity of any sale or disposition of property or payment duly made, or anything duly done under or in pursuance of the consumer proposal and, despite the deemed annulment, a guarantee given under the consumer proposal remains in full force and effect in accordance with its terms. (6) Notice of possibility of consumer proposal being automatically revived - In the case of a deemed annulment of a consumer proposal made by a person other than a bankrupt, if the administrator considers it appropriate to do so in the circumstances, he or she may, with notice to the official receiver, send to the creditors - within 30 days, or any other number of days that is prescribed, after the day on which the consumer proposal was deemed to be annulled - a notice in the prescribed form informing them that the consumer proposal will be automatically revived 60 days, or any other number of days that is prescribed, after the day on which it was deemed to be annulled unless one of them files with the administrator, in the prescribed manner, a notice of objection to the revival. (7) Automatic revival - If the notice is sent by the administrator and no notice of objection is filed during the period referred to in subsection (6), the consumer proposal is automatically revived on the expiry of that period. (8) Notice if no automatic revival - If a notice of objection is filed during the period referred to in subsection (6), the administrator is to send, without delay, to the official receiver and to each creditor a notice in the prescribed form informing them that the consumer proposal is not going to be automatically revived on the expiry of that period. (9) Administrator may apply to court to revive consumer proposal - The administrator may at any time apply to the court, with notice to the official receiver and the creditors, for an order reviving any consumer proposal of a consumer debtor who is not a bankrupt that was deemed to be annulled, and the court, if it considers it appropriate to do so in the circumstances, may make an order reviving the consumer proposal, on any terms that the court considers appropriate. (10) Duty of administrator if consumer proposal is revived - Without delay after a consumer proposal is revived, the administrator shall (a)

file with the official receiver a report in the prescribed form in relation to the revival; and

(b)

send a notice to the creditors informing them of the revival.

(11) Validity of things done before revival - The revival of a consumer proposal does not prejudice the validity of anything duly done - between the day on which the consumer proposal is deemed to be annulled and the day on which it is revived - by a creditor in the exercise of any rights revived by subsection 66.32(2). S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 32; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 52 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 30.

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66.32 (1) Effects of annulment - Unless the court otherwise orders, where a consumer proposal is annulled or deemed annulled, the consumer debtor (a)

may not make another consumer proposal, and

(b)

is not entitled to any relief provided by sections 69 to 69.2

until all claims for which proofs of claim were filed and accepted are either paid in full or are extinguished by the operation of subsection 178(2). (2) Idem - Where a consumer proposal is annulled or deemed annulled, the rights of the creditors are revived for the amount of their claims less any dividends received. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 32; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 53 (F). 66.33 [Repealed] – [S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 54, effective September 18, 2009 (SI/2009-68)]. 66.34 (1) Certain rights limited - If a consumer proposal has been filed in respect of a consumer debtor, no person may terminate or amend any agreement, including a security agreement, with the consumer debtor, or claim an accelerated payment, or the forfeiture of the term, under any agreement, including a security agreement, with the consumer debtor, by reason only that (a)

the consumer debtor is insolvent, or

(b)

a consumer proposal has been filed in respect of the consumer debtor

until the consumer proposal has been withdrawn, refused by the creditors or the court, annulled or deemed annulled. (2) Idem - Where the agreement referred to in subsection (1) is a lease, subsection (1) shall be read as including the following paragraph: (c) the consumer debtor has not paid rent in respect of a period preceding the filing of the consumer proposal. (3) Idem - Where a consumer proposal has been filed in respect of a consumer debtor, no public utility may discontinue service to that consumer debtor by reason only that (a)

the consumer debtor is insolvent,

(b)

a consumer proposal has been filed in respect of the consumer debtor, or

(c)

the consumer debtor has not paid for services rendered, or material provided, before the filing of the consumer proposal

until the consumer proposal has been withdrawn, refused by the creditors or the court, annulled or deemed annulled. (4) Certain acts not prevented - Nothing in subsections (1) to (3) shall be construed (a)

as prohibiting a person from requiring payments to be made in cash for goods, services, use of leased property or other valuable consideration provided after the filing of the consumer proposal; or

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(b)

as requiring the further advance of money or credit.

(5) Provisions of section override agreement - Any provision in an agreement that has the effect of providing for, or permitting, anything that, in substance, is contrary to subsections (1) to (3) is of no force or effect. (6) Powers of court - The court may, on application by a party to an agreement or by a public utility, declare that this section does not apply, or applies only to the extent declared by the court, where the applicant satisfies the court that the operation of this section would likely cause it significant financial hardship. (7) Eligible financial contracts - Subsection (1) does not apply in respect of an eligible financial contract. (8) Permitted actions - Despite section 69.2, the following actions are permitted in respect of an eligible financial contract that is entered into before the filing of a consumer proposal and is terminated on or after that filing, but only in accordance with the provisions of that contract: (a)

the netting or setting off or compensation of obligations between the consumer debtor and the other parties to the eligible financial contract; and

(b)

any dealing with financial collateral including (i)

the sale or foreclosure or, in the Province of Quebec, the surrender of financial collateral, and

(ii)

the setting off or compensation of financial collateral or the application of the proceeds or value of financial collateral.

(9) Net termination values - If net termination values determined in accordance with an eligible financial contract referred to in subsection (8) are owed by the consumer debtor to another party to the eligible financial contract, that other party is deemed, for the purposes of subsection 69.2(1), to be a creditor of the consumer debtor with a claim provable in bankruptcy in respect of those net termination values. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 32; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 42 (E); S.C. 2007, c. 29, s. 94; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 55. 66.35 (1) Assignment of wages - An assignment of existing or future wages made by a consumer debtor before the filing of a consumer proposal is of no effect in respect of wages earned after the filing of the consumer proposal. (2) Assignment of debts at request of administrator - In order to ensure compliance with the terms of a consumer proposal, the administrator may, at any time after the consumer proposal is filed, require of, and take from, the consumer debtor an assignment of any amount payable to the consumer debtor, including wages, that may become payable in the future, but no such assignment can, unless the consumer debtor agrees, be for an amount greater than is due and payable pursuant to the terms of the consumer proposal. (3) Third parties protected - An assignment made pursuant to subsection (2) is of no effect against a person owing the amount payable until a notice of the assignment is served on that person. (4) When section ceases to apply - This section ceases to apply where the consumer proposal is refused by the creditors or by the court, or is withdrawn, annulled or deemed annulled.

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S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 32; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 57. 66.36 No dismissal, etc., of employee - No employer shall dismiss, suspend, lay off or otherwise discipline a consumer debtor on the sole ground that a consumer proposal has been filed in respect of that consumer debtor. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 32. 66.37 Amendment to consumer proposal - If an administrator files an amendment to a consumer proposal before the withdrawal, refusal, approval or deemed approval by the court of the consumer proposal, or after the approval or deemed approval by the court of the consumer proposal and before it has been fully performed or annulled or deemed annulled, the provisions of this Division apply to the consumer proposal and the amended consumer proposal, with any modifications that the circumstances require, and, for that purpose, the definition “consumer debtor” in section 66.11 is to be read as follows: “consumer debtor” means an individual who is insolvent; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 32; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 56. 66.38 (1) Certificate if consumer proposal performed - If a consumer proposal is fully performed, the administrator shall issue a certificate to that effect, in the prescribed form, to the consumer debtor and to the official receiver. (2) Effect if counselling refused - Subsection (1) does not apply in respect of a consumer debtor who has refused or neglected to receive counselling provided under paragraph 66.13(2)(b). S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 32; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 56. 66.39 Administrator’s accounts, discharge - The form and content of the administrator’s accounts, the procedure for the preparation and taxation of those accounts and the procedure for the discharge of the administrator shall be as prescribed. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 32. 66.4 (1) Act to apply - All the provisions of this Act, except Division I of this Part, in so far as they are applicable, apply, with such modifications as the circumstances require, to consumer proposals. (2) Where consumer debtor is bankrupt - Where a consumer proposal is made by a consumer debtor who is a bankrupt, (a)

the consumer proposal must be approved by the inspectors, if any, before any further action is taken thereon;

(b)

the consumer debtor must have obtained the assistance of a trustee who shall act as administrator of the proposal in the preparation and execution thereof;

(c)

the time with respect to which the claims of creditors shall be determined is the time at which the consumer debtor became bankrupt; and

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the approval or deemed approval by the court of the consumer proposal operates to annul the bankruptcy and to revest in the consumer debtor, or in such other person as the court may approve, all the right, title and interest of the trustee in the property of the consumer debtor, unless the terms of the consumer proposal otherwise provide.

S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 32; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 58.

PART IV — PROPERTY OF THE BANKRUPT 67. (1) Property of bankrupt - The property of a bankrupt divisible among his creditors shall not comprise (a)

property held by the bankrupt in trust for any other person,

(b)

any property that as against the bankrupt is exempt from execution or seizure under any laws applicable in the province within which the property is situated and within which the bankrupt resides;

(b.1) goods and services tax credit payments that are made in prescribed circumstances to the bankrupt and that are not property referred to in paragraph (a) or (b); (b.2) prescribed payments relating to the essential needs of an individual that are made in prescribed circumstances to the bankrupt and that are not property referred to in paragraph (a) or (b); or (b.3) without restricting the generality of paragraph (b), property in a registered retirement savings plan or a registered retirement income fund, as those expressions are defined in the Income Tax Act, or in any prescribed plan, other than property contributed to any such plan or fund in the 12 months before the date of bankruptcy, (c)

(d)

all property wherever situated of the bankrupt at the date of the bankruptcy or that may be acquired by or devolve on the bankrupt before their discharge, including any refund owing to the bankrupt under the Income Tax Act in respect of the calendar year - or the fiscal year of the bankrupt if it is different from the calendar year - in which the bankrupt became a bankrupt, except the portion that (i)

is not subject to the operation of this Act, or

(ii)

in the case of a bankrupt who is the judgment debtor named in a garnishee summons served on Her Majesty under the Family Orders and Agreements Enforcement Assistance Act, is garnishable money that is payable to the bankrupt and is to be paid under the garnishee summons, and

such powers in or over or in respect of the property as might have been exercised by the bankrupt for his own benefit.

(2) Deemed trusts - Subject to subsection (3), notwithstanding any provision in federal or provincial legislation that has the effect of deeming property to be held in trust for Her Majesty, property of a bankrupt shall not be regarded as held in trust for Her Majesty for the

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purpose of paragraph (1)(a) unless it would be so regarded in the absence of that statutory provision. (3) Subsection (2) does not apply in respect of amounts deemed to be held in trust under subsection 227(4) or (4.1) of the Income Tax Act, subsection 23(3) or (4) of the Canada Pension Plan or subsection 86(2) or (2.1) of the Employment Insurance Act (each of which is in this subsection referred to as a “federal provision”) nor in respect of amounts deemed to be held in trust under any law of a province that creates a deemed trust the sole purpose of which is to ensure remittance to Her Majesty in right of the province of amounts deducted or withheld under a law of the province where (a)

that law of the province imposes a tax similar in nature to the tax imposed under the Income Tax Act and the amounts deducted or withheld under that law of the province are of the same nature as the amounts referred to in subsection 227(4) or (4.1) of the Income Tax Act, or

(b)

the province is a “province providing a comprehensive pension plan” as defined in subsection 3(1) of the Canada Pension Plan, that law of the province establishes a “provincial pension plan” as defined in that subsection and the amounts deducted or withheld under that law of the province are of the same nature as amounts referred to in subsection 23(3) or (4) of the Canada Pension Plan,

and for the purpose of this subsection, any provision of a law of a province that creates a deemed trust is, notwithstanding any Act of Canada or of a province or any other law, deemed to have the same effect and scope against any creditor, however secured, as the corresponding federal provision. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 67; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 33; S.C. 1996, c. 23, s. 168; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 59; S.C. 1998, c. 19, s. 250; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 57 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 32. 68. (1) Directives re Surplus income - The Superintendent shall, by directive, establish in respect of the provinces or one or more bankruptcy districts or parts of bankruptcy districts, the standards for determining the surplus income of an individual bankrupt and the amount that a bankrupt who has surplus income is required to pay to the estate of the bankrupt. (2) Definitions - The following definitions apply in this section. “surplus income” means the portion of a bankrupt individual’s total income that exceeds that which is necessary to enable the bankrupt individual to maintain a reasonable standard of living, having regard to the applicable standards established under subsection (1). “total income” (a)

includes, despite paragraphs 67(1)(b) and (b.3), a bankrupt’s revenues of whatever nature or from whatever source that are earned or received by the bankrupt between the date of the bankruptcy and the date of the bankrupt’s discharge, including those received as damages for wrongful dismissal, received as a pay equity settlement or received under an Act of Parliament, or of the legislature of a province, that relates to workers’ compensation; but

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(b)

does not include any amounts received by the bankrupt between the date of the bankruptcy and the date of the bankrupt’s discharge, as a gift, a legacy or an inheritance or as any other windfall.

(3) Determination of trustee re surplus income - The trustee shall, having regard to the applicable standards and to the personal and family situation of the bankrupt, determine whether the bankrupt has surplus income. The determination must also be made (a)

whenever the trustee becomes aware of a material change in the bankrupt’s financial situation; and

(b)

whenever the trustee is required to prepare a report referred to in subsection 170(1).

(c)

[Repealed 2005, c. 47, s. 58(1).]

(4) Duties of trustee relating to determination - Whenever the trustee is required to determine whether the bankrupt has surplus income, the trustee shall (a)

(b)

if the trustee determines that there is surplus income, (i)

fix, having regard to the applicable standards, the amount that the bankrupt is required to pay to the estate of the bankrupt,

(ii)

inform, in the prescribed manner, the official receiver, and every creditor who has requested such information, of the amount fixed under subparagraph (i), and

(iii)

take reasonable measures to ensure that the bankrupt complies with the requirement to pay; and

if the trustee determines that there is no surplus income, inform, in the prescribed manner, the official receiver, and every creditor who has requested such information, of that determination.

(5) Official receiver recommendation - If the official receiver determines that the amount required to be paid by the bankrupt is substantially not in accordance with the applicable standards, the official receiver shall recommend to the trustee and to the bankrupt an amount required to be paid that the official receiver determines is in accordance with the applicable standards. (5.1) Trustee may fix another amount - On receipt of the official receiver’s recommendation, the trustee may fix, having regard to the applicable standards, another amount as the amount that the bankrupt is required to pay to the estate of the bankrupt, and if the trustee does so, the trustee shall (a)

inform the official receiver and every creditor, in the prescribed manner, of the amount fixed under this subsection; and

(b)

take reasonable measures to ensure that the bankrupt complies with the requirement to pay.

(6) Trustee may request mediation - If the trustee and the bankrupt are not in agreement with the amount that the bankrupt is required to pay under subsection (4) or (5.1), the trustee 94

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shall, without delay, in the prescribed form, send to the official receiver a request that the matter be determined by mediation and send a copy of the request to the bankrupt. (7) Creditor may request mediation - On a creditor’s request made within 30 days after the day on which the trustee informed the creditor of the amount fixed under subsection (4) or (5.1), the trustee shall, within five days after the day on which the 30-day period ends, send to the official receiver a request, in the prescribed form, that the matter of the amount that the bankrupt is required to pay be determined by mediation and send a copy of the request to the bankrupt and the creditor. (8) Mediation procedure - A mediation shall be in accordance with prescribed procedures. (9) File - Documents contained in a file on the mediation of a matter under this section form part of the records referred to in subsection 11.1(2). (10) Application to court to fix amount - The trustee may, in any of the following circumstances - and shall apply if requested to do so by the official receiver in the circumstances referred to in paragraph (a) - apply to the court to fix, by order, in accordance with the applicable standards, and having regard to the personal and family situation of the bankrupt, the amount that the bankrupt is required to pay to the estate of the bankrupt: (a)

if the trustee has not implemented a recommendation made by the official receiver under subsection (5);

(b)

if the matter submitted to mediation has not been resolved by the mediation; or

(c)

if the bankrupt has failed to comply with the requirement to pay as determined under this section.

(11) Fixing fair and reasonable remuneration in the case of related persons - The court may fix an amount that is fair and reasonable (a)

as salary, wages or other remuneration for the services being performed by a bankrupt for a person employing the bankrupt, or

(b)

as payment for or commission in respect of any services being performed by a bankrupt for a person,

where the person is related to the bankrupt, and the court may, by order, determine the part of the salary, wages or other remuneration, or the part of the payment or commission, that shall be paid to the trustee on the basis of the amount so fixed by the court, unless it appears to the court that the services have been performed for the benefit of the bankrupt and are not of any substantial benefit to the person for whom they were performed. (12) Modification of order - On the application of any interested person, the court may, at any time, amend an order made under this section to take into account material changes that have occurred in the financial situation of the bankrupt. (13) Default by other person - An order of the court made under this section may be served on a person from whom the bankrupt is entitled to receive money and, in such case, (a)

the order binds the person to pay to the estate of the bankrupt the amount fixed by the order; and

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if the person fails to comply with the terms of the order, the court may, on the application of the trustee, order the person to pay the trustee the amount of money that the estate of the bankrupt would have received had the person complied with the terms of the order.

(14) Application is a proceeding - For the purposes of section 38, an application referred to in subsection (10) is deemed to be a proceeding for the benefit of the estate. (15) Property included for enforcement purposes - For the purpose of this section, a requirement that a bankrupt pay an amount to the estate is enforceable against the bankrupt’s total income. (16) When obligation to pay ceases - If an opposition to the automatic discharge of a bankrupt individual who is required to pay an amount to the estate is filed, the bankrupt’s obligation under this section ceases on the day on which the bankrupt would have been automatically discharged had the opposition not been filed, but nothing in this subsection precludes the court from determining that the bankrupt is required to pay to the estate an amount that the court considers appropriate. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 68; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 34; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 60; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 58 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 33. 68.1 (1) Assignment of wages - An assignment of existing or future wages made by a debtor before the debtor became bankrupt is of no effect in respect of wages earned after the bankruptcy. (2) Assignment of book debts - An assignment of existing or future amounts receivable as payment for or commission or professional fees in respect of services rendered by a debtor who is an individual before the debtor became bankrupt is of no effect in respect of such amounts earned or generated after the bankruptcy. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 35; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 61; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 59.

Stays of Proceedings 69. (1) Stay of proceedings - notice of intention - Subject to subsections (2) and (3) and sections 69.4, 69.5 and 69.6, on the filing of a notice of intention under section 50.4 by an insolvent person, (a)

no creditor has any remedy against the insolvent person or the insolvent person’s property, or shall commence or continue any action, execution or other proceedings, for the recovery of a claim provable in bankruptcy,

(b)

no provision of a security agreement between the insolvent person and a secured creditor that provides, in substance, that on (i)

the insolvent person’s insolvency,

(ii)

the default by the insolvent person of an obligation under the security agreement, or

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(iii)

S. 69

the filing by the insolvent person of a notice of intention under section 50.4,

the insolvent person ceases to have such rights to use or deal with assets secured under the agreement as he would otherwise have, has any force or effect, (c)

Her Majesty in right of Canada may not exercise Her rights under (i)

subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act, or

(ii)

any provision of the Canada Pension Plan or of the Employment Insurance Act that (A)

refers to subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act, and

(B)

provides for the collection of a contribution, as defined in the Canada Pension Plan, or an employee’s premium or employer’s premium, as defined in the Employment Insurance Act, and of any related interest, penalties or other amounts,

in respect of the insolvent person where the insolvent person is a tax debtor under that subsection or provision, and (d)

Her Majesty in right of a province may not exercise her rights under any provision of provincial legislation in respect of the insolvent person where the insolvent person is a debtor under the provincial legislation and the provision has a similar purpose to subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act, or refers to that subsection, to the extent that it provides for the collection of a sum, and of any related interest, penalties or other amounts, where the sum (i)

has been withheld or deducted by a person from a payment to another person and is in respect of a tax similar in nature to the income tax imposed on individuals under the Income Tax Act, or

(ii)

is of the same nature as a contribution under the Canada Pension Plan if the province is a “province providing a comprehensive pension plan” as defined in subsection 3(1) of the Canada Pension Plan and the provincial legislation establishes a “provincial pension plan” as defined in that subsection,

until the filing of a proposal under subsection 62(1) in respect of the insolvent person or the bankruptcy of the insolvent person. (2) Limitation - The stays provided by subsection (1) do not apply (a)

to prevent a secured creditor who took possession of secured assets of the insolvent person for the purpose of realization before the notice of intention under section 50.4 was filed from dealing with those assets;

(b)

to prevent a secured creditor who gave notice of intention under subsection 244(1) to enforce that creditor’s security against the insolvent person more than ten days before the notice of intention under section 50.4 was filed, from enforcing that security, unless the secured creditor consents to the stay;

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(c)

to prevent a secured creditor who gave notice of intention under subsection 244(1) to enforce that creditor’s security from enforcing the security if the insolvent person has, under subsection 244(2), consented to the enforcement action; or

(d)

to prevent a creditor who holds security on aircraft objects under an agreement with the insolvent person from taking possession of the aircraft objects (i)

if, after the commencement of proceedings under this Act, the insolvent person defaults in protecting or maintaining the aircraft objects in accordance with the agreement,

(ii)

sixty days after the commencement of proceedings under this Act unless, during that period, the insolvent person

(iii)

(A)

remedied the default of every other obligation under the agreement, other than a default constituted by the commencement of proceedings under this Act or the breach of a provision in the agreement relating to the insolvent person’s financial condition,

(B)

agreed to perform the obligations under the agreement, other than an obligation not to become insolvent or an obligation relating to the insolvent person’s financial condition, until the day on which proceedings under this Act end, and

(C)

agreed to perform all the obligations arising under the agreement after the proceedings under this Act end, or

if, during the period that begins on the expiry of the sixty-day period and ends on the day on which proceedings under this Act end, the insolvent person defaults in performing an obligation under the agreement, other than an obligation not to become insolvent or an obligation relating to the insolvent person’s financial condition.

(3) Limitation - A stay provided by paragraph (1)(c) or (d) does not apply, or terminates, in respect of Her Majesty in right of Canada and every province if (a)

the insolvent person defaults on payment of any amount that becomes due to Her Majesty after the filing of the notice of intention and could be subject to a demand under (i)

subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act,

(ii)

any provision of the Canada Pension Plan or of the Employment Insurance Act that refers to subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act and provides for the collection of a contribution, as defined in the Canada Pension Plan, or an employee’s premium, or employer’s premium, as defined in the Employment Insurance Act, and of any related interest, penalties or other amounts, or

(iii)

any provision of provincial legislation that has a similar purpose to subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act, or that refers to that

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subsection, to the extent that it provides for the collection of a sum, and of any related interest, penalties or other amounts, where the sum

(b)

(A)

has been withheld or deducted by a person from a payment to another person and is in respect of a tax similar in nature to the income tax imposed on individuals under the Income Tax Act, or

(B)

is of the same nature as a contribution under the Canada Pension Plan if the province is a “province providing a comprehensive pension plan” as defined in subsection 3(1) of the Canada Pension Plan and the provincial legislation establishes a “provincial pension plan” as defined in that subsection; or

any other creditor is or becomes entitled to realize a security on any property that could be claimed by Her Majesty in exercising Her rights under (i)

subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act,

(ii)

any provision of the Canada Pension Plan or of the Employment Insurance Act that refers to subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act and provides for the collection of a contribution, as defined in the Canada Pension Plan, or an employee’s premium, or employer’s premium, as defined in the Employment Insurance Act, and of any related interest, penalties or other amounts, or

(iii)

any provision of provincial legislation that has a similar purpose to subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act, or that refers to that subsection, to the extent that it provides for the collection of a sum, and of any related interest, penalties or other amounts, where the sum (A)

has been withheld or deducted by a person from a payment to another person and is in respect of a tax similar in nature to the income tax imposed on individuals under the Income Tax Act, or

(B)

is of the same nature as a contribution under the Canada Pension Plan if the province is a “province providing a comprehensive pension plan” as defined in subsection 3(1) of the Canada Pension Plan and the provincial legislation establishes a “provincial pension plan” as defined in that subsection.

R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 69; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 36; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 62; S.C. 2000, c. 30, s. 145; S.C. 2005, c. 3, s. 12; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 60(1) and (2) (E); S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 34. 69.1 (1) Stay of proceedings - Division I proposals - Subject to subsections (2) to (6) and sections 69.4, 69.5 and 69.6, on the filing of a proposal under subsection 62(1) in respect of an insolvent person, (a)

no creditor has any remedy against the insolvent person or the insolvent person’s property, or shall commence or continue any action, execution or other

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proceedings, for the recovery of a claim provable in bankruptcy, until the trustee has been discharged or the insolvent person becomes bankrupt; (b)

no provision of a security agreement between the insolvent person and a secured creditor that provides, in substance, that on (i)

the insolvent person’s insolvency,

(ii)

the default by the insolvent person of an obligation under the security agreement, or

(iii)

the filing of a notice of intention under section 50.4 or of a proposal under subsection 62(1) in respect of the insolvent person,

the insolvent person ceases to have such rights to use or deal with assets secured under the agreement as the insolvent person would otherwise have, has any force or effect until the trustee has been discharged or the insolvent person becomes bankrupt; (c)

(d)

Her Majesty in right of Canada may not exercise Her rights under subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act or any provision of the Canada Pension Plan or of the Employment Insurance Act that refers to subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act and provides for the collection of a contribution, as defined in the Canada Pension Plan, or an employee’s premium, or employer’s premium, as defined in the Employment Insurance Act, and of any related interest, penalties or other amounts, in respect of the insolvent person where the insolvent person is a tax debtor under that subsection or provision, until (i)

the trustee has been discharged,

(ii)

six months have elapsed following court approval of the proposal, or

(iii)

the insolvent person becomes bankrupt; and

Her Majesty in right of a province may not exercise Her rights under any provision of provincial legislation that has a similar purpose to subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act, or that refers to that subsection, to the extent that it provides for the collection of a sum, and of any related interest, penalties or other amounts, where the sum (i)

has been withheld or deducted by a person from a payment to another person and is in respect of a tax similar in nature to the income tax imposed on individuals under the Income Tax Act, or

(ii)

is of the same nature as a contribution under the Canada Pension Plan if the province is a “province providing a comprehensive pension plan” as defined in subsection 3(1) of the Canada Pension Plan and the provincial legislation establishes a “provincial pension plan” as defined in that subsection,

in respect of the insolvent person where the insolvent person is a debtor under the provincial legislation, until (iii)

the trustee has been discharged,

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(iv)

six months have elapsed following court approval of the proposal, or

(v)

the insolvent person becomes bankrupt.

S. 69

(2) Limitation - The stays provided by subsection (1) do not apply (a)

to prevent a secured creditor who took possession of secured assets of the insolvent person for the purpose of realization before the proposal was filed from dealing with those assets;

(b)

unless the secured creditor otherwise agrees, to prevent a secured creditor who gave notice of intention under subsection 244(1) to enforce that creditor’s security against the insolvent person more than ten days before (i)

a notice of intention was filed in respect of the insolvent person under section 50.4, or

(ii)

the proposal was filed, if no notice of intention under section 50.4 was filed

from enforcing that security; (c)

to prevent a secured creditor who gave notice of intention under subsection 244(1) to enforce that creditor’s security from enforcing the security if the insolvent person has, under subsection 244(2), consented to the enforcement action; or

(d)

to prevent a creditor who holds security on aircraft objects under an agreement with the insolvent person from taking possession of the aircraft objects (i)

if, after the commencement of proceedings under this Act, the insolvent person defaults in protecting or maintaining the aircraft objects in accordance with the agreement,

(ii)

sixty days after the commencement of proceedings under this Act unless, during that period, the insolvent person

(iii)

(A)

remedied the default of every other obligation under the agreement, other than a default constituted by the commencement of proceedings under this Act or the breach of a provision in the agreement relating to the insolvent person’s financial condition,

(B)

agreed to perform the obligations under the agreement, other than an obligation not to become insolvent or an obligation relating to the insolvent person’s financial condition, until the day on which proceedings under this Act end, and

(C)

agreed to perform all the obligations arising under the agreement after the proceedings under this Act end, or

if, during the period that begins on the expiry of the sixty day period and ends on the day on which proceedings under this Act end, the insolvent person defaults in performing an obligation under the agreement, other

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than an obligation not to become insolvent or an obligation relating to the insolvent person’s financial condition. (3) Limitation - A stay provided by paragraph (1)(c) or (d) does not apply, or terminates, in respect of Her Majesty in right of Canada and every province if (a)

(b)

the insolvent person defaults on payment of any amount that becomes due to Her Majesty after the filing of the proposal and could be subject to a demand under (i)

subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act,

(ii)

any provision of the Canada Pension Plan or of the Employment Insurance Act that refers to subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act and provides for the collection of a contribution, as defined in the Canada Pension Plan, or an employee’s premium, or employer’s premium, as defined in the Employment Insurance Act, and of any related interest, penalties or other amounts, or

(iii)

any provision of provincial legislation that has a similar purpose to subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act, or that refers to that subsection, to the extent that it provides for the collection of a sum, and of any related interest, penalties or other amounts, where the sum (A)

has been withheld or deducted by a person from a payment to another person and is in respect of a tax similar in nature to the income tax imposed on individuals under the Income Tax Act, or

(B)

is of the same nature as a contribution under the Canada Pension Plan if the province is a “province providing a comprehensive pension plan” as defined in subsection 3(1) of the Canada Pension Plan and the provincial legislation establishes a “provincial pension plan” as defined in that subsection; or

any other creditor is or becomes entitled to realize a security on any property that could be claimed by Her Majesty in exercising Her rights under (i)

subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act,

(ii)

any provision of the Canada Pension Plan or of the Employment Insurance Act that refers to subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act and provides for the collection of a contribution, as defined in the Canada Pension Plan, or an employee’s premium, or employer’s premium, as defined in the Employment Insurance Act, and of any related interest, penalties or other amounts, or

(iii)

any provision of provincial legislation that has a similar purpose to subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act, or that refers to that subsection, to the extent that it provides for the collection of a sum, and of any related interest, penalties or other amounts, where the sum

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(A)

has been withheld or deducted by a person from a payment to another person and is in respect of a tax similar in nature to the income tax imposed on individuals under the Income Tax Act, or

(B)

is of the same nature as a contribution under the Canada Pension Plan if the province is a “province providing a comprehensive pension plan” as defined in subsection 3(1) of the Canada Pension Plan and the provincial legislation establishes a “provincial pension plan” as defined in that subsection.

(4) Limitation - If, by virtue of subsection 69(3), the stay provided by paragraph 69(1)(c) or (d) does not apply or terminates, the stay provided by paragraph (1)(c) or (d) of this section does not apply. (5) Secured creditors to whom proposal not made - Subject to sections 79 and 127 to 135 and subsection 248(1), the filing of a proposal under subsection 62(1) does not prevent a secured creditor to whom the proposal has not been made in respect of a particular security from realizing or otherwise dealing with that security in the same manner as he would have been entitled to realize or deal with it if this section had not been passed. (6) Where secured creditors vote against proposal - Subject to sections 79 and 127 to 135 and subsection 248(1), where secured creditors holding a particular class of secured claim vote for the refusal of a proposal, a secured creditor holding a secured claim of that class may henceforth realize or otherwise deal with his security in the same manner as he would have been entitled to realize or deal with it if this section had not been passed. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 36; S.C. 1994, c. 26, s. 8 (E); S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 63; S.C. 2000, c. 30, s. 146; S.C. 2005, c. 3, s. 13; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 61(1) and (2) (E); S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 35. 69.2 (1) Stay of proceedings - consumer proposals - Subject to subsections (2) to (4) and sections 69.4 and 69.5, on the filing of a consumer proposal under subsection 66.13(2) or of an amendment to a consumer proposal under subsection 66.37(1) in respect of a consumer debtor, no creditor has any remedy against the debtor or the debtor’s property, or shall commence or continue any action, execution or other proceedings, for the recovery of a claim provable in bankruptcy until (a)

the consumer proposal or the amended consumer proposal, as the case may be, has been withdrawn, refused, annulled or deemed annulled; or

(b)

the administrator has been discharged.

(2) Exception - Subsection (1) does not apply where the consumer proposal, other than an amendment to a consumer proposal referred to in section 66.37, is filed within six months after the filing of a previous consumer proposal in respect of the same debtor. (3) Idem - Subsection (1) does not apply where an amendment to a consumer proposal is filed within six months after the filing of a previous amendment to the same consumer proposal. (4) Secured creditors - Subject to sections 79 and 127 to 135 and subsection 248(1), the filing of a consumer proposal under subsection 66.13(2) does not prevent a secured creditor from realizing or otherwise dealing with his security in the same manner as he would have been

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entitled to realize or deal with it if this section had not been passed, unless the court otherwise orders, but in so ordering the court shall not postpone the right of the secured creditor to realize or otherwise deal with his security, except as follows: (a)

in the case of a security for a debt that is due at the date of the approval or deemed approval of the consumer proposal or that becomes due not later than six months thereafter, that right shall not be postponed for more than six months from that date; and

(b)

in the case of a security for a debt that does not become due until more than six months after the date of the approval or deemed approval of the consumer proposal, that right shall not be postponed for more than six months from that date, unless all instalments of interest that are more than six months in arrears are paid and all other defaults of more than six months standing are cured, and then only so long as no instalment of interest remains in arrears or defaults remain uncured for more than six months, but, in any event, not beyond the date at which the debt secured by the security becomes payable under the instrument or act, or law, creating the security.

(5) Exception - No order may be made under subsection (4) if the order would have the effect of preventing a secured creditor from realizing or otherwise dealing with financial collateral. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 36; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 64; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 43 (E); S.C. 2007, c. 29, s. 95. 69.3 (1) Stays of proceedings – bankruptcies - Subject to subsections (1.1) and (2) and sections 69.4 and 69.5, on the bankruptcy of any debtor, no creditor has any remedy against the debtor or the debtor’s property, or shall commence or continue any action, execution or other proceedings, for the recovery of a claim provable in bankruptcy. (1.1) End of stay - Subsection (1) ceases to apply in respect of a creditor on the day on which the trustee is discharged. (2) Secured creditors - Subject to subsection (3), sections 79 and 127 to 135 and subsection 248(1), the bankruptcy of a debtor does not prevent a secured creditor from realizing or otherwise dealing with his or her security in the same manner as he or she would have been entitled to realize or deal with it if this section had not been passed, unless the court otherwise orders, but in so ordering the court shall not postpone the right of the secured creditor to realize or otherwise deal with his or her security, except as follows: (a)

in the case of a security for a debt that is due at the date the bankrupt became bankrupt or that becomes due not later than six months thereafter, that right shall not be postponed for more than six months from that date; and

(b)

in the case of a security for a debt that does not become due until more than six months after the date the bankrupt became bankrupt, that right shall not be postponed for more than six months from that date, unless all instalments of interest that are more than six months in arrears are paid and all other defaults of more than six months standing are cured, and then only so long as no instalment of interest remains in arrears or defaults remain uncured for more than six months, but, in any event, not beyond the date at which the debt secured by the security becomes payable under the instrument or law creating the security.

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(2.1) Exception - No order may be made under subsection (2) if the order would have the effect of preventing a secured creditor from realizing or otherwise dealing with financial collateral. (3) Secured creditors - aircraft objects - If a secured creditor who holds security on aircraft objects under an agreement with the bankrupt is postponed from realizing or otherwise dealing with that security, the order under which the postponement is made is terminated (a)

if, after the order is made, the trustee defaults in protecting or maintaining the aircraft objects in accordance with the agreement;

(b)

60 days after the day on which the order is made unless, during that period, the trustee

(c)

(i)

remedied the default of every other obligation under the agreement, other than a default constituted by the commencement of proceedings under this Act or the breach of a provision in the agreement relating to the bankrupt’s financial condition, and

(ii)

agreed to perform the obligations under the agreement, other than the bankrupt’s obligation not to become insolvent or an obligation relating to the bankrupt’s financial condition, until the day on which the secured creditor is able to realize or otherwise deal with his or her security; or

if, during the period that begins 60 days after the day on which the order is made and ends on the day on which the secured creditor is able to realize or otherwise deal with his or her security, the trustee defaults in performing an obligation under the agreement, other than the bankrupt’s obligation not to become insolvent or an obligation relating to the bankrupt’s financial condition.

S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 36; S.C. 2005, c. 3, s. 14; S.C. 2007, c. 29, s. 96; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 62. 69.31 (1) Stay of proceedings – directors - Where a notice of intention under subsection 50.4(1) has been filed or a proposal has been made by an insolvent corporation, no person may commence or continue any action against a director of the corporation on any claim against directors that arose before the commencement of proceedings under this Act and that relates to obligations of the corporation where directors are under any law liable in their capacity as directors for the payment of such obligations, until the proposal, if one has been filed, is approved by the court or the corporation becomes bankrupt. (2) Exception - Subsection (1) does not apply in respect of an action against a director on a guarantee given by the director relating to the corporation’s obligations or an action seeking injunctive relief against a director in relation to the corporation. (3) Resignation or removal of directors - Where all of the directors have resigned or have been removed by the shareholders without replacement, any person who manages or supervises the management of the business and affairs of the corporation shall be deemed to be a director for the purposes of this section. S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 65.

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69.4 Court may declare that stays, etc., cease - A creditor who is affected by the operation of sections 69 to 69.31 or any other person affected by the operation of section 69.31 may apply to the court for a declaration that those sections no longer operate in respect of that creditor or person, and the court may make such a declaration, subject to any qualifications that the court considers proper, if it is satisfied (a)

that the creditor or person is likely to be materially prejudiced by the continued operation of those sections; or

(b)

that it is equitable on other grounds to make such a declaration.

S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 36; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 65. 69.41 (1) Non-application of certain provisions - Sections 69 to 69.31 do not apply in respect of a claim referred to in subsection 121(4). (2) No remedy, etc., - Notwithstanding subsection (1), no creditor with a claim referred to in subsection 121(4) has any remedy, or shall commence or continue any action, execution or other proceeding, against (a)

property of a bankrupt that has vested in the trustee; or

(b)

amounts that are payable to the estate of the bankrupt under section 68.

S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 65. 69.42 No stay, etc., in certain cases - Despite anything in this Act, no provision of this Act shall have the effect of staying or restraining, and no order may be made under this Act staying or restraining, (a)

the exercise by the Minister of Finance or the Superintendent of Financial Institutions of any power, duty or function assigned to them by the Bank Act, the Cooperative Credit Associations Act, the Insurance Companies Act or the Trust and Loan Companies Act;

(b)

the exercise by the Governor in Council, the Minister of Finance or the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation of any power, duty or function assigned to them by the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation Act; or

(c)

the exercise by the Attorney General of Canada of any power, assigned to him or her by the Winding-up and Restructuring Act.

S.C. 2001, c. 9, s. 574. 69.5 Provincial legislation - Except for paragraphs 69(1)(c) and (d) and 69.1(1)(c) and (d), sections 69 to 69.3 do not affect the operation of any provision of provincial legislation that has a similar purpose to subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act, or that refers to that subsection, to the extent that it provides for the collection of a sum, and of any related interest, penalties or other amounts, where the sum (a)

has been withheld or deducted by a person from a payment to another person and is in respect of a tax similar in nature to the income tax imposed on individuals under the Income Tax Act, or 106

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(b)

Ss. 69-70

is of the same nature as a contribution under the Canada Pension Plan if the province is a “province providing a comprehensive pension plan” as defined in subsection 3(1) of the Canada Pension Plan and the provincial legislation establishes a “provincial pension plan” as defined in that subsection,

and for the purpose of this section, the provision is, despite any Act of Canada or of a province or any other law, deemed to have the same effect and scope against any creditor, however secured, as subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act in respect of a sum referred to in paragraph (a), or as subsection 23(2) of the Canada Pension Plan in respect of a sum referred to in paragraph (b), and in respect of any related interest, penalties or other amounts. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 36; S.C. 2000, c. 30, s. 147. 69.6 (1) Meaning of “regulatory body” - In this section, “regulatory body” means a person or body that has powers, duties or functions relating to the enforcement or administration of an Act of Parliament or of the legislature of a province and includes a person or body that is prescribed to be a regulatory body for the purpose of this Act. (2) Regulatory bodies - sections 69 and 69.1 - Subject to subsection (3), no stay provided by section 69 or 69.1 affects a regulatory body’s investigation in respect of an insolvent person or an action, suit or proceeding that is taken in respect of the insolvent person by or before the regulatory body, other than the enforcement of a payment ordered by the regulatory body or the court. (3) Exception - On application by the insolvent person and on notice to the regulatory body and to the persons who are likely to be affected by the order, the court may order that subsection (2) not apply in respect of one or more of the actions, suits or proceedings taken by or before the regulatory body if in the court’s opinion (a)

a viable proposal could not be made in respect of the insolvent person if that subsection were to apply; and

(b)

it is not contrary to the public interest that the regulatory body be affected by the stay provided by section 69 or 69.1.

(4) Declaration - enforcement of a payment - If there is a dispute as to whether a regulatory body is seeking to enforce its rights as a creditor, the court may, on application by the insolvent person and on notice to the regulatory body, make an order declaring both that the regulatory body is seeking to enforce its rights as a creditor and that the enforcement of those rights is stayed. S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 37.

General Provisions 70. (1) Precedence of bankruptcy orders and assignments - Every bankruptcy order and every assignment made under this Act takes precedence over all judicial or other attachments, garnishments, certificates having the effect of judgments, judgments, certificates of judgment, legal hypothecs of judgment creditors, executions or other process against the property of a bankrupt, except those that have been completely executed by payment to the creditor or the creditor’s representative, and except the rights of a secured creditor.

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(2) Costs - Despite subsection (1), one bill of costs of a barrister or solicitor or, in the Province of Quebec, an advocate, including the executing officer’s fees and land registration fees, shall be payable to the creditor who has first attached by way of garnishment or filed with the executing officer an attachment, execution or other process against the property of the bankrupt. (3) [Repealed 1992, c. 27, s. 37.] R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 70; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 37; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 66 (F); S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 44; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 63 (E). 71. Vesting of property in trustee - On a bankruptcy order being made or an assignment being filed with an official receiver, a bankrupt ceases to have any capacity to dispose of or otherwise deal with their property, which shall, subject to this Act and to the rights of secured creditors, immediately pass to and vest in the trustee named in the bankruptcy order or assignment, and in any case of change of trustee the property shall pass from trustee to trustee without any assignment or transfer. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 71; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 67; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 44. 72. (1) Application of other substantive law - The provisions of this Act shall not be deemed to abrogate or supersede the substantive provisions of any other law or statute relating to property and civil rights that are not in conflict with this Act, and the trustee is entitled to avail himself of all rights and remedies provided by that law or statute as supplementary to and in addition to the rights and remedies provided by this Act. (2) Operation of provincial law re documents executed under Act - No bankruptcy order, assignment or other document made or executed under the authority of this Act shall, except as otherwise provided in this Act, be within the operation of any legislative enactment in force at any time in any province relating to deeds, mortgages, hypothecs, judgments, bills of sale, chattel mortgages, property or registration of documents affecting title to or liens or charges on real or personal property or immovables or movables. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 72; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 68 (F); S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 45. 73. (1) Purchaser in good faith at sale protected - An execution levied by seizure and sale of the property of a bankrupt is not invalid by reason only of its being an act of bankruptcy, and a person who purchases the property in good faith under a sale by the executing officer acquires a good title to the property against the trustee. (2) Executing officer to deliver property of bankrupt to trustee - If an assignment or a bankruptcy order has been made, the executing officer or other officer of any court or any other person having seized property of the bankrupt under execution or attachment or any other process shall, on receiving a copy of the assignment or the bankruptcy order certified by the trustee as a true copy, immediately deliver to the trustee all the property of the bankrupt in their hands. (3) In case of executing officer’s sale - If the executing officer has sold the property or any part of the property of a bankrupt, the executing officer shall deliver to the trustee the money so realized less the executing officer’s fees and the costs referred to in subsection 70(2).

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(4) Effect of bankruptcy on seizure of property for rent or taxes - Any property of a bankrupt under seizure for rent or taxes shall on production of a copy of the bankruptcy order or the assignment certified by the trustee as a true copy be delivered without delay to the trustee, but the costs of distress or, in the Province of Quebec, the costs of seizure are a security on the property ranking ahead of any other security on it, and, if the property or any part of it has been sold, the money realized from the sale less the costs of distress, or seizure, and sale shall be paid to the trustee. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 73; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 69 (F); S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 46(1) (E), (2), (3) (E) and (4). 74. (1) Registration of bankruptcy order or assignment - Every bankruptcy order, or a true copy certified by the registrar or other officer of the court that made it, and every assignment, or a true copy certified by the official receiver, may be registered by or on behalf of the trustee in respect of the whole or any part of any real property in which the bankrupt has any interest or estate, or in respect of the whole or any part of any immovable in which the bankrupt has any right, in the registry office in which, according to the law of the province in which the real property or immovable is situated, deeds or transfers of title and other documents relating to real property, an immovable or any interest or estate in real property or any right in an immovable may be registered. (2) Effect of registration - If a bankrupt is the registered owner of any real property or immovable or the registered holder of any charge, the trustee, on registration of the documents referred to in subsection (1), is entitled to be registered as owner of the real property or immovable or holder of the charge free of all encumbrances or charges mentioned in subsection 70(1). (3) Caveat may be filed - If a bankrupt owns any real property or immovable or holds any charge registered in a land registry office or has or is believed to have any interest, estate or right in any of them, and for any reason a copy of the bankruptcy order or assignment has not been registered as provided in subsection (1), a caveat or caution may be filed with the official in charge of the land registry by the trustee, and any registration made after the filing of the caveat or caution in respect of the real property, immovable or charge is subject to the caveat or caution unless it has been removed or cancelled under the provisions of the Act under which the real property, immovable, charge, interest, estate or right is registered. (4) Duty of official - Every official to whom a trustee tenders or causes to be tendered for registration any bankruptcy order, assignment or other document shall register it according to the ordinary procedure for registering within the official’s office documents relating to real property or immovables. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 74; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 70; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 47; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 64 (E). 75. Law of province to apply in favour of purchaser for value - Despite anything in this Act, a deed, transfer, agreement for sale, mortgage, charge or hypothec made to or in favour of a bona fide purchaser, mortgagee or hypothecary creditor for adequate valuable consideration and covering any real property or immovable affected by a bankruptcy order or an assignment under this Act is valid and effectual according to the tenor of the deed, transfer, agreement for sale, mortgage, charge or hypothec and according to the laws of the province in which the property is situated as fully and effectually and to all intents and purposes as if no bankruptcy

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order or assignment had been made under this Act, unless the bankruptcy order or assignment, or notice of the order or assignment, or caution, has been registered against the property in the proper office prior to the registration of the deed, transfer, agreement for sale, mortgage, charge or hypothec in accordance with the laws of the province in which the property is situated. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 75; S.C. 2001, c. 4, s. 28 (F); S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 47. 76. Property not to be removed from province - No property of a bankrupt shall be removed out of the province in which the property was at the date when the bankruptcy order or assignment was made, without the permission of the inspectors or an order of the court in which proceedings under this Act are being carried on or within the jurisdiction in which the property is situated. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 76; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 47. 77. (1) Contributory shareholders - Every shareholder or member of a bankrupt corporation is liable to contribute the amount unpaid on his shares of the capital or on his liability to the corporation, its members or creditors, as the case may be, under the Act, charter or instrument of incorporation of the company or otherwise. (2) Liability of contributory an asset - The amount that the contributory is liable to contribute under subsection (1) shall be deemed an asset of the corporation and a debt payable to the trustee forthwith on the bankruptcy of the corporation. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 77; S.C. 1999, c. 31, s. 22 (F). 78. Bank must notify trustee - Where a banker has ascertained that a person having an account with the banker is an undischarged bankrupt, it is his duty forthwith to inform the trustee of the existence of the account, and thereafter the banker shall not make any payments out of the account, except under an order of the court or in accordance with instructions from the trustee, unless on the expiration of one month from the date of giving the information no instructions have been received from the trustee. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 56. 79. Inspection of property held in pledge - Where property of a bankrupt is held as a pledge, hypothec, pawn or other security, the trustee may give notice in writing of the trustee’s intention to inspect the property, and the person so notified is not thereafter entitled to realize the security until the person has given the trustee a reasonable opportunity of inspecting the property and of exercising the trustee’s right of redemption. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 79; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 71. 80. Protection of trustee - If the trustee has seized or disposed of property in the possession or on the premises of a bankrupt without notice of any claim in respect of the property and after the seizure or disposal it is made to appear that the property, at the date of the bankruptcy, was not the property of the bankrupt or was subject to an unregistered security or charge, the trustee is not personally liable for any loss or damage arising from the seizure or disposal sustained by any person claiming the property, interest in property or, in the Province of Quebec, a right in property, or for the costs of proceedings taken to establish a claim to that

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property, interest or right, unless the court is of opinion that the trustee has been negligent with respect to the trustee’s duties in relation to the property. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 80; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 71; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 48. 81. (1) Persons claiming property in possession of bankrupt - Where a person claims any property, or interest therein, in the possession of a bankrupt at the time of the bankruptcy, he shall file with the trustee a proof of claim verified by affidavit giving the grounds on which the claim is based and sufficient particulars to enable the property to be identified. (2) How claim disposed of - The trustee with whom a proof of claim is filed under subsection (1) shall within 15 days after the filing of the claim or within 15 days after the first meeting of creditors, whichever is the later, either admit the claim and deliver possession of the property to the claimant or send notice in the prescribed manner to the claimant that the claim is disputed, with the trustee’s reasons for disputing it, and, unless the claimant appeals the trustee’ decision to the court within 15 days after the sending of the notice of dispute, the claimant is deemed to have abandoned or relinquished all his or her right to or interest in the property to the trustee who may then sell or dispose of the property free of any right, title or interest of the claimant. (3) Onus on claimant - The onus of establishing a claim to or in property under this section is on the claimant. (4) Require proof of claim - The trustee may send notice in the prescribed manner to any person to prove his or her claim to or in property under this section, and, unless that person files with the trustee a proof of claim, in the prescribed form, within 15 days after the sending of the notice, the trustee may then, with the leave of the court, sell or dispose of the property free of any right, title or interest of that person. (5) No other proceeding to be instituted - No proceedings shall be instituted to establish a claim to, or to recover any right or interest in, any property in the possession of a bankrupt at the time of the bankruptcy, except as provided in this section. (6) Rights of others not extended - Nothing in this section shall be construed as extending the rights of any person other than the trustee. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 81; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 65. 81.1 (1) Right of unpaid supplier to repossess goods - Subject to this section, if a person (in this section referred to as the “supplier”) has sold to another person (in this section referred to as the “purchaser”) goods for use in relation to the purchaser’s business and delivered the goods to the purchaser or to the purchaser’s agent or mandatary, and the purchaser has not fully paid for the goods, the supplier may have access to and repossess the goods at the supplier’s own expense, and the purchaser, trustee or receiver, or the purchaser’s agent or mandatary, as the case may be, shall release the goods, if (a)

the supplier presents a written demand for repossession to the purchaser, trustee or receiver, in the prescribed form and containing the details of the transaction, within a period of 15 days after the day on which the purchaser became bankrupt or became a person who is subject to a receivership;

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(b)

the goods were delivered within 30 days before the day on which the purchaser became bankrupt or became a person who is subject to a receivership;

(c)

at the time when the demand referred to in paragraph (a) is presented, the goods

(d)

(i)

are in the possession of the purchaser, trustee or receiver,

(ii)

are identifiable as the goods delivered by the supplier and not fully paid for,

(iii)

are in the same state as they were on delivery,

(iv)

have not been resold at arms’ length, and

(v)

are not subject to any agreement for sale at arms’ length; and

the purchaser, trustee or receiver does not, forthwith after the demand referred to in paragraph (a) is presented, pay to the supplier the entire balance owing.

(2) Where goods have been partly paid for - Where, at the time when the demand referred to in paragraph (1)(a) is presented, the goods have been partly paid for, the supplier’s right to repossess under subsection (1) shall be read as a right (a)

to repossess a portion of the goods proportional to the unpaid amount; or

(b)

to repossess all of the goods on paying to the purchaser, trustee or receiver an amount equal to the partial payment previously made to the supplier.

(3) [Repealed] - [S.C. 1999, c. 31, s. 23, effective June 17, 1999 (R.A.)]. (4) If notice of intention or proposal was filed - If a notice of intention under section 50.4 or a proposal was filed in respect of the purchaser after the delivery of the goods to the purchaser and before the purchaser became bankrupt or became a person who is subject to a receivership, the 30 day period referred to in paragraph (1)(b) is the 30 day period before the filing of the notice of intention or, if there was no notice of intention, the filing of the proposal. (5) Expiry of supplier’s right - A supplier’s right to repossess goods under this section expires if not exercised within the 15 day period referred to in paragraph (1)(a), unless the period is extended before its expiry by the trustee or receiver, or by the court. (6) Ranks above other claims - Notwithstanding any other federal or provincial Act or law, a supplier’s right to repossess goods pursuant to this section ranks above every other claim or right against the purchaser in respect of those goods, other than the right of a bona fide subsequent purchaser of the goods for value without notice that the supplier had demanded repossession of the goods. (7) Application to court for directions - The purchaser, trustee or receiver may apply to the court for directions in relation to any matter relating to this section, and the court shall give, in writing, such directions, if any, as it considers proper in the circumstances. (8) Supplier may appeal to court - Where a supplier is aggrieved by any act, omission or decision of the purchaser, trustee or receiver, the supplier may apply to the court and the court may make such order as it considers proper in the circumstances.

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(9) Other rights saved - Nothing in subsection (7) or (8) precludes a person from exercising any right that the person may have under subsection 34(1) or section 37. (10) No payment - A supplier who repossesses goods pursuant to this section is not entitled to be paid for those goods. (11) Provincial rights saved - Nothing in this section precludes a supplier from exercising any right that the supplier may have under the law of a province. (12) Definitions - The following definitions apply in this section. “person who is subject to a receivership” means a person in respect of whom any property is under the possession or control of a receiver. “receiver” means a receiver within the meaning of subsection 243(2). S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 38; S.C. 1999, c. 31, s. 23; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 66. 81.2 (1) Special right for farmers, fishermen and aquaculturists - Where (a)

a farmer has sold and delivered products of agriculture, a fisherman has sold and delivered products of the sea, lakes and rivers, or an aquaculturist has sold and delivered products of aquaculture, to another person (in this section referred to as the “purchaser”) for use in relation to the purchaser’s business,

(b)

the products were delivered to the purchaser within the fifteen day period preceding (i)

the day on which the purchaser became bankrupt, or

(ii)

the first day on which there was a receiver, within the meaning of subsection 243(2), in relation to the purchaser,

(c)

as of the day referred to in subparagraph (b)(i) or (ii), the farmer, fisherman or aquaculturist has not been fully paid for the products, and

(d)

the farmer, fisherman or aquaculturist files a proof of claim in the prescribed form in respect of the unpaid amount with the trustee or receiver, as the case may be, within thirty days after the day referred to in subparagraph (b)(i) or (ii),

the claim of the farmer, fisherman or aquaculturist for the unpaid amount in respect of the products is secured by security on all the inventory of or held by the purchaser as of the day referred to in subparagraph (b)(i) or (ii), and the security ranks above every other claim, right, charge or security against that inventory, regardless of when that other claim, right, charge or security arose, except a supplier’s right, under section 81.1, to repossess goods, despite any other federal or provincial Act or law; and if the trustee or receiver, as the case may be, takes possession or in any way disposes of inventory covered by the security, the trustee or receiver is liable for the claim of the farmer, fisherman or aquaculturist to the extent of the net amount realized on the disposition of that inventory, after deducting the cost of realization, and is subrogated in and to all rights of the farmer, fisherman or aquaculturist to the extent of the amounts paid to them by the trustee or receiver. (2) Definitions - In this section,

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“aquaculture” means the cultivation of aquatic plants and animals; “aquaculture operation” means any premises or site where aquaculture is carried out; “aquaculturist” includes the owner, occupier, lessor and lessee of an aquaculture operation; “aquatic plants and animals” means plants and animals that, at most stages of their development or life cycles, live in an aquatic environment; “farm” means land in Canada used for the purpose of farming, which term includes livestock raising, dairying, bee-keeping, fruit growing, the growing of trees and all tillage of the soil; “farmer” includes the owner, occupier, lessor and lessee of a farm; “fish” includes shellfish, crustaceans and marine animals; “fisherman” means a person whose business consists in whole or in part of fishing; “fishing” means fishing for or catching fish by any method; “products of agriculture” includes (a)

grain, hay, roots, vegetables, fruits, other crops and all other direct products of the soil, and

(b)

honey, livestock (whether alive or dead), dairy products, eggs and all other indirect products of the soil;

“products of aquaculture” includes all cultivated aquatic plants and animals; “products of the sea, lakes and rivers” includes fish of all kinds, marine and freshwater organic and inorganic life and any substance extracted or derived from any water, but does not include products of aquaculture. (3) Interpretation-products and by-products - For the purposes of this section, each thing included in the following terms as defined in subsection (2), namely, (a)

“products of agriculture”,

(b)

“products of aquaculture”, and

(c)

“products of the sea, lakes and rivers”, comprises that thing in any form or state and any part thereof and any product or by-product thereof or derived there from.

(4) Section 81.1 applies - For greater certainty, “goods” in section 81.1 includes products of agriculture, products of the sea, lakes and rivers, and products of aquaculture. (5) Other rights saved - Nothing in this section precludes a farmer, fisherman or aquaculturist from exercising (a)

the right that that person may have under section 81.1 to repossess products of agriculture, products of the sea, lakes and rivers, or products of aquaculture; or

(b)

any right that that person may have under the law of a province.

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S. 81

S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 38; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 72 (F); S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 49(1) (F), (2) and (3) (E). 81.3 (1) Security for unpaid wages, etc. - bankruptcy - The claim of a clerk, servant, travelling salesperson, labourer or worker who is owed wages, salaries, commissions or compensation by a bankrupt for services rendered during the period beginning on the day that is six months before the date of the initial bankruptcy event and ending on the date of the bankruptcy is secured, as of the date of the bankruptcy, to the extent of $2,000 - less any amount paid for those services by the trustee or by a receiver - by security on the bankrupt’s current assets on the date of the bankruptcy. (2) Commissions - For the purposes of subsection (1), commissions payable when goods are shipped, delivered or paid for, if shipped, delivered or paid for during the period referred to in that subsection, are deemed to have been earned in that period. (3) Security for disbursements - The claim of a travelling salesperson who is owed money by a bankrupt for disbursements properly incurred in and about the bankrupt’s business during the period referred to in subsection (1) is secured, as of the date of the bankruptcy, to the extent of $1,000 - less any amount paid for those disbursements by the trustee or by a receiver - by security on the bankrupt’s current assets on that date. (4) Rank of security - A security under this section ranks above every other claim, right, charge or security against the bankrupt’s current assets - regardless of when that other claim, right, charge or security arose - except rights under sections 81.1 and 81.2 and amounts referred to in subsection 67(3) that have been deemed to be held in trust. (5) Liability of trustee - If the trustee disposes of current assets covered by the security, the trustee is liable for the claim of the clerk, servant, travelling salesperson, labourer or worker to the extent of the amount realized on the disposition of the current assets and is subrogated in and to all rights of the clerk, servant, travelling salesperson, labourer or worker in respect of the amounts paid to that person by the trustee. (6) Claims of officers and directors - No officer or director of the bankrupt is entitled to have a claim secured under this section. (7) Non-arm’s length - A person who, in respect of a transaction, was not dealing at arm’s length with the bankrupt is not entitled to have a claim arising from that transaction secured by this section unless, in the opinion of the trustee, having regard to the circumstances - including the remuneration for, the terms and conditions of and the duration, nature and importance of the services rendered - it is reasonable to conclude that they would have entered into a substantially similar transaction if they had been dealing with each other at arm’s length. (8) Proof by delivery - A claim referred to in this section is proved by delivering to the trustee a proof of claim in the prescribed form. (9) Definitions - The following definitions apply in this section. “compensation” includes vacation pay but does not include termination or severance pay. “receiver” means a receiver within the meaning of subsection 243(2) or an interim receiver appointed under subsection 46(1), 47(1) or 47.1(1). S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 67 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 38; S.C. 2009, c. 2, s. 355 (F).

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81.4 (1) Security for unpaid wages, etc. – receivership - The claim of a clerk, servant, travelling salesperson, labourer or worker who is owed wages, salaries, commissions or compensation by a person who is subject to a receivership for services rendered during the six months before the first day on which there was a receiver in relation to the person is secured, as of that day, to the extent of $2,000 - less any amount paid for those services by a receiver or trustee - by security on the person’s current assets that are in the possession or under the control of the receiver. (2) Commissions - For the purposes of subsection (1), commissions payable when goods are shipped, delivered or paid for, if shipped, delivered or paid for during the six-month period referred to in that subsection, are deemed to have been earned in those six months. (3) Security for disbursements - The claim of a travelling salesperson who is owed money by a person who is subject to a receivership for disbursements properly incurred in and about the person’s business during the six months before the first day on which there was a receiver in relation to the person is secured, as of that day, to the extent of $1,000 - less any amount paid for those disbursements by a receiver or trustee - by security on the person’s current assets that are in the possession or under the control of the receiver. (4) Rank of security - A security under this section ranks above every other claim, right, charge or security against the person’s current assets - regardless of when that other claim, right, charge or security arose - except rights under sections 81.1 and 81.2. (5) Liability of receiver - If the receiver takes possession or in any way disposes of current assets covered by the security, the receiver is liable for the claim of the clerk, servant, travelling salesperson, labourer or worker to the extent of the amount realized on the disposition of the current assets and is subrogated in and to all rights of the clerk, servant, travelling salesperson, labourer or worker in respect of the amounts paid to that person by the receiver. (6) Claims of officers and directors - No officer or director of the person who is subject to a receivership is entitled to have a claim secured under this section. (7) Non-arm’s length - A person who, in respect of a transaction, was not dealing at arm’s length with a person who is subject to a receivership is not entitled to have a claim arising from that transaction secured by this section unless, in the opinion of the receiver, having regard to the circumstances - including the remuneration for, the terms and conditions of and the duration, nature and importance of the services rendered - it is reasonable to conclude that they would have entered into a substantially similar transaction if they had been dealing with each other at arm’s length. (8) Proof by delivery - A claim referred to in this section is proved by delivering to the receiver a proof of claim in the prescribed form. (9) Definitions - The following definitions apply in this section. “compensation” includes vacation pay but does not include termination or severance pay. “person who is subject to a receivership” means a person any of whose property is in the possession or under the control of a receiver. “receiver” means a receiver within the meaning of subsection 243(2) or an interim receiver appointed under subsection 46(1), 47(1) or 47.1(1). 116

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S. 81

S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 67 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 38; S.C. 2009, c. 2, s. 356 (F). 81.5 (1) Security for unpaid amounts re prescribed pensions plan – bankruptcy - If the bankrupt is an employer who participated or participates in a prescribed pension plan for the benefit of the bankrupt’s employees, the following amounts that are unpaid on the date of bankruptcy to the fund established for the purpose of the pension plan are secured by security on all the assets of the bankrupt: (a)

an amount equal to the sum of all amounts that were deducted from the employees’ remuneration for payment to the fund;

(b)

if the prescribed pension plan is regulated by an Act of Parliament,

(c)

(i)

an amount equal to the normal cost, within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Pension Benefits Standards Regulations, 1985, that was required to be paid by the employer to the fund, and

(ii)

an amount equal to the sum of all amounts that were required to be paid by the employer to the fund under a defined contribution provision, within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Pension Benefits Standards Act, 1985; and

in the case of any other prescribed pension plan, (i)

an amount equal to the amount that would be the normal cost, within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Pension Benefits Standards Regulations, 1985, that the employer would be required to pay to the fund if the prescribed plan were regulated by an Act of Parliament, and

(ii)

an amount equal to the sum of all amounts that would have been required to be paid by the employer to the fund under a defined contribution provision, within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Pension Benefits Standards Act, 1985, if the prescribed plan were regulated by an Act of Parliament.

(2) Rank of security - A security under this section ranks above every other claim, right, charge or security against the bankrupt’s assets, regardless of when that other claim, right, charge or security arose, except (a)

rights under sections 81.1 and 81.2;

(b)

amounts referred to in subsection 67(3) that have been deemed to be held in trust; and

(c)

securities under sections 81.3 and 81.4.

(3) Liability of trustee - If the trustee disposes of assets covered by the security, the trustee is liable for the amounts referred to in subsection (1) to the extent of the amount realized on the disposition of the assets, and is subrogated in and to all rights of the fund established for the purpose of the pension plan in respect of those amounts. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 67.

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81.6 (1) Security for unpaid amounts re prescribed pensions plan – receivership - If a person who is subject to a receivership is an employer who participated or participates in a prescribed pension plan for the benefit of the person’s employees, the following amounts that are unpaid immediately before the first day on which there was a receiver in relation to the person are secured by security on all the person’s assets: (a)

an amount equal to the sum of all amounts that were deducted from the employees’ remuneration for payment to the fund;

(b)

if the prescribed pension plan is regulated by an Act of Parliament,

(c)

(i)

an amount equal to the normal cost, within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Pension Benefits Standards Regulations, 1985, that was required to be paid by the employer to the fund, and

(ii)

an amount equal to the sum of all amounts that were required to be paid by the employer to the fund under a defined contribution provision, within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Pension Benefits Standards Act, 1985; and

in the case of any other prescribed pension plan, (i)

an amount equal to the amount that would be the normal cost, within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Pension Benefits Standards Regulations, 1985, that the employer would be required to pay to the fund if the prescribed plan were regulated by an Act of Parliament, and

(ii)

an amount equal to the sum of all amounts that would have been required to be paid by the employer to the fund under a defined contribution provision, within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Pension Benefits Standards Act, 1985, if the prescribed plan were regulated by an Act of Parliament.

(2) Rank of security - A security under this section ranks above every other claim, right, charge or security against the person’s assets, regardless of when that other claim, right, charge or security arose, except rights under sections 81.1 and 81.2 and securities under sections 81.3 and 81.4. (3) Liability of receiver - If the receiver disposes of assets covered by the security, the receiver is liable for the amounts referred to in subsection (1) to the extent of the amount realized on the disposition of the assets, and is subrogated in and to all rights of the fund established for the purpose of the pension plan in respect of those amounts. (4) Definitions - The following definitions apply in this section. “person who is subject to a receivership” means a person any of whose property is in the possession or under the control of a receiver. “receiver” means a receiver within the meaning of subsection 243(2) or an interim receiver appointed under subsection 46(1), 47(1) or 47.1(1). S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 67 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 39.

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Ss. 82-83

82. (1) Trustee to have right to sell patented articles - Where any property of a bankrupt vesting in a trustee consists of patented articles that were sold to the bankrupt subject to any restrictions or limitations, the trustee is not bound by the restrictions or limitations but may sell and dispose of the patented articles free and clear of the restrictions or limitations. (2) Right of manufacturer - Where the manufacturer or vendor of the patented articles referred to in subsection (1) objects to the disposition of them by the trustee as provided by this section and gives to the trustee notice in writing of the objection before the sale or disposition thereof, that manufacturer or vendor has the right to purchase the patented articles at the invoice prices thereof, subject to any reasonable deduction for depreciation or deterioration. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 82; S.C. 1993, c. 34, s. 10 (E). 83. (1) Copyright and manuscript to revert to author - Notwithstanding anything in this Act or in any other statute, the author’s manuscripts and any copyright or any interest in a copyright in whole or in part assigned to a publisher, printer, firm or person becoming bankrupt shall, (a)

if the work covered by the copyright has not been published and put on the market at the time of the bankruptcy and no expense has been incurred in connection with that work, revert and be delivered to the author or their heirs, and any contract or agreement between the author or their heirs and the bankrupt shall then terminate and be void or, in the Province of Quebec, null;

(b)

if the work covered by the copyright has in whole or in part been put into type and expenses have been incurred by the bankrupt, revert and be delivered to the author on payment of the expenses so incurred and the product of those expenses shall also be delivered to the author or their heirs and any contract or agreement between the author or their heirs and the bankrupt shall then terminate and be void or, in the Province of Quebec, null, but if the author does not exercise their rights under this paragraph within six months after the date of the bankruptcy, the trustee may carry out the original contract; or

(c)

if the trustee at the end of the six-month period from the date of the bankruptcy decides not to carry out the contract, revert without expense to the author and any contract or agreement between the author or their heirs and the bankrupt shall then terminate and be void or, in the Province of Quebec, null.

(2) If copies of the work are on the market - Where, at the time of the bankruptcy referred to in subsection (1), the work was published and put on the market, the trustee is entitled to sell, or authorize the sale or reproduction of, any copies of the published work, or to perform or authorize the performance of the work, but (a)

there shall be paid to the author or his heirs such sums by way of royalties or share of the profits as would have been payable by the bankrupt;

(b)

the trustee is not, without the written consent of the author or his heirs, entitled to assign the copyright or transfer the interest or to grant any interest therein by licence or otherwise, except on terms that will guarantee to the author or his heirs payment by way of royalties or share of the profits at a rate not less than the rate the bankrupt was liable to pay; and

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(c)

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

any contract or agreement between the author or their heirs and the bankrupt shall then terminate and be void or, in the Province of Quebec, null, except with respect to the disposal, under this subsection, of copies of the work published and put on the market before the bankruptcy.

(3) Marketable copies to be first offered for sale to the author - The trustee shall offer in writing to the author or his heirs the right to purchase the manufactured or marketable copies of the copyright work comprised in the estate of the bankrupt at such price and on such terms and conditions as the trustee may deem fair and proper before disposing of the manufactured and marketable copies in the manner prescribed in this section. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 83; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 50(1) (E), (2) (F) and (3) (E). 84. Effect of sales by trustee - All sales of property made by a trustee vest in the purchaser all the legal and equitable estate of the bankrupt therein. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 84; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 51 (F). 84.1 (1) Assignment of agreements - On application by a trustee and on notice to every party to an agreement, a court may make an order assigning the rights and obligations of a bankrupt under the agreement to any person who is specified by the court and agrees to the assignment. (2) Individuals - In the case of an individual, (a)

they may not make an application under subsection (1) unless they are carrying on a business; and

(b)

only rights and obligations in relation to the business may be assigned.

(3) Exceptions - Subsection (1) does not apply in respect of rights and obligations that are not assignable by reason of their nature or that arise under (a)

an agreement entered into on or after the date of the bankruptcy;

(b)

an eligible financial contract; or

(c)

a collective agreement.

(4) Factors to be considered - In deciding whether to make the order, the court is to consider, among other things, (a)

whether the person to whom the rights and obligations are to be assigned is able to perform the obligations; and

(b)

whether it is appropriate to assign the rights and obligations to that person.

(5) Restriction - The court may not make the order unless it is satisfied that all monetary defaults in relation to the agreement - other than those arising by reason only of the person’s bankruptcy, insolvency or failure to perform a non- monetary obligation - will be remedied on or before the day fixed by the court. (6) Copy of order - The applicant is to send a copy of the order to every party to the agreement.

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S. 84

S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 68 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 112(10)(b). 84.2 (1) Certain rights limited - No person may terminate or amend - or claim an accelerated payment or forfeiture of the term under - any agreement, including a security agreement, with a bankrupt individual by reason only of the individual’s bankruptcy or insolvency. (2) Lease - If the agreement referred to in subsection (1) is a lease, the lessor may not terminate or amend, or claim an accelerated payment or forfeiture of the term under, the lease by reason only of the bankruptcy or insolvency or of the fact that the bankrupt has not paid rent in respect of any period before the time of the bankruptcy. (3) Public utilities - No public utility may discontinue service to a bankrupt individual by reason only of the individual’s bankruptcy or insolvency or of the fact that the bankrupt individual has not paid for services rendered or material provided before the time of the bankruptcy. (4) Certain acts not prevented - Nothing in this section is to be construed as (a)

prohibiting a person from requiring payments to be made in cash for goods, services, use of leased property or other valuable consideration provided after the time of the bankruptcy; or

(b)

requiring the further advance of money or credit.

(5) Provisions of section override agreement - Any provision in an agreement that has the effect of providing for, or permitting, anything that, in substance, is contrary to this section is of no force or effect. (6) Powers of court - On application by a party to an agreement or by a public utility, the court may declare that this section does not apply - or applies only to the extent declared by the court - if the applicant satisfies the court that the operation of this section would likely cause the applicant significant financial hardship. (7) Eligible financial contracts - Subsection (1) does not apply (a)

in respect of an eligible financial contract; or

(b)

to prevent a member of the Canadian Payments Association from ceasing to act as a clearing agent or group clearer for an insolvent person in accordance with the Canadian Payments Act and the by-laws and rules of that Association.

(8) Permitted actions - Despite section 69.3, the following actions are permitted in respect of an eligible financial contract that is entered into before the time of the bankruptcy, and is terminated on or after that time, but only in accordance with the provisions of that contract: (a)

the netting or setting off or compensation of obligations between the individual bankrupt and the other parties to the eligible financial contract; and

(b)

any dealing with financial collateral including (i)

the sale or foreclosure or, in the Province of Quebec, the surrender of financial collateral, and

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(ii)

the setting off or compensation of financial collateral or the application of the proceeds or value of financial collateral.

(9) Net termination values - If net termination values determined in accordance with an eligible financial contract referred to in subsection (8) are owed by the individual bankrupt to another party to the eligible financial contract, that other party is deemed, for the purposes of paragraphs 69(1)(a) and 69.1(1)(a), to be a creditor of the individual bankrupt with a claim provable in bankruptcy in respect of those net termination values. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 68 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 29, s. 98 and S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 112(10).

Partnership Property 85. (1) Application to limited partnerships - This Act applies to limited partnerships in like manner as if limited partnerships were ordinary partnerships, and, on all the general partners of a limited partnership becoming bankrupt, the property of the limited partnership vests in the trustee. (2) Actions by trustee and bankrupt’s partner - If a member of a partnership becomes bankrupt, the court may authorize the trustee to commence and prosecute any action in the names of the trustee and of the bankrupt’s partner, and any release by the partner of the debt or demand to which the action relates is void or, in the Province of Quebec, null. (3) Notice to partner - Notice of the application for authority to commence an action under subsection (2) shall be given to the bankrupt’s partner, who may show cause against it, and on his application the court may, if it thinks fit, direct that he shall receive his proper share of the proceeds of the action, and, if he does not claim any benefit therefrom, he shall be indemnified against costs in respect thereof as the court directs. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 85; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 52(1) (F) and (2) (E).

Crown Interests 86. (1) Status of Crown claims - In relation to a bankruptcy or proposal, all provable claims, including secured claims, of Her Majesty in right of Canada or a province or of any body under an Act respecting workers’ compensation, in this section and in section 87 called a “workers’ compensation body”, rank as unsecured claims. (2) Exceptions - Subsection (1) does not apply (a)

to claims that are secured by a security or charge of a kind that can be obtained by persons other than Her Majesty or a workers’ compensation body (i)

pursuant to any law, or

(ii)

pursuant to provisions of federal or provincial legislation, where those provisions do not have as their sole or principal purpose the establishment of a means of securing claims of Her Majesty or of a workers’ compensation body; and

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(b)

Ss. 86-87

to the extent provided in subsection 87(2), to claims that are secured by a security referred to in subsection 87(1), if the security is registered in accordance with that subsection.

(3) Exceptions - Subsection (1) does not affect the operation of (a)

subsections 224(1.2) and (1.3) of the Income Tax Act;

(b)

any provision of the Canada Pension Plan or of the Employment Insurance Act that refers to subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act and provides for the collection of a contribution, as defined in the Canada Pension Plan, or an employee’s premium, or employer’s premium, as defined in the Employment Insurance Act, and of any related interest, penalties or other amounts; or

(c)

any provision of provincial legislation that has a similar purpose to subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act, or that refers to that subsection, to the extent that it provides for the collection of a sum, and of any related interest, penalties or other amounts, where the sum (i)

has been withheld or deducted by a person from a payment to another person and is in respect of a tax similar in nature to the income tax imposed on individuals under the Income Tax Act, or

(ii)

is of the same nature as a contribution under the Canada Pension Plan if the province is a “province providing a comprehensive pension plan” as defined in subsection 3(1) of the Canada Pension Plan and the provincial legislation establishes a “provincial pension plan” as defined in that subsection,

and for the purpose of paragraph (c), the provision of provincial legislation is, despite any Act of Canada or of a province or any other law, deemed to have the same effect and scope against any creditor, however secured, as subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act in respect of a sum referred to in subparagraph (c)(i), or as subsection 23(2) of the Canada Pension Plan in respect of a sum referred to in subparagraph (c)(ii), and in respect of any related interest, penalties or other amounts. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 86; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 39; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 73; S.C. 2000, c. 30, s. 148; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 69. 87. (1) Statutory Crown securities - A security provided for in federal or provincial legislation for the sole or principal purpose of securing a claim of Her Majesty in right of Canada or of a province or of a workers’ compensation body is valid in relation to a bankruptcy or proposal only if the security is registered under a prescribed system of registration before the date of the initial bankruptcy event. (2) Idem - In relation to a bankruptcy or proposal, a security referred to in subsection (1) that is registered in accordance with that subsection (a)

is subordinate to securities in respect of which all steps necessary to make them effective against other creditors were taken before that registration; and

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Ss. 87-95

(b)

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

is valid only in respect of amounts owing to Her Majesty or a workers’ compensation body at the time of that registration, plus any interest subsequently accruing on those amounts.

R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 87; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 39; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 74; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 53; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 70.

Priority of Financial Collateral 88. [Repealed] - [2007, c. 36, s. 112] R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 88; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 39(1); S.C. 2007, c. 29, s. 99. 89. [Repealed] - [1992, c. 27, s. 39] 90. [Repealed] - [1992, c. 27, s. 39]

Preferences and Transfers at Undervalue 91. [Repealed] - [S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 71, effective September 18, 2009 (SI/2009-68)]. 92. [Repealed] - [S.C. 2000, c. 12, s. 12, effective July 31, 2000 (SI/2000-76)]. 93. [Repealed] - [S.C. 2000, c. 12, s. 12, effective July 31, 2000 (SI/2000-76)]. 94. [Repealed] - [S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 72, effective September 18, 2009 (SI/2009-68)]. 95. (1) Preferences - A transfer of property made, a provision of services made, a charge on property made, a payment made, an obligation incurred or a judicial proceeding taken or suffered by an insolvent person (a)

in favour of a creditor who is dealing at arm’s length with the insolvent person, or a person in trust for that creditor, with a view to giving that creditor a preference over another creditor is void as against - or, in Quebec, may not be set up against the trustee if it is made, incurred, taken or suffered, as the case may be, during the period beginning on the day that is three months before the date of the initial bankruptcy event and ending on the date of the bankruptcy; and

(b)

in favour of a creditor who is not dealing at arm’s length with the insolvent person, or a person in trust for that creditor, that has the effect of giving that creditor a preference over another creditor is void as against - or, in Quebec, may not be set up against - the trustee if it is made, incurred, taken or suffered, as the case may be, during the period beginning on the day that is 12 months before the date of the initial bankruptcy event and ending on the date of the bankruptcy.

(2) Preference presumed - If the transfer, charge, payment, obligation or judicial proceeding referred to in paragraph (1)(a) has the effect of giving the creditor a preference, it is, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, presumed to have been made, incurred, taken or suffered with a view to giving the creditor the preference - even if it was made, incurred, taken or suffered, as the case may be, under pressure - and evidence of pressure is not admissible to support the transaction.

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Ss. 95-96

(2.1) Exception - Subsection (2) does not apply, and the parties are deemed to be dealing with each other at arm’s length, in respect of the following: (a)

a margin deposit made by a clearing member with a clearing house; or

(b)

a transfer, charge or payment made in connection with financial collateral and in accordance with the provisions of an eligible financial contract.

(3) Definitions - In this section, “clearing house” means a body that acts as an intermediary for its clearing members in effecting securities transactions; “clearing member” means a person engaged in the business of effecting securities transactions who uses a clearing house as intermediary; “creditor” includes a surety or guarantor for the debt due to the creditor; “margin deposit” means a payment, deposit or transfer to a clearing house under the rules of the clearing house to assure the performance of the obligations of a clearing member in connection with security transactions, including, without limiting the generality of the foregoing, transactions respecting futures, options or other derivatives or to fulfil any of those obligations. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 95; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 78; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 56; S.C. 2007, c. 29, s. 100; S.C. 2007, c. 36, ss. 42 and 112(14). 96. (1) Transfer at undervalue - On application by the trustee, a court may declare that a transfer at undervalue is void as against, or, in Quebec, may not be set up against, the trustee or order that a party to the transfer or any other person who is privy to the transfer, or all of those persons, pay to the estate the difference between the value of the consideration received by the debtor and the value of the consideration given by the debtor - if (a)

(b)

the party was dealing at arm’s length with the debtor and (i)

the transfer occurred during the period that begins on the day that is one year before the date of the initial bankruptcy event and that ends on the date of the bankruptcy,

(ii)

the debtor was insolvent at the time of the transfer or was rendered insolvent by it, and

(iii)

the debtor intended to defraud, defeat or delay a creditor; or

the party was not dealing at arm’s length with the debtor and (i)

the transfer occurred during the period that begins on the day that is one year before the date of the initial bankruptcy event and ends on the date of the bankruptcy, or

(ii)

the transfer occurred during the period that begins on the day that is five years before the date of the initial bankruptcy event and ends on the day before the day on which the period referred to in subparagraph (i) begins and

125

Ss. 96-98

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

(A)

the debtor was insolvent at the time of the transfer or was rendered insolvent by it, or

(B)

the debtor intended to defraud, defeat or delay a creditor.

(2) Establishing values - In making the application referred to in this section, the trustee shall state what, in the trustee’s opinion, was the fair market value of the property or services and what, in the trustee’s opinion, was the value of the actual consideration given or received by the debtor, and the values on which the court makes any finding under this section are, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, the values stated by the trustee. (3) Meaning of “person who is privy” - In this section, a “person who is privy” means a person who is not dealing at arm’s length with a party to a transfer and, by reason of the transfer, directly or indirectly, receives a benefit or causes a benefit to be received by another person. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 96; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 79; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 57; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 73 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 43. 97. (1) Protected transactions - No payment, contract, dealing or transaction to, by or with a bankrupt made between the date of the initial bankruptcy event and the date of the bankruptcy is valid, except the following, which are valid if made in good faith, subject to the provisions of this Act with respect to the effect of bankruptcy on an execution, attachment or other process against property, and subject to the provisions of this Act respecting preferences and transfers at undervalue: (a)

a payment by the bankrupt to any of the bankrupt’s creditors;

(b)

a payment or delivery to the bankrupt;

(c)

a transfer by the bankrupt for adequate valuable consideration; and

(d)

a contract, dealing or transaction, including any giving of security, by or with the bankrupt for adequate valuable consideration.

(2) Definition of “adequate valuable consideration” - The expression “adequate valuable consideration” in paragraph (1)(c) means a consideration of fair and reasonable money value with relation to that of the property assigned or transferred, and in paragraph (1)(d) means a consideration of fair and reasonable money value with relation to the known or reasonably to be anticipated benefits of the contract, dealing or transaction. (3) Law of set-off or compensation - The law of set-off or compensation applies to all claims made against the estate of the bankrupt and also to all actions instituted by the trustee for the recovery of debts due to the bankrupt in the same manner and to the same extent as if the bankrupt were plaintiff or defendant, as the case may be, except in so far as any claim for setoff or compensation is affected by the provisions of this Act respecting frauds or fraudulent preferences. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 97; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 41; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 80; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 58(1) to (3) and (4) (E); S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 74. 98. (1) Recovering proceeds if transferred - If a person has acquired property of a bankrupt under a transaction that is void or voidable and set aside or, in the Province of Quebec, null or

126

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Ss. 98-99

annullable and set aside, and has sold, disposed of, realized or collected the property or any part of it, the money or other proceeds, whether further disposed of or not, shall be deemed the property of the trustee. (2) Trustee may recover - The trustee may recover the property or the value thereof or the money or proceeds therefrom from the person who acquired it from the bankrupt or from any other person to whom he may have resold, transferred or paid over the proceeds of the property as fully and effectually as the trustee could have recovered the property if it had not been so sold, disposed of, realized or collected. (3) Operation of section - Notwithstanding subsection (1), where any person to whom the property has been sold or disposed of has paid or given therefor in good faith adequate valuable consideration, he is not subject to the operation of this section but the trustee’s recourse shall be solely against the person entering into the transaction with the bankrupt for recovery of the consideration so paid or given or the value thereof. (4) Trustee subrogated - Where the consideration payable for or on any sale or resale of the property or any part thereof remains unsatisfied, the trustee is subrogated to the rights of the vendor to compel payment or satisfaction. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 98; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 59 (E). 98.1 (1) General assignments of book debts ineffective - If a person engaged in any trade or business makes an assignment of their existing or future book debts, or any class or part of those debts, and subsequently becomes bankrupt, the assignment of book debts is void as against, or, in the Province of Quebec, may not be set up against, the trustee with respect to any book debts that have not been paid at the date of the bankruptcy. (2) Foregoing provisions not to apply in some cases - Subsection (1) does not apply to an assignment of book debts that is registered under any statute of any province providing for the registration of assignments of book debts if the assignment is valid in accordance with the laws of the province. (3) Other cases - Nothing in subsection (1) renders void or, in the Province of Quebec, null any assignment of book debts due at the date of the assignment from specified debtors, or of debts growing due under specified contracts, or any assignment of book debts included in a transfer of a business made in good faith and for adequate valuable consideration. (4) Definition of “assignment” - For the purposes of this section, “assignment” includes assignment by way of security, hypothec and other charges on book debts. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 75. 99. (1) Dealings with undischarged bankrupt - All transactions by a bankrupt with any person dealing with the bankrupt in good faith and for value in respect of property acquired by the bankrupt after the bankruptcy, if completed before any intervention by the trustee, are valid against the trustee, and any estate, or interest or right, in the property that by virtue of this Act is vested in the trustee shall determine and pass in any manner and to any extent that may be required for giving effect to any such transaction. (2) Receipt of money by banker - For the purposes of this section, the receipt of any money, security or negotiable instrument from or by the order or direction of a bankrupt by his banker

127

Ss. 99-101

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

and any payment and any delivery of any security or negotiable instrument made to or by the order or direction of a bankrupt by his banker shall be deemed to be a transaction by the bankrupt with his banker dealing with him for value. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 99; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 60. 100. [Repealed] - [S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 76, effective September 18, 2009 (SI/2009-68)]. 101. (1) Inquiry into dividends and redemptions of shares - Where a corporation that is bankrupt has paid a dividend, other than a stock dividend, or redeemed or purchased for cancellation any of the shares of the capital stock of the corporation within the period beginning on the day that is one year before the date of the initial bankruptcy event and ending on the date of the bankruptcy, both dates included, the court may, on the application of the trustee, inquire into the transaction to ascertain whether it occurred at a time when the corporation was insolvent or whether it rendered the corporation insolvent. (2) Judgment against directors - If a transaction referred to in subsection (1) has occurred, the court may give judgment to the trustee against the directors of the corporation, jointly and severally, or solidarily, in the amount of the dividend or redemption or purchase price, with interest on the amount, that has not been paid to the corporation if the court finds that (a)

the transaction occurred at a time when the corporation was insolvent or the transaction rendered the corporation insolvent; and

(b)

the directors did not have reasonable grounds to believe that the transaction was occurring at a time when the corporation was not insolvent or the transaction would not render the corporation insolvent.

(2.1) Criteria - In making a determination under paragraph (2)(b), the court shall consider whether the directors acted as prudent and diligent persons would have acted in the same circumstances and whether the directors in good faith relied on (a)

financial or other statements of the corporation represented to them by officers of the corporation or the auditor of the corporation, as the case may be, or by written reports of the auditor to fairly reflect the financial condition of the corporation; or

(b)

a report relating to the corporation’s affairs prepared pursuant to a contract with the corporation by a lawyer, notary, accountant, engineer, appraiser or other person whose profession gave credibility to the statements made in the report.

(2.2) Judgment against shareholders - Where a transaction referred to in subsection (1) has occurred and the court makes a finding referred to in paragraph (2)(a), the court may give judgment to the trustee against a shareholder who is related to one or more directors or to the corporation or who is a director not liable by reason of paragraph (2)(b) or subsection (3), in the amount of the dividend or redemption or purchase price referred to in subsection (1) and the interest thereon, that was received by the shareholder and not repaid to the corporation. (3) Directors exonerated by law - A judgment pursuant to subsection (2) shall not be entered against or be binding on a director who had, in accordance with any applicable law governing the operation of the corporation, protested against the payment of the dividend or the redemption or purchase for cancellation of the shares of the capital stock of the corporation and had thereby exonerated himself or herself under that law from any liability therefor.

128

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

Ss. 101-102

(4) Directors’ right to recover - Nothing in this section shall be construed to affect any right, under any applicable law governing the operation of the corporation, of the directors to recover from a shareholder the whole or any part of any dividend, or any redemption or purchase price, made or paid to the shareholder when the corporation was insolvent or that rendered the corporation insolvent. (5) Onus of proof – directors - For the purposes of subsection (2), the onus of proving (a)

that the corporation was not insolvent at the time the transaction occurred and that the transaction did not render the corporation insolvent, or,

(b)

that the directors had reasonable grounds to believe that the transaction was occurring at a time when the corporation was not insolvent, or that the transaction would not render the corporation insolvent lies on the directors.

(6) Onus of proof – shareholder - For the purposes of subsection (2.2), the onus of proving that the corporation was not insolvent at the time the transaction occurred and that the transaction did not render the corporation insolvent lies on the shareholder. R.S.C. 1985, c. 12, s. 101; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 82; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 61 (E). 101.1 (1) Application of sections 95 to 101 - Sections 95 to 101 apply, with any modifications that the circumstances require, to a proposal made under Division I of Part III unless the proposal provides otherwise. (2) Interpretation - For the purposes of subsection (1), a reference in sections 95 to 101 (a)

to “date of the bankruptcy” is to be read as a reference to “day on which a notice of intention is filed” or, if a notice of intention is not filed, as a reference to “day on which a proposal is filed”; and

(b)

to “bankrupt”, “insolvent person” or “debtor” is to be read as a reference to “debtor in respect of whom the proposal is filed”.

(3) Application of sections 95 to 101 if proposal annulled - If the proposal is annulled by the court under subsection 63(1) or as a result of a bankruptcy order or assignment, sections 95 to 101 apply as though the debtor became bankrupt on the date of the initial bankruptcy event. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 42; S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 44. 101.2 [Repealed] - [S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 44, effective September 18, 2009 (SI/2009-68)].

PART V — ADMINISTRATION OF ESTATES Meetings of Creditors 102. (1) First meeting of creditors - Subject to subsection (1.1), it is the duty of the trustee to inquire as to the names and addresses of the creditors of a bankrupt and, within five days after the date of the trustee’s appointment, to send in the prescribed manner to the bankrupt, to every known creditor and to the Superintendent a notice in the prescribed form of the bankruptcy and of the first meeting of creditors, to be held within the twenty-one day period following the day of the trustee’s 129

Ss. 102-104

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

appointment, at the office of the official receiver in the locality of the bankrupt, but the official receiver may, when the official receiver deems it expedient, authorize the meeting to be held at the office of any other official receiver or at such other place as the official receiver may fix. (1.1) Extension of days - The official receiver in the locality of the bankrupt may extend the period during which the first meeting of creditors must be held (a)

by ten days, or

(b)

where the official receiver is satisfied that special circumstances exist, by up to thirty days,

where the official receiver is satisfied that the extension will not be detrimental to the creditors and is in the general interests of the administration of the estate. (2) Documents to accompany notice - The trustee shall include with the notice referred to in subsection (1) a list of the creditors with claims amounting to twenty-five dollars or more and the amounts of their claims together with a proof of claim and proxy in the prescribed form but no name shall be inserted in the proxy before it is so sent. (3) Information and notice - In the case of the bankruptcy of an individual, the trustee shall set out in the notice, in the prescribed form, information concerning the financial situation of the bankrupt and the obligation of the bankrupt, if any, to make payments required under section 68 to the estate of the bankrupt. (4) Publication in local paper by trustee - A notice in the prescribed form shall, as soon as possible after the bankruptcy and not later than five days before the first meeting of creditors, be published in a local newspaper by the trustee. (5) Purpose of meeting - The purpose of the first meeting of creditors shall be to consider the affairs of the bankrupt, to affirm the appointment of the trustee or substitute another in place thereof, to appoint inspectors and to give such directions to the trustee as the creditors may see fit with reference to the administration of the estate. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 102; S.C. 1992, c. 1, s. 20, c. 27, s. 43; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 84; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 77. 103. (1) Meetings during administration - The trustee may at any time call a meeting of creditors and he shall do so when directed by the court and whenever requested in writing by a majority of the inspectors or by twenty-five per cent in number of the creditors holding twenty-five per cent in value of the proved claims. (2) Meetings convened by inspectors - A meeting of the creditors may be convened by a majority of the inspectors at any time when a trustee is not available to call a meeting or has neglected or failed to do so when so directed by the inspectors. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 81. 104. (1) Notice of subsequent meetings - Meetings of creditors other than the first shall be called by sending a notice of the time and place of the meeting together with an agenda outlining the items for discussion with a reasonable explanation of what is expected to be

130

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

Ss. 104-106

discussed for each item, not less than five days before the time of each meeting to each creditor at the address given in the creditor’s proof of claim. (2) Notice to creditors with proved claims – After the first meeting of creditors, notice of any meeting or of any proceeding need not be given to any creditors other than those who have proved their claims. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 104; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 85; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 78.

Procedure at Meetings 105. (1) Chair of first meeting - The official receiver or his nominee shall be the chair at the first meeting of creditors and shall decide any questions or disputes arising at the meeting and from any such decision any creditor may appeal to the court. (2) Chair of subsequent meetings - At all meetings of creditors other than the first, the trustee shall be the chair unless by resolution at the meeting some other person is appointed. (3) Casting vote - The chair of any meeting of creditors shall, in the case of a tie, have a second or casting vote. (4) Minutes of meeting - The chair of any meeting of creditors shall, within a reasonable time after each meeting, cause minutes of the proceedings at the meeting to be prepared. The minutes shall be signed by the chair or by the chair of the next meeting and shall be retained as part of the books, records and documents referred to in section 26 relating to the administration of the estate. (5) Non receipt of notice by creditor - Where a meeting of creditors is called, the proceedings had and resolutions passed at the meeting, unless the court otherwise orders, are valid, notwithstanding that some creditors had not received notice. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 105; S.C. 2005, c. 47, ss. 79 and 123(e) (E). 106. (1) Quorum - One creditor entitled to vote, or the representative of such a creditor, constitutes a quorum for a meeting of creditors. (2) Where no quorum - Where there is no quorum at the first meeting of creditors, (a)

the appointment of the trustee shall be deemed to be confirmed; and

(b)

the chair shall adjourn the meeting (i)

to such time and place as the chair fixes, or

(ii)

without fixing a time or place for a future meeting.

(2.1) Idem - Where there is no quorum at any meeting of creditors other than the first meeting, the chair shall adjourn the meeting to such time and place as the chair fixes. (3) Adjournment with consent of meeting - The chair of any meeting of creditors may with the consent of the meeting adjourn the meeting from time to time. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 106; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 44; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 123(e) (E).

131

Ss. 107-110

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

107. How creditors shall vote - Every class of creditors may express its views and wishes separately from every other class and the effect to be given to those views and wishes shall, in case of any dispute and subject to this Act, be in the discretion of the court. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 85. 108. (1) Chair may admit or reject proof - The chair of any meeting of creditors has power to admit or reject a proof of claim for the purpose of voting but his decision is subject to appeal to the court. (2) Accept as proof - Notwithstanding anything in this Act, the chair may, for the purpose of voting, accept any letter or printed matter transmitted by any form or mode of telecommunication as proof of the claim of a creditor. (3) In case of doubt - Where the chair is in doubt as to whether a proof of claim should be admitted or rejected, he shall mark the proof as objected to and allow the creditor to vote subject to the vote being declared invalid in the event of the objection being sustained. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 108; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 45; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 123(f) (E). 109. (1) Right of creditor to vote - A person is not entitled to vote as a creditor at any meeting of creditors unless the person has duly proved a claim provable in bankruptcy and the proof of claim has been duly filed with the trustee before the time appointed for the meeting. (2) Voting by proxy - A creditor may vote either in person or by proxy. (3) Form of proxy - A proxy is not invalid merely because it is in the form of a letter or printed matter transmitted by any form or mode of telecommunication. (4) Debtor may not be proxyholder - A debtor may not be appointed a proxyholder to vote at any meeting of the debtor’s creditors. (5) Corporation - A corporation may vote by an authorized proxyholder at meetings of creditors. (6) Vote of creditors not dealing at arm’s length - If the chair is of the opinion that the outcome of a vote was determined by the vote of a creditor who did not deal with the debtor at arm’s length at any time during the period that begins on the day that is one year before the date of the initial bankruptcy event and that ends on the date of the bankruptcy, the chair shall redetermine the outcome by excluding the creditor’s vote. The redetermined outcome is the outcome of the vote unless a court, on application within 10 days after the day on which the chair redetermined the outcome of the vote, considers it appropriate to include the creditor’s vote and determines another outcome. (7) [Repealed] - [S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 80(2), effective September 18, 2009 (SI/2009-68)]. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 109; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 46; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 86; S.C. 1999, c. 31, s. 24 (F); S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 63(1) (E) and (2); S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 80(1) (E) and (2) as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 45. 110. (1) Claims acquired after date of bankruptcy - No person is entitled to vote on a claim acquired after the date of bankruptcy in respect of a debtor unless the entire claim is acquired.

132

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

Ss. 110-114

(2) Exception - Subsection (1) does not apply to persons acquiring notes, bills or other securities on which they are liable. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 110; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 81. 111. Creditor secured by bill or note - A creditor shall not vote in respect of any claim on or secured by a current bill of exchange or promissory note held by him, unless he is willing to treat the liability to him thereon of every person who is liable thereon antecedently to the debtor, and who is not a bankrupt, as a security in his hands and to estimate the value thereof and for the purposes of voting, but not for the purposes of dividend, to deduct it from his claim. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 89. 112. Voting by secured creditor - For the purpose of voting, a secured creditor shall, unless he surrenders his security, state in his proof the particulars of his security, the date when it was given and the value at which he assesses it, and he is entitled to vote only in respect of the balance, if any, due to him, after deducting the value of his security. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 90. 113. (1) Trustee may vote - If the trustee is a proxyholder for a creditor, the trustee may vote as a creditor at any meeting of creditors. (2) Trustee’s vote not to count in respect of certain resolutions - The vote of the trustee or of the partner, clerk or legal counsel of the trustee, or of the clerk of the legal counsel of the trustee as proxyholder for a creditor, shall not be counted in respect of any resolution affecting the remuneration or conduct of the trustee. (3) Persons not entitled to vote - The following persons are not entitled to vote on the appointment of a trustee and except with the permission of the court and on any condition that the court may impose, the following persons are not entitled to vote on the appointment of inspectors: (a)

the father, mother, child, sister, brother, uncle or aunt, by blood, adoption, marriage or Common law partnership, or the spouse or common law partner, of the bankrupt;

(b)

where the bankrupt is a corporation, any officer, director or employee thereof; and

(c)

where the bankrupt is a corporation, any wholly owned subsidiary corporation or any officer, director or employee thereof.

R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 113; R.S.C. 1985, c. 31 (1st Supp.), s. 73; S.C. 2000, c. 12, s. 13; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 64; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 82. 114. (1) Evidence of proceedings at meetings of creditors - A minute of proceedings at a meeting of creditors under this Act signed at the same or the next ensuing meeting by a person describing himself as or appearing to be chair of the meeting at which the minute is signed shall be admitted in evidence without further proof. (2) Evidence of regularity - Until the contrary is proved, every meeting of creditors in respect of the proceedings whereof a minute has been signed by the chair shall be deemed to have

133

Ss. 114-117

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

been duly convened and held and all resolutions passed or proceedings thereat to have been duly convened and held and to have been duly passed or had. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 114; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 123(g) (E). 115. Votes - Subject to this Act, all questions at meetings of creditors shall be decided by resolution carried by the majority of votes, and for that purpose the votes of a creditor shall be calculated by counting one vote for each dollar of every claim of the creditor that is not disallowed. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 115; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 47. 115.1 Court order interlocutory or permanent - In an application to revoke or vary a decision that affects or could affect the outcome of a vote, the court may make any order that it considers appropriate, including one that suspends the effect of the vote until the application is determined and one that redetermines the outcome of the vote. S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 46.

Inspectors 116. (1) Resolution respecting inspectors - At the first or a subsequent meeting of creditors, the creditors shall, by resolution, appoint up to five inspectors of the estate of the bankrupt or agree not to appoint any inspectors. (2) Persons not eligible - No person is eligible to be appointed or to act as an inspector who is a party to any contested action or proceedings by or against the estate of the bankrupt. (3) Powers - The powers of the inspectors may be exercised by a majority of them. (4) Filling vacancy - The creditors or inspectors at any meeting may fill any vacancy on the board of inspectors. (5) Revocation and replacement - The creditors may at any meeting and the court may on the application of the trustee or any creditor revoke the appointment of any inspector and appoint another in his stead. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 116; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 83. 117. (1) Meetings - The trustee may call a meeting of inspectors when he deems it advisable and he shall do so when requested in writing by a majority of the inspectors. (1.1) Participation by telephone, etc. - An inspector may, if all the other inspectors consent, participate in a meeting of inspectors by means of such telephone or other communication facilities as permit all persons participating in the meeting to communicate with each other, and an inspector participating in such a meeting by such means is deemed for the purpose of this Act to be present at that meeting. (2) Trustee votes in case of tie - In the event of an equal division of opinion at a meeting of inspectors, the opinion of any absent inspector shall be sought in order to resolve the difference, and in the case of a difference that cannot be so resolved, it shall be resolved by the

134

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

Ss. 117-120

trustee, unless it concerns his personal conduct or interest in which case it shall be resolved by the creditors or the court. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 117; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 48. 118. Obligation of trustee when inspectors fail to exercise their powers - If the inspectors fail to exercise the powers conferred on them, the trustee shall call a meeting of the creditors for the purpose of substituting other inspectors and for the purpose of taking any action or giving any directions that may be necessary. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 118; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 84. 119. (1) Creditors may override directions of inspectors - Subject to this Act, the trustee shall in the administration of the property of the bankrupt and in the distribution thereof among his creditors have regard to any directions that may be given by resolution of the creditors at any general meeting or by the inspectors, and any directions so given by the creditors shall in case of conflict be deemed to override any directions given by the inspectors. (2) Decisions of inspectors subject to review by court - The decisions and actions of the inspectors are subject to review by the court at the instance of the trustee or any interested person and the court may revoke or vary any act or decision of the inspectors and it may give such directions, permission or authority as it deems proper in substitution thereof or may refer any matter back to the inspectors for reconsideration. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 94. 120. (1) Inspector may not acquire property - No inspector is, directly or indirectly, capable of purchasing or acquiring for himself or for another any of the property of the estate for which he is an inspector, except with the prior approval of the court. (2) Formal defects - No defect or irregularity in the appointment of an inspector vitiates any act done by him in good faith. (3) Duty of inspectors - In addition to the other duties that are attributed to them under this Act, the inspectors shall from time to time verify the bank balance of the estate, examine the trustee’s accounts and inquire into the adequacy of the security filed by the trustee and, subject to subsection (4), shall approve the trustee’s final statement of receipts and disbursements, dividend sheet and disposition of unrealized property. (4) Approval of trustee’s final statement by inspectors - Before approving the final statement of receipts and disbursements of the trustee, the inspectors shall satisfy themselves that all the property has been accounted for and that the administration of the estate has been completed as far as can reasonably be done and shall determine whether or not the disbursements and expenses incurred are proper and have been duly authorized, and the fees and remuneration just and reasonable in the circumstances. (5) Inspectors’ expenses and fees - Each inspector (a)

may be repaid actual and necessary travel expenses incurred in relation to the performance of the inspector’s duties; and

(b)

may be paid such fees per meeting as are prescribed.

135

Ss. 120-122

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

(6) Special services - An inspector duly authorized by the creditors or by the other inspectors to perform special services for the estate may be allowed a special fee for those services, subject to approval of the court, which may vary that fee as it deems proper having regard to the nature of the services rendered in relation to the obligations of the inspector to the estate to act in good faith for the general interests of the administration of the estate. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 120; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 49; S.C. 2001, c. 4, s. 30; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 65 (F); S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 85.

Claims Provable 121. (1) Claims provable - All debts and liabilities, present or future, to which the bankrupt is subject on the day on which the bankrupt becomes bankrupt or to which the bankrupt may become subject before the bankrupt’s discharge by reason of any obligation incurred before the day on which the bankrupt becomes bankrupt shall be deemed to be claims provable in proceedings under this Act. (2) Contingent and unliquidated claims - The determination whether a contingent or unliquidated claim is a provable claim and the valuation of such a claim shall be made in accordance with section 135. (3) Debts payable at a future time - A creditor may prove a debt not payable at the date of the bankruptcy and may receive dividends equally with the other creditors, deducting only thereout a rebate of interest at the rate of five per cent per annum computed from the declaration of a dividend to the time when the debt would have become payable according to the terms on which it was contracted. (4) Family support claims - A claim in respect of a debt or liability referred to in paragraph 178(1)(b) or (c) payable under an order or agreement made before the date of the initial bankruptcy event in respect of the bankrupt and at a time when the spouse, former spouse, former common law partner or child was living apart from the bankrupt, whether the order or agreement provides for periodic amounts or lump sum amounts, is a claim provable under this Act. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 121; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 50; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 87; S.C. 2000, c. 12, s. 14. 122. (1) Claims provable in bankruptcy following proposal - The claims of creditors under a proposal are, in the event of the debtor subsequently becoming bankrupt, provable in the bankruptcy for the full amount of the claims less any dividends paid thereon pursuant to the proposal. (2) Interest - If interest on any debt or sum certain is provable under this Act but the rate of interest has not been agreed on, the creditor may prove interest at a rate not exceeding five per cent per annum to the date of the bankruptcy from the time the debt or sum was payable, if evidenced by a written document, or, if not so evidenced, from the time notice has been given the debtor of the interest claimed. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 122; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 66 (E).

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Ss. 123-126

123. Proof in respect of distinct contracts - Where a bankrupt was, at the date of the bankruptcy, liable in respect of distinct contracts as a member of two or more distinct firms, or as a sole contractor and also as member of a firm, the circumstance that the firms are in whole or in part composed of the same individuals, or that the sole contractor is also one of the joint contractors, shall not prevent proof, in respect of the contracts, against the properties respectively liable on the contracts. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 96.

Proof of Claims 124. (1) Creditors shall prove claims - Every creditor shall prove his claim, and a creditor who does not prove his claim is not entitled to share in any distribution that may be made. (2) Proof by delivery - A claim shall be proved by delivering to the trustee a proof of claim in the prescribed form. (3) Who may make proof of claims - The proof of claim may be made by the creditor himself or by a person authorized by him on behalf of the creditor, and, if made by a person so authorized, it shall state his authority and means of knowledge. (4) Shall refer to account - The proof of claim shall contain or refer to a statement of account showing the particulars of the claim and any counter-claim that the bankrupt may have to the knowledge of the creditor and shall specify the vouchers or other evidence, if any, by which it can be substantiated. (5) [Repealed] - [S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 86, effective September 18, 2009 (SI/2009-68)]. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 124; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 86. 125. Penalty for filing false claim - Where a creditor or other person in any proceedings under this Act files with the trustee a proof of claim containing any wilfully false statement or wilful misrepresentation, the court may, in addition to any other penalty provided in this Act, disallow the claim in whole or in part as the court in its discretion may see fit. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 97. 126. (1) Who may examine proofs - Every creditor who has filed a proof of claim is entitled to see and examine the proofs of other creditors. (2) Worker’s wage claims - Proofs of claims for wages of workers and others employed by the bankrupt may be made in one proof by the bankrupt, by someone on the bankrupt’s behalf, by a representative of a federal or provincial ministry responsible for labour matters, by a representative of a union representing workers and others employed by the bankrupt or by a court-appointed representative, and that proof is to be made by attaching to it a schedule setting out the names and addresses of the workers and others and the amounts severally due to them, but that proof does not disentitle any worker or other wage earner to file a separate proof on his or her own behalf. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 126; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 88; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 87(1) (E) and (2).

137

Ss. 127-130

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

Proof by Secured Creditors 127. (1) Proof by secured creditor - Where a secured creditor realizes his security, he may prove the balance due to him after deducting the net amount realized. (2) May prove whole claim on surrender - Where a secured creditor surrenders his security to the trustee for the general benefit of the creditors, he may prove his whole claim. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 127; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 67 (F). 128. (1) Proof may be requested - Where the trustee has knowledge of property that may be subject to a security, the trustee may, by serving notice in the prescribed form and manner, require any person to file, in the prescribed form and manner, a proof of the security that gives full particulars of the security, including the date on which the security was given and the value at which that person assesses it. (1.1) Where reply not received - Where the trustee serves a notice pursuant to subsection (1), and the person on whom the notice is served does not file a proof of security within thirty days after the day of service of the notice, the trustee may thereupon, with leave of the court, sell or dispose of any property that was subject to the security, free of that security. (2) Dividend on balance - A creditor is entitled to receive a dividend in respect only of the balance due to him after deducting the assessed value of his security. (3) Trustee may redeem security - The trustee may redeem a security on payment to the secured creditor of the debt or the value of the security as assessed, in the proof of security, by the secured creditor. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 128; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 51; S.C. 1999, c. 31, s. 25; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 68 (F). 129. (1) May order security to be sold - Where the trustee is dissatisfied with the value at which a security is assessed, the trustee may require that the property the security comprises be offered for sale at such time and on such terms and conditions as may be agreed on between the creditor and the trustee or, in default of such an agreement, as the court may direct. (2) Sale by public auction - Where a sale under subsection (1) is by public auction the creditor or the trustee on behalf of the estate may bid or purchase. (3) [Repealed] – [1992, c. 27, s. 52] (4) Costs of sale - The costs and expenses of a sale made under this section are in the discretion of the court. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 129; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 52; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 69 (F). 130. Creditor may require trustee to elect to exercise power - Notwithstanding subsection 128(3) and section 129, the creditor may, by notice in writing, require the trustee to elect whether he will exercise the power of redeeming the security or requiring it to be realized, and if the trustee does not, within one month after receiving the notice or such further time or times as the court may allow, signify in writing to the creditor his election to exercise the power, he is not entitled to exercise it, and the equity of redemption or any other interest in the

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Ss. 130-134

property comprised in the security that is vested in the trustee shall vest in the creditor, and the amount of his claim shall be reduced by the amount at which the security has been valued. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 101. 131. Amended valuation by creditor - Where a creditor after having valued his security subsequently realizes it, or it is realized under section 129, the net amount realized shall be substituted for the amount of any valuation previously made by the creditor and shall be treated in all respects as an amended valuation made by the creditor. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 102. 132. (1) Secured creditor may amend - Where the trustee has not elected to acquire the security as provided in this Act, a creditor may at any time amend the valuation and proof on showing to the satisfaction of the trustee or the court that the valuation and proof were made in good faith on a mistaken estimate or that the security has diminished or increased in value since its previous valuation. (2) Amendment at cost of creditor - An amendment pursuant to subsection (1) shall be made at the cost of the creditor and on such terms as the court orders, unless the trustee allows the amendment without application to the court. (3) Rights and liabilities of creditor where valuation amended - Where a valuation has been amended pursuant to this section, the creditor (a)

shall forthwith repay any surplus dividend that he may have received in excess of that to which he would have been entitled on the amended valuation; or

(b)

is entitled to be paid out of any money for the time being available for dividend any dividend or share of dividend that he may have failed to receive by reason of the amount of the original valuation before that money is made applicable to the payment of any future dividend, but he is not entitled to disturb the distribution of any dividend declared before the amendment is filed with the trustee.

R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 103. 133. Exclusion for non-compliance - Where a secured creditor does not comply with sections 127 to 132, he shall be excluded from any dividend. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 104. 134. No creditor to receive more than 100 cents in dollar - Subject to section 130, a creditor shall in no case receive more than one hundred cents on the dollar and interest as provided by this Act. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 105.

139

Ss. 135-136

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

Admission and Disallowance of Proofs of Claim and Proofs of Security 135. (1) Trustee shall examine proof - The trustee shall examine every proof of claim or proof of security and the grounds therefor and may require further evidence in support of the claim or security. (1.1) Determination of provable claims - The trustee shall determine whether any contingent claim or un-liquidated claim is a provable claim, and, if a provable claim, the trustee shall value it, and the claim is thereafter, subject to this section, deemed a proved claim to the amount of its valuation. (2) Disallowance by trustee - The trustee may disallow, in whole or in part, (a)

any claim;

(b)

any right to a priority under the applicable order of priority set out in this Act; or

(c)

any security.

(3) Notice of determination or disallowance - Where the trustee makes a determination under subsection (1.1) or, pursuant to subsection (2), disallows, in whole or in part, any claim, any right to a priority or any security, the trustee shall forthwith provide, in the prescribed manner, to the person whose claim was subject to a determination under subsection (1.1) or whose claim, right to a priority or security was disallowed under subsection (2), a notice in the prescribed form setting out the reasons for the determination or disallowance. (4) Determination or disallowance final and conclusive - A determination under subsection (1.1) or a disallowance referred to in subsection (2) is final and conclusive unless, within a thirty day period after the service of the notice referred to in subsection (3) or such further time as the court may on application made within that period allow, the person to whom the notice was provided appeals from the trustee’s decision to the court in accordance with the General Rules. (5) Expunge or reduce a proof - The court may expunge or reduce a proof of claim or a proof of security on the application of a creditor or of the debtor if the trustee declines to interfere in the matter. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 135; S.C. 1992, c. 1, s. 20, c. 27, s. 53; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 89.

Scheme of Distribution 136. (1) Priority of claims - Subject to the rights of secured creditors, the proceeds realized from the property of a bankrupt shall be applied in priority of payment as follows: (a)

in the case of a deceased bankrupt, the reasonable funeral and testamentary expenses incurred by the legal representative or, in the Province of Quebec, the successors or heirs of the deceased bankrupt;

(b)

the costs of administration, in the following order, (i)

the expenses and fees of any person acting under a direction made under paragraph 14.03(1)(a),

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(ii)

the expenses and fees of the trustee, and

(iii)

legal costs;

S. 136

(c)

the levy payable under section 147;

(d)

the amount of any wages, salaries, commissions, compensation or disbursements referred to in sections 81.3 and 81.4 that was not paid;

(d.01) the amount equal to the difference a secured creditor would have received but for the operation of sections 81.3 and 81.4 and the amount actually received by the secured creditor; (d.02) the amount equal to the difference a secured creditor would have received but for the operation of sections 81.5 and 81.6 and the amount actually received by the secured creditor; (d.1) claims in respect of debts or liabilities referred to in paragraph 178(1)(b) or (c), if provable by virtue of subsection 121(4), for periodic amounts accrued in the year before the date of the bankruptcy that are payable, plus any lump sum amount that is payable; (e)

municipal taxes assessed or levied against the bankrupt, within the two years immediately preceding the bankruptcy, that do not constitute a secured claim against the real property or immovables of the bankrupt, but not exceeding the value of the interest or, in the Province of Quebec, the value of the right of the bankrupt in the property in respect of which the taxes were imposed as declared by the trustee;

(f)

the lessor for arrears of rent for a period of three months immediately preceding the bankruptcy and accelerated rent for a period not exceeding three months following the bankruptcy if entitled to accelerated rent under the lease, but the total amount so payable shall not exceed the realization from the property on the premises under lease, and any payment made on account of accelerated rent shall be credited against the amount payable by the trustee for occupation rent;

(g)

the fees and costs referred to in subsection 70(2) but only to the extent of the realization from the property exigible thereunder;

(h)

in the case of a bankrupt who became bankrupt before the prescribed date, all indebtedness of the bankrupt under any Act respecting workers’ compensation, under any Act respecting unemployment insurance or under any provision of the Income Tax Act creating an obligation to pay to Her Majesty amounts that have been deducted or withheld, rateably;

(i)

claims resulting from injuries to employees of the bankrupt in respect of which the provisions of any Act respecting workers’ compensation do not apply, but only to the extent of moneys received from persons guaranteeing the bankrupt against damages resulting from those injuries; and

(j)

in the case of a bankrupt who became bankrupt before the prescribed date, claims of the Crown not mentioned in paragraphs (a) to (i), in right of Canada or any province, rateably notwithstanding any statutory preference to the contrary.

141

Ss. 136-142

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

(2) Payment as funds available - Subject to the retention of such sums as may be necessary for the costs of administration or otherwise, payment in accordance with subsection (1) shall be made as soon as funds are available for the purpose. (3) Balance of claim - A creditor whose rights are restricted by this section is entitled to rank as an unsecured creditor for any balance of claim due him. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 136; S.C. 1992, c. 1, s. 143 (E), c. 27, s. 54; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 90; S.C. 2001, c. 4, s. 31; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 70(1), (2) and (3) (E); S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 88. 137. (1) Postponement of claims - creditor not at arm’s length - A creditor who, at any time before the bankruptcy of a debtor, entered into a transaction with the debtor and who was not at arm’s length with the debtor at that time is not entitled to claim a dividend in respect of a claim arising out of that transaction until all claims of the other creditors have been satisfied, unless the transaction was in the opinion of the trustee or of the court a proper transaction. (2) [Repealed] - [S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 47, effective September 18, 2009 (SI/2009-68)]. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 137; S.C. 2000, c. 12, s. 15; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 89; S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 47. 138. [Repealed] - [S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 48, effective September 18, 2009 (SI/2009-68)]. 139. Postponement of claims of silent partners - Where a lender advances money to a borrower engaged or about to engage in trade or business under a contract with the borrower that the lender shall receive a rate of interest varying with the profits or shall receive a share of the profits arising from carrying on the trade or business, and the borrower subsequently becomes bankrupt, the lender of the money is not entitled to recover anything in respect of the loan until the claims of all other creditors of the borrower have been satisfied. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 110. 140. Postponement of wage claims of officers and directors - Where a corporation becomes bankrupt, no officer or director thereof is entitled to have his claim preferred as provided by section 136 in respect of wages, salary, commission or compensation for work done or services rendered to the corporation in any capacity. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 111. 140.1 Postponement of equity claims - A creditor is not entitled to a dividend in respect of an equity claim until all claims that are not equity claims have been satisfied. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 90 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 49. 141. Claims generally payable rateably - Subject to this Act, all claims proved in a bankruptcy shall be paid rateably. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 112. 142. (1) Partners and separate properties - Where partners become bankrupt, their joint property shall be applicable in the first instance in payment of their joint debts, and the

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Ss. 142-146

separate property of each partner shall be applicable in the first instance in payment of his separate debts. (2) Surplus of separate properties - Where there is a surplus of the separate properties of the partners, it shall be dealt with as part of the joint property. (3) Surplus of joint properties - Where there is a surplus of the joint property of the partners, it shall be dealt with as part of the respective separate properties in proportion to the right and interest of each partner in the joint property. (4) Different properties - Where a bankrupt owes or owed debts both individually and as a member of one or more partnerships, the claims shall rank first on the property of the individual or partnership by which the debts they represent were contracted and shall only rank on the other estate or estates after all the creditors of the other estate or estates have been paid in full. (5) Costs out of joint and separate properties - Where the joint property of any bankrupt partnership is insufficient to defray any costs properly incurred, the trustee may pay such costs as cannot be paid out of the joint property out of the separate property of the bankrupts or one or more of them in such proportion as he may determine, with the consent of the inspectors of the estates out of which the payment is intended to be made, or, if the inspectors withhold or refuse their consent, with the approval of the court. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 113. 143. Interest from date of bankruptcy - Where there is a surplus after payment of the claims as provided in sections 136 to 142, it shall be applied in payment of interest from the date of the bankruptcy at the rate of five per cent per annum on all claims proved in the bankruptcy and according to their priority. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 114. 144. Right of bankrupt to surplus - The bankrupt, or the legal personal representative or heirs of a deceased bankrupt, is entitled to any surplus remaining after payment in full of the bankrupt’s creditors with interest as provided by this Act and of the costs, charges and expenses of the bankruptcy proceedings. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 144; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 71. 145. Proceeds of liability insurance policy on motor vehicles - Nothing in this Act affects the right afforded by provincial statute of any person who has a claim against the bankrupt for damages on account of injury to or death of any person, or injury to property, occasioned by a motor vehicle, or on account of injury to property being carried in or on a motor vehicle, to have the proceeds of any liability insurance policy applied in or toward the satisfaction of the claim. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 116. 146. Application of provincial law to lessors’ rights - Subject to priority of ranking as provided by section 136 and subject to subsection 73(4) and section 84.1, the rights of lessors are to be determined according to the law of the province in which the leased premises are situated. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 146; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 72 (E); S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 50.

143

Ss. 147-149

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

147. (1) Levy payable out of dividends for supervision - For the purpose of defraying the expenses of the supervision by the Superintendent, there shall be payable to the Superintendent for deposit with the Receiver General a levy on all payments, except the costs referred to in subsection 70(2), made by the trustee by way of dividend or otherwise on account of the creditor’s claims, including Her Majesty in right of Canada or of a province claiming in respect of taxes or otherwise. (2) Rate of levy - The levy referred to in subsection (1) shall be at a rate to be fixed by the Governor in Council and shall be charged proportionately against all payments and deducted therefrom by the trustee before payment is made. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 147; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 91.

Dividends 148. (1) Trustee to pay dividends as required - Subject to the retention of such sums as may be necessary for the costs of administration or otherwise, the trustee shall, from time to time as required by the inspectors, declare and distribute dividends among the unsecured creditors entitled thereto. (2) Disputed claims - Where the validity of any claim has not been determined, the trustee shall retain sufficient funds to provide for payment thereof in the event that the claim is admitted. (3) No action for dividend - No action for a dividend lies against the trustee, but, if the trustee refuses or fails to pay any dividend after having been directed to do so by the inspectors, the court may, on the application of any creditor, order him to pay it, and also to pay personally interest thereon for the time that it is withheld and the costs of the application. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 119. 149. (1) Notice that final dividend will be made - The trustee may, after the first meeting of the creditors, send a notice, in the prescribed manner, to every person with a claim of which the trustee has notice or knowledge but whose claim has not been proved. The notice must inform the person that, if that person does not prove the claim within a period of 30 days after the sending of the notice, the trustee will proceed to declare a dividend or final dividend without regard to that person’s claim. (2) Court may extend time - Where a person notified under subsection (1) does not prove the claim within the time limit or within such further time as the court, on proof of merits and satisfactory explanation of the delay in making proof, may allow, the claim of that person shall, notwithstanding anything in this Act, be excluded from all share in any dividend, but a taxing authority may notify the trustee within the period referred to in subsection (1) that it proposes to file a claim as soon as the amount has been ascertained, and the time for filing the claim shall thereupon be extended to three months or such further time as the court may allow. (3) Certain federal claims - Despite subsection (2), a claim may be filed for an amount payable under the following Acts or provisions within the time limit referred to in subsection (2) - or within three months after the return of income or other evidence of the facts on which the claim is based is filed or comes to the attention of the Minister of National Revenue or, in the case of an amount payable under legislation referred to in paragraph (c), the minister in that province responsible for the legislation:

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Ss. 149-151

(a)

the Income Tax Act;

(b)

any provision of the Canada Pension Plan or Employment Insurance Act that refers to the Income Tax Act and provides for the collection of a contribution as defined in the Canada Pension Plan or an employee’s premium, or employer’s premium, as defined in the Employment Insurance Act, and of any related interest, penalties or other amounts;

(c)

any provincial legislation that has a purpose similar to the Income Tax Act, or that refers to that Act, to the extent that it provides for the collection of a sum, and of any related interest, penalties or other amounts, if the sum (i)

has been withheld or deducted by a person from a payment to another person and is in respect of a tax similar in nature to the income tax imposed on individuals under the Income Tax Act, or

(ii)

is of the same nature as a contribution under the Canada Pension Plan if the province is a “province providing a comprehensive pension plan” as defined in subsection 3(1) of the Canada Pension Plan and the provincial legislation establishes a “provincial pension plan” as defined in that subsection;

(d)

the Excise Tax Act;

(e)

the Excise Act, 2001;

(f)

the Customs Act; and

(g)

the Air Travellers Security Charge Act.

(4) No dividend allowed - Unless the trustee retains sufficient funds to provide for payment of any claims that may be filed under legislation referred to in subsection (3), no dividend is to be declared until the expiry of three months after the trustee has filed all returns that the trustee is required to file. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 149; S.C. 1992, c. 1, s. 20; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 91; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 92 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 51. 150. Right of creditor who has not proved claim before declaration of dividend - A creditor who has not proved his claim before the declaration of any dividend is entitled on proof of his claim to be paid, out of any money for the time being in the hands of the trustee, any dividend or dividends he may have failed to receive before that money is applied to the payment of any future dividend, but he is not entitled to disturb the distribution of any dividend declared before his claim was proved for the reason that he has not participated therein, except on such terms and conditions as may be ordered by the court. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 121. 151. Final dividend and division of estate - When the trustee has realized all the property of the bankrupt or all thereof that can, in the joint opinion of himself and of the inspectors, be realized without needlessly protracting the administration, and settled or determined or caused to be settled or determined the claims of all creditors to rank against the estate of the bankrupt,

145

Ss. 151-152

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

he shall prepare a final statement of receipts and disbursements and dividend sheet and, subject to this Act, divide the property of the bankrupt among the creditors who have proved their claims. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 122. 152. (1) Statement of receipts and disbursements - The trustee’s final statement of receipts and disbursements shall contain (a)

(b)

a complete account of (i)

all moneys received by the trustee out of the bankrupt’s property or otherwise,

(ii)

the amount of interest received by the trustee,

(iii)

all moneys disbursed and expenses incurred by the trustee,

(iv)

all moneys disbursed by the trustee for services provided by persons related to the trustee, and

(v)

the remuneration claimed by the trustee; and

full particulars of, and a description and value of, all the bankrupt’s property that has not been sold or realized together with the reason why it has not been sold or realized and the disposition made of that property.

(2) Prescribed form - The statement referred to in subsection (1) shall be prepared in the prescribed form or as near thereto as the circumstances of the case will permit and together with the dividend sheet shall be submitted to the inspectors for their approval. (3) Copy to Superintendent - The trustee shall forward a copy of the statement and dividend sheet to the Superintendent after they have been approved by the inspectors. (4) Superintendent may comment - The Superintendent may comment as he sees fit and his comments shall be placed by the trustee before the taxing officer for his consideration on the taxation of the trustee’s accounts. (5) Notice of final dividend, etc. - After the Superintendent has commented on the taxation of the trustee’s accounts or advised the trustee that the Superintendent has no comments to make and the trustee’s accounts have been taxed, the trustee shall send, in the prescribed manner, to every creditor whose claim has been proved, to the registrar, to the Superintendent and to the bankrupt (a)

a copy of the final statement of receipts and disbursements;

(b)

a copy of the dividend sheet; and

(c)

a notice, in the prescribed form, of the trustee’s intention to pay a final dividend after the expiry of 15 days from the sending of the notice, statement and dividend sheet and to apply to the court for his or her discharge on a subsequent date that is not less than 30 days after the payment of the dividend.

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Ss. 152-155

(6) Objections - No interested person is entitled to object to the final statement and the dividend sheet unless, prior to the expiration of the fifteen days referred to in paragraph (5)(c), that person files notice of his objection with the registrar setting out his reasons therefor and serves a copy of the notice on the trustee. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 152; S.C. 1992, c. 1, s. 20, c. 27, s. 55; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 93. 153. Dividends on joint and separate properties - Where joint and separate properties are being administered, the dividends may be declared together, and the expenses thereof shall be apportioned by the trustee. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 124. 154. (1) Unclaimed dividends and undistributed funds - Before proceeding to discharge, the trustee shall forward to the Superintendent for deposit, according to the directives of the Superintendent, with the Receiver General the unclaimed dividends and undistributed funds that the trustee possesses, other than those exempted by the General Rules, and shall provide a list of the names and the post office addresses, in so far as known, of the creditors entitled to the unclaimed dividends, showing the amount payable to each creditor. (2) Receiver General to pay claims - The Receiver General shall, after receiving the dividends and funds and the list referred to in subsection (1), on application, pay to any creditor his proper dividend as shown on that list, and such payment has effect as if made by the trustee. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 154; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 56.

Summary Administrations 155. Summary administration - The following provisions apply to the summary administration of estates under this Act: (a)

all proceedings under this section shall be entitled “Summary Administration”;

(b)

the security to be deposited by a trustee under section 16 shall not be required unless directed by the official receiver;

(b.1) [Repealed] – [1992, c. 1, s. 161] (c)

a notice of the bankruptcy shall not be published in a local newspaper unless such publication is deemed expedient by the trustee or ordered by the court;

(d)

all notices, statements and other documents shall be sent in the prescribed manner;

(d.1) if a first meeting of the creditors is requested by the official receiver or by creditors who have in the aggregate at least 25% in value of the proven claims, the trustee shall call the meeting, in the prescribed form and manner, and it must be held within 21 days after being called; (e)

there shall be no inspectors unless the creditors decide to appoint them, and if no inspectors are appointed, the trustee, in the absence of directions from the

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creditors, may do all things that may ordinarily be done by the trustee with the permission of the inspectors; (f)

in such circumstances as are specified in directives of the Superintendent, the estates of individuals who, because of their relationship, could reasonably be dealt with as one estate may be dealt with as one estate;

(g)

in such circumstances as are specified in directives of the Superintendent and with the approval of the Superintendent, the trustee may deposit all moneys relating to the summary administration of estates in a single trust account;

(h)

a notice of bankruptcy and (i)

a notice of impending automatic discharge of the bankrupt, or

(ii)

an application for discharge of the bankrupt

may be given in a single notice in the prescribed form; (i)

notwithstanding section 152, the procedure respecting the trustee’s accounts, including the taxation thereof shall be as prescribed;

(j)

notwithstanding subsections 41(1), (5) and (6), the procedure for the trustee’s discharge shall be as prescribed; and

(k)

the court’s authorization referred to in subsection 30(4) for a sale or disposal of any of the bankrupt’s property to a person who is related to the bankrupt is required only if the creditors decide that the authorization is required.

R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 155; S.C. 1992, c. 1, ss. 16, 161, c. 27, s. 57; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 92; S.C. 1999, c. 31, s. 26; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 94. 156. Fees and disbursements of trustee - The trustee shall receive such fees and disbursements as may be prescribed. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 127. 156.1 Agreement to pay fees and disbursements - An individual bankrupt who has never before been bankrupt under the laws of Canada or of any prescribed jurisdiction and who is not required to make payments under section 68 to the estate of the bankrupt may enter into an agreement with the trustee to pay the trustee’s fees and disbursements if the total amount required to be paid under the agreement is not more than the prescribed amount and that total amount is to be paid before the expiry of the 12-month period after the bankrupt’s discharge. The agreement may be enforced after the bankrupt’s discharge. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 95. 157. All other provisions of Act to apply - Except as provided in section 155, all the provisions of this Act, in so far as they are applicable, apply with such modifications as the circumstances require to summary administration. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 128.

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Ss. 157-158

PART VI — BANKRUPTS Counselling Services 157.1 (1) Counselling - The trustee (a)

shall provide, or provide for, counselling for an individual bankrupt, and

(b)

may provide, or provide for, counselling for a person who, as specified in directives of the Superintendent, is financially associated with an individual bankrupt,

in accordance with directives issued by the Superintendent pursuant to paragraph 5(4)(b), and the estate of the bankrupt shall pay the costs of the counselling, as costs of administration of the estate, according to the prescribed tariff. (2) Idem - Where counselling is provided by a trustee to a debtor who is not a bankrupt, that counselling must be provided in accordance with directives issued by the Superintendent pursuant to paragraph 5(4)(b). (3) Effect on automatic discharge - Subsection 168.1(1) does not apply to an individual bankrupt who has refused or neglected to receive counselling under subsection (1). S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 58; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 93; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 96.

Duties of Bankrupts 158. Duties of bankrupt - A bankrupt shall (a)

make discovery of and deliver all his property that is under his possession or control to the trustee or to any person authorized by the trustee to take possession of it or any part thereof;

(a.1) in such circumstances as are specified in directives of the Superintendent, deliver to the trustee, for cancellation, all credit cards issued to and in the possession or control of the bankrupt; (b)

deliver to the trustee all books, records, documents, writings and papers including, without restricting the generality of the foregoing, title papers, insurance policies and tax records and returns and copies thereof in any way relating to his property or affairs;

(c)

at such time and place as may be fixed by the official receiver, attend before the official receiver or before any other official receiver delegated by the official receiver for examination under oath with respect to his conduct, the causes of his bankruptcy and the disposition of his property;

(d)

within five days following the bankruptcy, unless the time is extended by the official receiver, prepare and submit to the trustee in quadruplicate a statement of the bankrupt’s affairs in the prescribed form verified by affidavit and showing the particulars of the bankrupt’s assets and liabilities, the names and addresses of the bankrupt’s creditors, the securities held by them respectively, the dates when the securities were respectively given and such further or other information as may be

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required, but where the affairs of the bankrupt are so involved or complicated that the bankrupt alone cannot reasonably prepare a proper statement of affairs, the official receiver may, as an expense of the administration of the estate, authorize the employment of a qualified person to assist in the preparation of the statement; (e)

make or give all the assistance within his power to the trustee in making an inventory of his assets;

(f)

make disclosure to the trustee of all property disposed of within the period beginning on the day that is one year before the date of the initial bankruptcy event or beginning on such other antecedent date as the court may direct, and ending on the date of the bankruptcy, both dates included, and how and to whom and for what consideration any part thereof was disposed of except such part as had been disposed of in the ordinary manner of trade or used for reasonable personal expenses;

(g)

make disclosure to the trustee of all property disposed of by gift or settlement without adequate valuable consideration within the period beginning on the day that is five years before the date of the initial bankruptcy event and ending on the date of the bankruptcy, both dates included;

(h)

attend the first meeting of his creditors unless prevented by sickness or other sufficient cause and submit thereat to examination;

(i)

when required, attend other meetings of his creditors or of the inspectors, or attend on the trustee;

(j)

submit to such other examinations under oath with respect to his property or affairs as required;

(k)

aid to the utmost of his power in the realization of his property and the distribution of the proceeds among his creditors;

(l)

execute any powers of attorney, transfers, deeds and instruments or acts that may be required;

(m)

examine the correctness of all proofs of claims filed, if required by the trustee;

(n)

in case any person has to his knowledge filed a false claim, disclose the fact immediately to the trustee;

(n.1) inform the trustee of any material change in the bankrupt’s financial situation; (o)

generally do all such acts and things in relation to his property and the distribution of the proceeds among his creditors as may be reasonably required by the trustee, or may be prescribed by the General Rules, or may be directed by the court by any special order made with reference to any particular case or made on the occasion of any special application by the trustee, or any creditor or person interested; and

(p)

until his application for discharge has been disposed of and the administration of the estate completed, keep the trustee advised at all times of his place of residence or address.

R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 158; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 59; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 94; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 73.

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Ss. 159-161

159. Where bankrupt is a corporation - Where a bankrupt is a corporation, the officer executing the assignment, or such (a)

officer of the corporation, or

(b)

person who has, or has had, directly or indirectly, control in fact of the corporation as the official receiver may specify, shall attend before the official receiver for examination and shall perform all of the duties imposed on a bankrupt by section 158, and, in case of failure to do so, the officer or person is punishable as though that officer or person were the bankrupt.

R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 159; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 60. 160. Performance of duties by imprisoned bankrupt - If a bankrupt is undergoing imprisonment, the court may, in order to enable the bankrupt to attend in court in bankruptcy proceedings at which the bankrupt’s personal presence is required, to attend the first meeting of creditors or to perform the duties required of the bankrupt under this Act, direct that the bankrupt be produced in the protective custody of an executing officer or other duly authorized officer at any time and place that may be designated, or it may make any other order that it deems proper and requisite in the circumstances. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 160; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 74 (E).

Examination of Bankrupts and Others 161. (1) Examination of bankrupt by official receiver - Before a bankrupt’s discharge, the official receiver shall, on the attendance of the bankrupt, examine the bankrupt under oath with respect to the bankrupt’s conduct, the causes of the bankruptcy and the disposition of the bankrupt’s property and shall put to the bankrupt the prescribed question or questions to the like effect and such other questions as the official receiver may see fit. (2) Record of examination - The official receiver shall make a record of the examination and shall forward a copy of the record to the Superintendent and the trustee. (2.1) Record of examination available to creditors on request - If the examination is held (a)

before the first meeting of creditors, the record of the examination shall be communicated to the creditors at the meeting; or

(b)

after the first meeting of creditors, the record of examination shall be made available to any creditor who requests it.

(3) Examination before another official receiver - When the official receiver deems it expedient, the official receiver may authorize an examination to be held before any other official receiver. (4) Official receiver to report failure to attend - Where a bankrupt fails to present himself for examination by the official receiver, the official receiver shall so report to the first meeting of creditors. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 161; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 95; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 75 (F); S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 97.

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162. (1) Inquiry by official receiver - The official receiver may, and on the direction of the Superintendent shall, make or cause to be made any inquiry or investigation that may be deemed necessary in respect of the conduct of the bankrupt, the causes of his bankruptcy and the disposition of his property, and the official receiver shall report the findings on any such inquiry or investigation to the Superintendent, the trustee and the court. (2) [Repealed] - [S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 98, effective September 18, 2009 (SI/2009-68)]. (3) Application of section 164 - Section 164 applies in respect of an inquiry or investigation under subsection (1). R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 162; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 76 (F); S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 98. 163. (1) Examination of bankrupt and others by trustee - The trustee, on ordinary resolution passed by the creditors or on the written request or resolution of a majority of the inspectors, may, without an order, examine under oath before the registrar of the court or other authorized person, the bankrupt, any person reasonably thought to have knowledge of the affairs of the bankrupt or any person who is or has been an agent or a mandatary, or a clerk, a servant, an officer, a director or an employee of the bankrupt, respecting the bankrupt or the bankrupt’s dealings or property and may order any person liable to be so examined to produce any books, documents, correspondence or papers in that person’s possession or power relating in all or in part to the bankrupt or the bankrupt’s dealings or property. (2) Examination of bankrupt, trustee and others by a creditor - On the application to the court by the Superintendent, any creditor or other interested person and on sufficient cause being shown, an order may be made for the examination under oath, before the registrar or other authorized person, of the trustee, the bankrupt, an inspector or a creditor, or any other person named in the order, for the purpose of investigating the administration of the estate of any bankrupt, and the court may further order any person liable to be so examined to produce any books, documents, correspondence or papers in the person’s possession or power relating in all or in part to the bankrupt, the trustee or any creditor, the costs of the examination and investigation to be in the discretion of the court. (3) Examination to be filed - The evidence of any person examined under this section shall, if transcribed, be filed in the court and may be read in any proceedings before the court under this Act to which the person examined is a party. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 163; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 96; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 77 (E). 164. (1) Trustee may require books and property of bankrupt to be produced - Where a person has, or is believed or suspected to have, in his possession or power any of the property of the bankrupt, or any book, document or paper of any kind relating in whole or in part to the bankrupt, his dealings or property, or showing that he is indebted to the bankrupt, he may be required by the trustee to produce the book, document or paper for the information of the trustee, or to deliver to him any property of the bankrupt in his possession. (2) Examination on failure to produce - Where a person fails to produce a book, document or paper or to deliver property as required by this section within five days after being required to do so, the trustee may, without an order, examine the person before the registrar of the court or other authorized person concerning the property, book, document or paper that the person is supposed to possess.

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Ss. 164-168

(3) Compelling attendance - Any person referred to in subsection (1) may be compelled to attend and testify, and to produce on his examination any book, document or paper that under this section he is liable to produce, in the same manner and subject to the same rules of examination, and the same consequences of neglecting to attend or refusing to disclose the matters in respect of which he may be examined, as would apply to a bankrupt. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 164; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 97; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 78 (F). 165. (1) Admission of debt - Where a person on examination admits that he is indebted to the bankrupt, the court may, on the application of the trustee, order him to pay to the trustee, at such time and in such manner as to the court seems expedient, the amount admitted or any part thereof either in full discharge of the whole amount in question or not, as the court thinks fit, with or without costs of the examination. (2) Admission of having bankrupt’s property - Where any person on examination admits that he has in his possession any property belonging to the bankrupt, the court may, on the application of the trustee, order him to deliver to the trustee the property or any part thereof at such time, in such manner and on such terms as to the court may seem just. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 135. 166. Penalty for failure to attend for examination - If the bankrupt fails to present himself or herself for examination before the official receiver as required by paragraph 158(c) or if the bankrupt or any other person is served with an appointment or a summons to attend for examination and is paid or tendered the proper conduct money and witness fees as fixed by the General Rules but refuses or neglects to attend as required by the appointment or summons, the court may, on the application of the trustee or the official receiver, by warrant cause the bankrupt or other person so in default to be apprehended and brought up for examination. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 166; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 99. 167. Questions must be answered - Any person being examined is bound to answer all questions relating to the business or property of the bankrupt, to the causes of his bankruptcy and the disposition of his property. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 167; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 79 (F).

Arrest of Bankrupts 168. (1) Arrest of bankrupts under certain circumstances - The court may by warrant cause a bankrupt to be arrested, and any books, papers and property in his possession to be seized, and the bankrupt, books, papers and property to be safely kept as directed until such time as the court may order, under the following circumstances: (a)

if, after the filing of a bankruptcy application against the bankrupt, it appears to the court that there are grounds for believing that the bankrupt has absconded or is about to abscond from Canada with a view of avoiding payment of the debt in respect of which the bankruptcy application was filed, of avoiding appearance to the application, of avoiding examination in respect of their affairs or of otherwise avoiding, delaying or embarrassing proceedings in bankruptcy against them;

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Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

(b)

if, after making an assignment, it appears to the court that there are grounds for believing that the bankrupt has absconded or is about to abscond from Canada with a view of avoiding payment of his debts or of avoiding examination in respect of his affairs;

(c)

if, after the filing of a bankruptcy application or an assignment, it appears to the court that there are reasonable grounds for believing that the bankrupt (i)

is about to remove their property with a view to preventing or delaying possession being taken of it by the trustee, or

(ii)

has concealed or is about to conceal or destroy any of their property or any books, documents or writings that might be of use to the trustee or to the creditors of the bankrupt in the course of the bankruptcy proceedings;

(d)

if the bankrupt removes any property in their possession above the value of twenty-five dollars without leave of the court after service of a bankruptcy application, or without leave of the trustee after an assignment has been made; or

(e)

if, after the commencement of proceedings under this Act, he has failed to obey an order of the court.

(2) Payments after arrest - No payment or proposal made or security given after arrest made under this section is exempt from the provisions of this Act relating to fraudulent preferences. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 168; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 80.

Discharge of Bankrupts 168.1 (1) Automatic discharge - Subject to subsections (2) and 157.1(3), the following provisions apply in respect of an individual bankrupt other than a bankrupt referred to in subsection 172.1(1): (a)

(b)

in the case of a bankrupt who has never before been bankrupt under the laws of Canada or of any prescribed jurisdiction, the bankrupt is automatically discharged (i)

on the expiry of 9 months after the date of bankruptcy unless, in that 9month period, an opposition to the discharge has been filed or the bankrupt has been required to make payments under section 68 to the estate of the bankrupt, or

(ii)

on the expiry of 21 months after the date of bankruptcy unless an opposition to the discharge has been filed before the automatic discharge takes effect; and

in the case of a bankrupt who has been a bankrupt one time before under the laws of Canada or of any prescribed jurisdiction, the bankrupt is automatically discharged (i)

on the expiry of 24 months after the date of bankruptcy unless, in that 24month period, an opposition to the discharge has been filed or the bankrupt has been required to make payments under section 68 to the estate of the bankrupt, or

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(ii)

S. 168

on the expiry of 36 months after the date of bankruptcy unless an opposition to the discharge has been filed before the automatic discharge takes effect.

(2) Application not precluded - Nothing in subsection (1) precludes a bankrupt from applying to the court for a discharge before the bankrupt would otherwise be automatically discharged, and that subsection ceases to apply to a bankrupt who makes such an application. (3) Application of other provisions - The provisions of this Act concerning the discharge of bankrupts apply in respect of an individual bankrupt who has never before been bankrupt under the laws of Canada or of any prescribed jurisdiction, to the extent that those provisions are not inconsistent with this section, whether or not the bankrupt applies to the court for a discharge referred to in subsection (2). (4) Notice of impending discharge - The trustee shall, not less than 15 days before the date of a bankrupt’s automatic discharge, give notice of the impending discharge, in the prescribed form, to the Superintendent, the bankrupt and every creditor who has proved a claim, at the creditor’s latest known address. (5) Effect of automatic discharge - An automatic discharge is deemed, for all purposes, to be an absolute and immediate order of discharge. (6) Certificate - Without delay after a bankrupt has been automatically discharged, the trustee shall issue a certificate to the discharged bankrupt, in the prescribed form, declaring that the bankrupt is discharged and is released from all debts except those matters referred to in subsection 178(1). The trustee shall send a copy of the certificate to the Superintendent. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 61; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 98; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 81; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 100. 168.2 (1) Oppositions to automatic discharge - The following provisions apply in respect of oppositions to the automatic discharge of an individual bankrupt: (a)

if the Superintendent opposes the discharge, the Superintendent must give notice of the opposition, together with the grounds for it, to the trustee and to the bankrupt before the automatic discharge would otherwise take effect;

(b)

if a creditor opposes the discharge, the creditor must give notice of the opposition, together with the grounds for it, to the Superintendent, to the trustee and to the bankrupt before the automatic discharge would otherwise take effect; and

(c)

if the trustee opposes the discharge, the trustee must give notice of the opposition in the prescribed form and manner, together with the grounds for the opposition, to the bankrupt and the Superintendent before the automatic discharge would otherwise take effect.

(2) Application for hearing - If the Superintendent, a creditor or the trustee opposes the automatic discharge of an individual bankrupt, the trustee shall, unless the matter is to be dealt with by mediation under section 170.1, apply without delay to the court for an appointment for the hearing of the opposition in the manner referred to in sections 169 to 176, and the hearing must be held (a)

within 30 days after the day on which the appointment is made; or

(b)

at any later time that may be fixed by the court at the bankrupt’s or trustee’s request.

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S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 100. 169. (1) Bankruptcy to operate as application for discharge - The making of a bankruptcy order against, or an assignment by, a person other than a corporation or an individual in respect of whom subsection 168.1(1) applies operates as an application for discharge. (2) Appointment to be obtained by trustee - The trustee, before proceeding to his or her discharge and in any case not earlier than three months and not later than one year after the bankruptcy of a person for whom there is an application for discharge by virtue of subsection (1) shall, on five days notice to the bankrupt, apply to the court for an appointment for a hearing of the application for the bankrupt’s discharge, and the hearing must be held within 30 days after the day on which the appointment is made or at any other time that may be fixed by the court at the bankrupt’s or trustee’s request. (3) [Repealed] - [S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 101(1), effective September 18, 2009 (SI/2009-68)]. (4) Bankrupt corporation - A bankrupt corporation may not apply for a discharge unless it has satisfied the claims of its creditors in full. (5) Fees and disbursements of trustee - The court may, before issuing an appointment for hearing on application for discharge, if requested by the trustee, require such funds to be deposited with, or such guarantee to be given to, the trustee, as it deems proper, for the payment of his fees and disbursements incurred in respect of the application. (6) Notice to creditors - The trustee, on obtaining or being served with an appointment for hearing an application for discharge, shall, not less than 15 days before the day appointed for the hearing of the application, send a notice of the hearing, in the prescribed form and manner, to the Superintendent, the bankrupt and every known creditor, at the creditor’s latest known address. (7) Procedure when trustee not available - Where the trustee is not available to perform the duties required of a trustee on the application of a bankrupt for a discharge, the court may authorize any other person to perform such duties and may give such directions as it deems necessary to enable the application of the bankrupt to be brought before the court. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 169; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 62; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 99; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 82; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 101(1), (2) (F) and (3). 170. (1) Trustee to prepare report - The trustee shall, in the prescribed circumstances and at the prescribed times, prepare a report, in the prescribed form, with respect to (a)

the affairs of the bankrupt,

(b)

the causes of his bankruptcy,

(c)

the manner in which the bankrupt has performed the duties imposed on him under this Act or obeyed the orders of the court,

(d)

the conduct of the bankrupt both before and after the date of the initial bankruptcy event,

(e)

whether the bankrupt has been convicted of any offence under this Act, and

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(f)

S. 170

any other fact, matter or circumstance that would justify the court in refusing an unconditional order of discharge, and the report shall be accompanied by a resolution of the inspectors declaring whether or not they approve or disapprove of the report, and in the latter case the reasons of the disapproval shall be given.

(2) Filing and service of report - Where an application of a bankrupt for a discharge is pending, the trustee shall file the report prepared under subsection (1) in the court not less than two days, and forward a copy thereof to the Superintendent, to the bankrupt and to each creditor who requested a copy not less than ten days, before the day appointed for hearing the application, and in all other cases the trustee, before proceeding to the discharge, shall file the report in the court and forward a copy to the Superintendent. (3) Superintendent may file report - The Superintendent may make such further or other report to the court as he deems expedient or as in his opinion ought to be before the court on the application referred to in subsection (2). (4) Representation by counsel - The trustee or any creditor may attend the court and be heard in person or by counsel. (5) Evidence at hearing - For the purposes of the application referred to in subsection (2), the report of the trustee is evidence of the statements therein contained. (6) Right of bankrupt to oppose statements in report - Where a bankrupt intends to dispute any statement contained in the trustee’s report prepared under subsection (1), the bankrupt shall at or before the time appointed for hearing the application for discharge give notice in writing to the trustee specifying the statements in the report that he proposes at the hearing to dispute. (7) Right of creditors to oppose - A creditor who intends to oppose the discharge of a bankrupt on grounds other than those mentioned in the trustee’s report shall give notice of the intended opposition, stating the grounds thereof to the trustee and to the bankrupt at or before the time appointed for the hearing of the application for discharge. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 170; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 100; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 102. 170.1 (1) Mediation required paragraphs 173(1)(m) and (n) - If the discharge of a bankrupt individual is opposed by a creditor or the trustee solely on grounds referred to in either one or both of paragraphs 173(1)(m) and (n), the trustee shall send an application for mediation, in the prescribed form, to the official receiver within five days after the day on which the bankrupt would have been automatically discharged had the opposition not been filed or within any further time after that day that the official receiver may allow. (2) Mediation procedure - A mediation is to be in accordance with prescribed procedures. (3) Court hearing - If the issues submitted to mediation are not resolved by the mediation or the bankrupt failed to comply with conditions that were established as a result of the mediation, the trustee shall without delay apply to the court for an appointment for the hearing of the matter - and the provisions of this Part relating to applications to the court in relation to the discharge of a bankrupt apply, with any modifications that the circumstances require, in respect of an application to the court under this subsection - which hearing is to be held (a)

within 30 days after the day on which the appointment is made; or

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Ss. 170-171

(b)

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

at a later time that is fixed by the court.

(4) Certificate of discharge - If the bankrupt complies with the conditions that were established as a result of the mediation, the trustee shall without delay (a)

issue to the bankrupt a certificate of discharge in the prescribed form releasing the bankrupt from their debts other than those referred to in subsection 178(1); and

(b)

send a copy of the certificate of discharge to the Superintendent.

(5) File - Documents contained in a file on the mediation of a matter form part of the records referred to in subsection 11.1(2). S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 101; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 103 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 100. 171. (1) Trustee’s report - On a request therefor by the Superintendent the trustee shall, within two months after the trustee’s appointment or within such longer period as the Superintendent may allow, prepare in the prescribed form and file with the Superintendent a report setting out the following information: (a)

the name of the debtor and, where the debtor is a corporation, the names and addresses of the directors and officers of the corporation and, when applicable, the names of the persons who in the opinion of the trustee actively controlled the dayto-day operations of the corporation or the business of the debtor or who in the opinion of the trustee were responsible for the greater proportion of the debtor’s liabilities or under whose directions in the opinion of the trustee the greater proportion of the debtor’s liabilities were incurred;

(b)

whether in the opinion of the trustee the deficiency between the assets and the liabilities of the debtor has been satisfactorily accounted for or, if not, whether there is evidence of a substantial disappearance of property that is not accounted for;

(c)

a statement of opinion by the trustee with respect to the probable causes of the bankruptcy, arrived at after consultation with the inspectors and other persons, which shall be expressed as resulting from one or more of the probable causes in the following enumeration: (i)

misfortune,

(ii)

inexperience,

(iii)

incompetence,

(iv)

carelessness,

(v)

over-expansion,

(vi)

unwarranted speculation,

(vii)

gross negligence,

(viii)

fraud, and

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(ix) (d)

Ss. 171-172

other probable cause (to be specified); and

a statement of the facts and information on which the trustee relied in arriving at the opinion expressed pursuant to paragraphs (b) and (c).

(2) Report to persons concerned - A separate report containing only the information to be given to the Superintendent pursuant to paragraphs (1)(a) and (b) shall be immediately prepared in the prescribed form by the trustee and a copy thereof shall be sent, by prepaid registered or certified mail in an envelope marked “private and confidential”, to each of the persons named pursuant to paragraphs (1)(a) and (b) in the report to the Superintendent. (3) Report to official receiver - After the expiration of two months from the date of filing the report with the Superintendent and not later than three months after that date, the trustee shall file with the official receiver the report prepared pursuant to subsection (2). (4) Application to court regarding report - Notwithstanding subsection (3), where before he has filed his report with the official receiver pursuant to that subsection, the trustee is served with a copy of an application to the court, by any of the persons named pursuant to paragraphs (1)(a) and (b) in the report prepared pursuant to subsection (2), to have that report altered in any manner or to dispense with the requirements of subsection (3), the trustee shall not file the report under subsection (3) except as may be directed by the court. (5) Altering report to Superintendent - Where the report to be filed under subsection (3) has been altered in any respect on the direction of the court, the trustee shall inform the Superintendent of any alteration so made, and the Superintendent shall alter the report made to him by the trustee accordingly. (6) Exoneration from liability - The trustee is not liable for any statements made or opinions expressed by him in good faith and made or purporting to be made by him pursuant to this section, nor is any person liable for publishing, or referring to any matters contained in, the report of the trustee to the official receiver if the publication or reference is made after the filing of the report with the official receiver. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 171; S.C. 1992, c. 1, s. 20, c. 27, s. 63; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 102. 172. (1) Court may grant or refuse discharge - On the hearing of an application of a bankrupt for a discharge, other than a bankrupt referred to in section 172.1, the court may (a)

grant or refuse an absolute order of discharge;

(b)

suspend the operation of an absolute order of discharge for a specified time; or

(c)

grant an order of discharge subject to any terms or conditions with respect to any earnings or income that may afterwards become due to the bankrupt or with respect to the bankrupt’s after-acquired property.

(2) Powers of court to refuse or suspend discharge or grant conditional discharge - The court shall, on proof of any of the facts referred to in section 173, which proof may be given orally under oath, by affidavit or otherwise, (a)

refuse the discharge of a bankrupt;

(b)

suspend the discharge for such period as the court thinks proper; or

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require the bankrupt, as a condition of his discharge, to perform such acts, pay such moneys, consent to such judgments or comply with such other terms as the court may direct.

(3) Court may modify after year - Where at any time after the expiration of one year after the date of any order made under this section the bankrupt satisfies the court that there is no reasonable probability of his being in a position to comply with the terms of the order, the court may modify the terms of the order or of any substituted order, in such manner and on such conditions as it may think fit. (4) Power to suspend - The powers of suspending and of attaching conditions to the discharge of a bankrupt may be exercised concurrently. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 142; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 104 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, ss. 52 and 101. 172.1 (1) Exception - personal income tax debtors - In the case of a bankrupt who has $200,000 or more of personal income tax debt and whose personal income tax debt represents 75% or more of the bankrupt’s total unsecured proven claims, the hearing of an application for a discharge may not be held before the expiry of (a)

(b)

(c)

if the bankrupt has never before been bankrupt under the laws of Canada or of any prescribed jurisdiction, (i)

9 months after the date of bankruptcy if the bankrupt has not been required to make payments under section 68 to the estate of the bankrupt at any time during those 9 months, or

(ii)

21 months after the date of bankruptcy, in any other case;

if the bankrupt has been a bankrupt one time before under the laws of Canada or of any prescribed jurisdiction, (i)

24 months after the date of bankruptcy if the bankrupt has not been required to make payments under section 68 to the estate of the bankrupt at any time during those 24 months, or

(ii)

36 months after the date of bankruptcy, in any other case; and

in the case of any other bankrupt, 36 months after the date of the bankruptcy.

(2) Appointment to be obtained by trustee - Before proceeding to the trustee’s discharge and before the first day that the hearing could be held in respect of a bankrupt referred to in subsection (1), the trustee must, on five days notice to the bankrupt, apply to the court for an appointment for a hearing of the application for the bankrupt’s discharge. (3) Powers of court to refuse or suspend discharge or grant conditional discharge - On the hearing of an application for a discharge referred to in subsection (1), the court shall, subject to subsection (4), (a)

refuse the discharge;

(b)

suspend the discharge for any period that the court thinks proper; or

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(c)

Ss. 172-173

require the bankrupt, as a condition of his or her discharge, to perform any acts, pay any moneys, consent to any judgments or comply with any other terms that the court may direct.

(4) Factors to be considered - In making a decision in respect of the application, the court must take into account (a)

the circumstances of the bankrupt at the time the personal income tax debt was incurred;

(b)

the efforts, if any, made by the bankrupt to pay the personal income tax debt;

(c)

whether the bankrupt made payments in respect of other debts while failing to make reasonable efforts to pay the personal income tax debt; and

(d)

the bankrupt’s financial prospects for the future.

(5) Requirements if discharge suspended - If the court makes an order suspending the discharge, the court shall, in the order, require the bankrupt to file income and expense statements with the trustee each month and to file all returns of income required by law to be filed. (6) Court may modify after year - If, at any time after the expiry of one year after the day on which any order is made under this section, the bankrupt satisfies the court that there is no reasonable probability that he or she will be in a position to comply with the terms of the order, the court may modify the terms of the order or of any substituted order, in any manner and on any conditions that it thinks fit. (7) Power to suspend - The powers of suspending and of attaching conditions to the discharge of a bankrupt may be exercised concurrently. (8) Meaning of “personal income tax debt” - For the purpose of this section, “personal income tax debt” means the amount payable, within the meaning of subsection 223(1) of the Income Tax Act without reference to paragraphs (b) to (c), by an individual and the amount payable by an individual under any provincial legislation that imposes a tax similar in nature to the income tax imposed on individuals under the Income Tax Act, including, for greater certainty, the amount of any interest, penalties or fines imposed under the Income Tax Act or the provincial legislation. It does not include an amount payable by the individual if the individual is or was a director of a corporation and the amount relates to an obligation of the corporation for which the director is liable in their capacity as director. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 105 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 53. 173. (1) Facts for which discharge may be refused, suspended or granted conditionally The facts referred to in section 172 are: (a)

the assets of the bankrupt are not of a value equal to fifty cents on the dollar on the amount of the bankrupt’s unsecured liabilities, unless the bankrupt satisfies the court that the fact that the assets are not of a value equal to fifty cents on the dollar on the amount of the bankrupt’s unsecured liabilities has arisen from circumstances for which the bankrupt cannot justly be held responsible;

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(b)

the bankrupt has omitted to keep such books of account as are usual and proper in the business carried on by the bankrupt and as sufficiently disclose the business transactions and financial position of the bankrupt within the period beginning on the day that is three years before the date of the initial bankruptcy event and ending on the date of the bankruptcy, both dates included;

(c)

the bankrupt has continued to trade after becoming aware of being insolvent;

(d)

the bankrupt has failed to account satisfactorily for any loss of assets or for any deficiency of assets to meet the bankrupt’s liabilities;

(e)

the bankrupt has brought on, or contributed to, the bankruptcy by rash and hazardous speculations, by unjustifiable extravagance in living, by gambling or by culpable neglect of the bankrupt’s business affairs;

(f)

the bankrupt has put any of the bankrupt’s creditors to unnecessary expense by a frivolous or vexatious defence to any action properly brought against the bankrupt;

(g)

the bankrupt has, within the period beginning on the day that is three months before the date of the initial bankruptcy event and ending on the date of the bankruptcy, both dates included, incurred unjustifiable expense by bringing a frivolous or vexatious action;

(h)

the bankrupt has, within the period beginning on the day that is three months before the date of the initial bankruptcy event and ending on the date of the bankruptcy, both dates included, when unable to pay debts as they became due, given an undue preference to any of the bankrupt’s creditors;

(i)

the bankrupt has, within the period beginning on the day that is three months before the date of the initial bankruptcy event and ending on the date of the bankruptcy, both dates included, incurred liabilities in order to make the bankrupt’s assets equal to fifty cents on the dollar on the amount of the bankrupt’s unsecured liabilities;

(j)

the bankrupt has on any previous occasion been bankrupt or made a proposal to creditors;

(k)

the bankrupt has been guilty of any fraud or fraudulent breach of trust;

(l)

the bankrupt has committed any offence under this Act or any other statute in connection with the bankrupt’s property, the bankruptcy or the proceedings thereunder;

(m)

the bankrupt has failed to comply with a requirement to pay imposed under section 68;

(n)

the bankrupt, if the bankrupt could have made a viable proposal, chose bankruptcy rather than a proposal to creditors as the means to resolve the indebtedness; and

(o)

the bankrupt has failed to perform the duties imposed on the bankrupt under this Act or to comply with any order of the court.

(2) Application to farmers – Paragraphs (1)(b) and (c) do not apply in the case of an application for discharge by a bankrupt whose principal occupation and means of livelihood on the date of the initial bankruptcy event was farming or the tillage of the soil. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 173; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 103. 162

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174. Assets of bankrupt when deemed equal to fifty cents in dollar - For the purposes of section 173, the assets of a bankrupt shall be deemed of a value equal to fifty cents on the dollar on the amount of his unsecured liabilities when the court is satisfied that the property of the bankrupt has realized, is likely to realize or, with due care in realization, might have realized an amount equal to fifty cents on the dollar on his unsecured liabilities. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 144. 175. (1) Court may grant certificates - A statutory disqualification on account of bankruptcy ceases when the bankrupt obtains from the court his discharge with a certificate to the effect that the bankruptcy was caused by misfortune without any misconduct on his part. (2) Appeal - The court may, if it thinks fit, grant a certificate mentioned in subsection (1), and a refusal to grant such a certificate is subject to appeal. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 145. 176. (1) Duty of bankrupt on conditional discharge - Where an order is granted on terms or conditions or on the bankrupt consenting to judgment, the bankrupt shall, until the terms, conditions or judgment is satisfied, (a)

give the trustee such information as he may require with respect to his earnings and after-acquired property and income, and

(b)

not less than once a year, file in the court and with the trustee a statement verified under oath showing the particulars of any property or income he may have acquired subsequent to the order for his discharge,

and the trustee or any creditor may require the bankrupt to attend for examination under oath with respect to the facts contained in the statement or with respect to his earnings, income, after-acquired property or dealings. (2) Penalty for failure to comply - Where the bankrupt fails to give information or to file a statement as required by subsection (1), to attend for examination when required to do so or to answer all questions fully and accurately with respect to his earnings, income, after-acquired property or dealings, the court may on the application of the trustee or of any creditor revoke the order of discharge. (3) Trustee to distribute funds payable under conditional discharge - Where a conditional order of discharge of a bankrupt is made providing for payment of a further dividend or sum of money by the bankrupt, all payments on account thereof shall be made to the trustee for distribution to the creditors. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 146. 177. [Repealed] - [S.C. 2000, c. 12, s. 17, effective July 31, 2000 (SI/2000-76)]. 178. (1) Debts not released by order of discharge - An order of discharge does not release the bankrupt from

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(a)

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any fine, penalty, restitution order or other order similar in nature to a fine, penalty or restitution order, imposed by a court in respect of an offence, or any debt arising out of a recognizance or bail;

(a.1) any award of damages by a court in a civil proceedings in respect of (i)

bodily harm intentionally inflicted, or sexual assault, or

(ii)

wrongful death resulting therefrom;

(b)

any debt or liability for alimony or alimentary pension;

(c)

any debt or liability arising under a judicial decision establishing affiliation or respecting support or maintenance, or under an agreement for maintenance and support of a spouse, former spouse, former common-law partner or child living apart from the bankrupt;

(d)

any debt or liability arising out of fraud, embezzlement, misappropriation or defalcation while acting in a fiduciary capacity or, in the Province of Quebec, as a trustee or administrator of the property of others;

(e)

any debt or liability resulting from obtaining property or services by false pretences or fraudulent misrepresentation, other than a debt or liability that arises from an equity claim;

(f)

liability for the dividend that a creditor would have been entitled to receive on any provable claim not disclosed to the trustee, unless the creditor had notice or knowledge of the bankruptcy and failed to take reasonable action to prove his claim.

(g)

any debt or obligation in respect of a loan made under the Canada Student Loans Act, the Canada Student Financial Assistance Act or any enactment of a province that provides for loans or guarantees of loans to students where the date of bankruptcy of the bankrupt occurred

(h)

(i)

before the date on which the bankrupt ceased to be a full- or part-time student, as the case may be, under the applicable Act or enactment, or

(ii)

within seven years after the date on which the bankrupt ceased to be a fullor part-time student; or

any debt for interest owed in relation to an amount referred to in any of paragraphs (a) to (g).

(1.1) Court may order non-application of subsection (1) - At any time after five years after a bankrupt who has a debt referred to in paragraph (1)(g) ceases to be a full- or part-time student, as the case may be, under the applicable Act or enactment, the court may, on application, order that subsection (1) does not apply to the debt if the court is satisfied that (a)

the bankrupt has acted in good faith in connection with the bankrupt’s liabilities under the debt; and

(b)

the bankrupt has and will continue to experience financial difficulty to such an extent that the bankrupt will be unable to pay the debt.

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Ss. 178-182

(2) Claims released - Subject to subsection (1), an order of discharge releases the bankrupt from all claims provable in bankruptcy. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 178; R.S.C. 1985, c. 3 (2nd Supp.), s. 28; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 64; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 105; S.C. 1998, c. 21, s. 103; S.C. 2000, c. 12, s. 18; S.C. 2001, c. 4, s. 32; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 83(1) (E) and (2); S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 107 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 54. 179. Partner or co-trustee not released - An order of discharge does not release a person who at the time of the bankruptcy was a partner or co-trustee with the bankrupt or was jointly bound or had made a joint contract with the bankrupt, or a person who was surety or in the nature of a surety for the bankrupt. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 179; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 84 (F); S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 108 (E). 180. (1) Court may annul discharge - Where a bankrupt after his discharge fails to perform the duties imposed on him by this Act, the court may, on application, annul his discharge. (2) Annulment of discharge obtained by fraud - Where it appears to the court that the discharge of a bankrupt was obtained by fraud, the court may, on application, annul his discharge. (3) Effect of annulment of discharge - An order revoking or annulling the discharge of a bankrupt does not prejudice the validity of a sale, disposition of property, payment made or thing duly done before the revocation or annulment of the discharge. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 18; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 85 (F). 181. (1) Power of court to annul bankruptcy - If, in the opinion of the court, a bankruptcy order ought not to have been made or an assignment ought not to have been filed, the court may by order annul the bankruptcy. (2) Effect of annulment of bankruptcy - If an order is made under subsection (1), all sales, dispositions of property, payments duly made and acts done before the making of the order by the trustee or other person acting under the trustee’s authority, or by the court, are valid, but the property of the bankrupt shall vest in any person that the court may appoint, or, in default of any appointment, revert to the bankrupt for all the estate, or interest or right of the trustee in the estate, on any terms and subject to any conditions, if any, that the court may order. (3) Final statement of receipts and disbursements - If an order is made under subsection (1), the trustee shall, without delay, prepare the final statements of receipts and disbursements referred to in section 151. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 181; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 86; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 109. 182. (1) Stay on issue of order - An order of discharge or annulment shall be dated on the day on which it is made, but it shall not be issued or delivered until the expiration of the time allowed for an appeal, and, if an appeal is entered, not until the appeal has been finally disposed of. (2) [Repealed] - [1992, c. 27, s. 65] R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 182; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 65.

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Ss. 183-184

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

PART VII — COURTS AND PROCEDURE Jurisdiction of Courts 183. (1) Courts vested with jurisdiction - The following courts are invested with such jurisdiction at law and in equity as will enable them to exercise original, auxiliary and ancillary jurisdiction in bankruptcy and in other proceedings authorized by this Act during their respective terms, as they are now, or may be hereafter, held, and in vacation and in chambers: (a)

in the Province of Ontario, the Superior Court of Justice;

(b)

[Repealed] – [S.C. 2001, c. 4, s. 33(2), effective June 1, 2001 (SI/2001-71)];

(c)

in the Provinces of Nova Scotia and British Columbia, the Supreme Court;

(d)

in the Provinces of New Brunswick and Alberta, the Court of Queen’s Bench;

(e)

in the Province of Prince Edward Island, the Trial Division of the Supreme Court of the Province;

(f)

in the Provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan, the Court of Queen’s Bench;

(g)

in the Province of Newfoundland, the Trial Division of the Supreme Court; and

(h)

in Yukon, the Supreme Court of Yukon, in the Northwest Territories, the Supreme Court of the Northwest Territories, and in Nunavut, the Nunavut Court of Justice.

(1.1) Superior Court jurisdiction in the Province of Quebec - In the Province of Quebec, the Superior Court is invested with the jurisdiction that will enable it to exercise original, auxiliary and ancillary jurisdiction in bankruptcy and in other proceedings authorized by this Act during its term, as it is now, or may be hereafter, held, and in vacation and in chambers. (2) Courts of appeal - common law provinces - Subject to subsection (2.1), the courts of appeal throughout Canada, within their respective jurisdictions, are invested with power and jurisdiction at law and in equity, according to their ordinary procedures, except as varied by this Act or the General Rules, to hear and determine appeals from the courts vested with original jurisdiction under this Act. (2.1) Court of Appeal of the Province of Quebec - In the Province of Quebec, the Court of Appeal, within its jurisdiction, is invested with power and jurisdiction, according to its ordinary procedures, except as varied by this Act or the General Rules, to hear and determine appeals from the Superior Court. (3) Supreme Court of Canada - The Supreme Court of Canada has jurisdiction to hear and to decide according to its ordinary procedure any appeal so permitted and to award costs. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 183; R.S.C. 1985, c. 27 (2nd Supp.), s. 10; S.C. 1990, c. 17, s. 3; S.C. 1999, c. 3, s. 15; S.C. 1998, c. 30, s. 14; S.C. 2001, c. 4, s. 33; S.C. 2002, c. 7, s. 83. 184. Appointment of officers - Each of the following persons, namely, (a)

the Chief Justice of the court,

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(b)

in Quebec, the Chief Justice or the Associate Chief Justice in the district to which the Chief Justice or Associate Chief Justice was appointed,

(c)

in Yukon, the Commissioner of Yukon,

(d)

in the Northwest Territories, the Commissioner of the Northwest Territories, and

(e)

in Nunavut, the Commissioner of Nunavut, shall appoint and assign such registrars, clerks and other officers in bankruptcy as deemed necessary for the transaction or disposal of matters in respect of which power or jurisdiction is given by this Act and may specify or limit the territorial jurisdiction of any such officer.

R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 184; S.C. 1993, c. 28, s. 78 (Sch. III, s. 7); S.C. 2002, c. 7, s. 84. 185. (1) Assignment of judges to bankruptcy work by Chief Justice - The Chief Justice of the court, and in the Province of Quebec the Chief Justice or the Associate Chief Justice in the district to which he was appointed, may, if in his opinion it is advisable or necessary for the good administration of this Act, nominate or assign one or more of the judges of the court to exercise the judicial powers and jurisdiction conferred by this Act that may be exercised by a single judge, and the judgment, decision or order of a judge so nominated or assigned shall be deemed to be the judgment, decision or order of the court, and a reference in this Act to the court applies to any judge exercising the powers and jurisdiction of the court. (2) No diminution of powers - Nothing in this section diminishes or affects the powers or jurisdiction of the court or of any of the judges thereof not so specially nominated or assigned. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 155. 186. Exercise of power by judges of other courts on appointment by Minister - The Minister may, if in his opinion it is advisable or necessary for the proper administration of this Act, authorize any district, county or other judge to exercise any or all of the powers and jurisdiction of the court or of a judge or registrar thereof, subject to any limitation or condition, and any judge so authorized shall be deemed a judge or registrar, as the case may be, of the court having jurisdiction in bankruptcy, and references to the court, to the judge of the court or to the registrar apply to that district, county or other judge according to the terms of his authority. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 156.

Authority of the Courts 187. (1) Seal of court - Every court shall have a seal describing the court, and judicial notice shall be taken of the seal and of the signature of the judge or registrar of the court in all legal proceedings. (2) Court not subject to be restrained - The courts are not subject to be restrained in the execution of their powers under this Act by the order of any other court. (3) Power of judge in chambers - Subject to this Act and to the General Rules, the judge of a court may exercise in chambers the whole or any part of his jurisdiction. (4) Periodical sittings - Periodical sittings for the transaction of the business of courts shall be held at such times and places and at such intervals as the court directs.

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Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

(5) Court may review, etc. - Every court may review, rescind or vary any order made by it under its bankruptcy jurisdiction. (6) Enforcement of orders - Every order of a court may be enforced as if it were a judgment of the court. (7) Transfer of proceedings to another division - The court, on satisfactory proof that the affairs of the bankrupt can be more economically administered within another bankruptcy district or division, or for other sufficient cause, may by order transfer any proceedings under this Act that are pending before it to another bankruptcy district or division. (8) Trial of issue, etc. - The court may direct any issue to be tried or inquiry to be made by any judge or officer of any of the courts of the province, and the decision of that judge or officer is subject to appeal to a judge in bankruptcy, unless the judge is a judge of a superior court when the appeal shall, subject to section 193, be to the Court of Appeal. (9) Formal defect not to invalidate proceedings - No proceeding in bankruptcy shall be invalidated by any formal defect or by any irregularity, unless the court before which an objection is made to the proceeding is of opinion that substantial injustice has been caused by the defect or irregularity and that the injustice cannot be remedied by any order of that court. (10) Proceedings taken in wrong court - Nothing in this section invalidates any proceedings by reason of their having been commenced, taken or carried on in the wrong court, but the court may at any time transfer the proceedings to the proper court. (11) Court may extend time - Where by this Act the time for doing any act or thing is limited, the court may extend the time either before or after the expiration thereof on such terms, if any, as it thinks fit to impose. (12) Court may dispense with certain requirements respecting notices - Where in the opinion of the court the cost of preparing statements, lists of creditors or other material required by this Act to be sent with notices to creditors, or the cost of sending the material or notices, is unjustified in the circumstances, the court may give leave to omit the material or any part thereof or to send the material or notices in such manner as the court may direct. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 187; S.C. 1992, c. 1, s. 20, c. 27, s. 66; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 87. 188. (1) Enforcement of orders of other courts - An order made by the court under this Act shall be enforced in the courts having jurisdiction in bankruptcy elsewhere in Canada in the same manner in all respects as if the order had been made by the court hereby required to enforce it. (2) Courts to be auxiliary to each other - All courts and the officers of all courts shall severally act in aid of and be auxiliary to each other in all matters of bankruptcy, and an order of one court seeking aid, with a request to another court, shall be deemed sufficient to enable the latter court to exercise, in regard to the matters directed by the order, such jurisdiction as either the court that made the request or the court to which the request is made could exercise in regard to similar matters within its jurisdiction. (3) Enforcement of warrants - Any warrant of a court may be enforced in any part of Canada in the same manner and subject to the same privileges as a warrant issued by a justice of the peace under or in pursuance of the Criminal Code may be executed against a person charged with an indictable offence.

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Ss. 188-192

R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 158. 189. (1) Search warrants - Where on ex parte application by the trustee or interim receiver the court is satisfied by information on oath that there are reasonable grounds to believe there is in any place or premises any property of the bankrupt, the court may issue a warrant authorizing the trustee or interim receiver to enter and search that place or premises and to seize the property of the bankrupt, subject to such conditions as may be specified in the warrant. (1.1) Use of force - In executing a warrant issued under subsection (1), the trustee or interim receiver shall not use force unless the trustee or interim receiver is accompanied by a peace officer and the use of force has been specifically authorized in the warrant. (2) Commitment to prison - Where the court commits any person to prison, the commitment may be to such convenient prison as the court thinks expedient. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 189; R.S.C. 1985, c. 31 (1st Supp.), s. 28. 190. (1) Evidence of proceedings in bankruptcy - Any document made or used in the course of any bankruptcy proceedings or other proceedings had under this Act shall, if it appears to be sealed with the seal of any court having jurisdiction in bankruptcy, purports to be signed by any judge thereof or is certified as a true copy by any registrar thereof, be admissible in evidence in all legal proceedings. (2) Documentary evidence as proof - The production of an original document relating to any bankruptcy proceeding or a copy certified by the person making it as a true copy thereof or by a successor in office of that person as a true copy of a document found among the records in his control or possession is evidence of the contents of those documents. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 160. 191. Death of bankrupt, witness, etc. - In case of the death of the bankrupt or the spouse or common-law partner of a bankrupt or of a witness, whose evidence has been received by any court in any proceedings under this Act, the deposition of the deceased person, purporting to be sealed with the seal of the court, or a copy thereof purporting to be so sealed, shall be admitted as evidence of the matters therein deposed to. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 191; R.S.C. 1985, c. 31 (1st Supp.), s. 76 (E); S.C. 2000, c. 12, s. 191.

Powers of Registrar 192. (1) Powers of registrar - The registrars of the courts have power and jurisdiction, without limiting the powers otherwise conferred by this Act or the General Rules, (a)

to hear bankruptcy applications and to make bankruptcy orders if they are not opposed;

(b)

to hold examinations of bankrupts or other persons;

(c)

to grant orders of discharge;

(d)

to approve proposals where they are not opposed;

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(e)

to make interim orders in cases of urgency;

(f)

to hear and determine any unopposed or ex parte application;

(g)

to summon and examine the bankrupt or any person known or suspected to have in his possession property of the bankrupt, or to be indebted to him, or capable of giving information respecting the bankrupt, his dealings or property;

(h)

to hear and determine matters relating to proofs of claims whether or not opposed;

(i)

to tax or fix costs and to pass accounts;

(j)

to hear and determine any matter with the consent of all parties;

(k)

to hear and determine any matter relating to practice and procedure in the courts;

(l)

to settle and sign all orders and judgments of the courts not settled or signed by a judge and to issue all orders, judgments, warrants or other processes of the courts;

(m)

to perform all necessary administrative duties relating to the practice and procedure in the courts; and

(n)

to hear and determine appeals from the decision of a trustee allowing or disallowing a claim.

(2) May be exercised by judge - The powers and jurisdiction conferred by this section or otherwise on a registrar may at any time be exercised by a judge. (3) Registrar may not commit - A registrar has no power to commit for contempt of court. (4) Appeal from registrar - A person dissatisfied with an order or decision of a registrar may appeal therefrom to a judge. (5) Order of registrar - An order made or act done by a registrar in the exercise of his powers and jurisdiction shall be deemed the order or act of the court. (6) Reference to judge - A registrar may refer any matter ordinarily within his jurisdiction to a judge for disposition. (7) Judge may hear - A judge may direct that any matter before a registrar be brought before the judge for hearing and determination. (8) Registrars to act for each other - Any registrar in bankruptcy may act for any other registrar. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 192; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 67; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 88(1) and (2) (F).

Appeals 193. Court of Appeal - Unless otherwise expressly provided, an appeal lies to the Court of Appeal from any order or decision of a judge of the court in the following cases: (a)

if the point at issue involves future rights;

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(b)

if the order or decision is likely to affect other cases of a similar nature in the bankruptcy proceedings;

(c)

if the property involved in the appeal exceeds in value ten thousand dollars;

(d)

from the grant of or refusal to grant a discharge if the aggregate unpaid claims of creditors exceed five hundred dollars; and

(e)

in any other case by leave of a judge of the Court of Appeal.

R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 193; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 68. 194. Appeal to Supreme Court - The decision of the Court of Appeal on any appeal is final and conclusive unless special leave to appeal therefrom to the Supreme Court of Canada is granted by that Court. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 164; R.S.C. 1970, c. 44 (1st Supp.), s. 10. 195. Stay of proceedings on filing of appeal - Except to the extent that an order or judgment appealed from is subject to provisional execution notwithstanding any appeal therefrom, all proceedings under an order or judgment appealed from shall be stayed until the appeal is disposed of, but the Court of Appeal or a judge thereof may vary or cancel the stay or the order for provisional execution if it appears that the appeal is not being prosecuted diligently, or for such other reason as the Court of Appeal or a judge thereof may deem proper. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 195; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 69. 196. No stay of proceedings unless ordered - An appeal to the Supreme Court of Canada does not operate as a stay of proceedings, except to the extent ordered by that Court. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 166; R.S.C. 1970, c. 44 (1st Supp.), s. 10.

Legal Costs 197. (1) Costs in discretion of court - Subject to this Act and to the General Rules, the costs of and incidental to any proceedings in court under this Act are in the discretion of the court. (2) How costs awarded - The court in awarding costs may direct that the costs shall be taxed and paid as between party and party or as between solicitor and client, or the court may fix a sum to be paid in lieu of taxation or of taxed costs, but in the absence of any express direction costs shall follow the event and shall be taxed as between party and party. (3) Personal liability of trustee for costs - Where an action or proceeding is brought by or against a trustee, or where a trustee is made a party to any action or proceeding on his application or on the application of any other party thereto, he is not personally liable for costs unless the court otherwise directs. (4) When costs payable - No costs shall be paid out of the estate of the bankrupt, excepting the costs of persons whose services have been authorized by the trustee in writing and such costs as have been awarded against the trustee or the estate of the bankrupt by the court. (5) [Repealed] - [S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 110(1), effective September 18, 2009 (SI/2009-68)]. 171

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(6) Priority of payment of legal costs - Legal costs shall be payable according to the following priorities: (a)

commissions on collections, which are a claim ranking above any other claim on any sums collected;

(b)

when duly authorized by the court or approved by the creditors or the inspectors, costs incurred by the trustee after the bankruptcy and prior to the first meeting of creditors;

(c)

the costs on an assignment or costs incurred by an applicant creditor up to the issue of a bankruptcy order;

(d)

costs awarded against the trustee or the estate of the bankrupt; and

(e)

costs for legal services otherwise rendered to the trustee or the estate of the bankrupt.

(6.1) Costs of discharge opposed - If a creditor opposes the discharge of a bankrupt, the court may, if it grants the discharge on the condition that the bankrupt pay an amount or consent to a judgment to pay an amount, award costs, including legal costs, to the opposing creditor out of the estate in an amount that is not more than the amount realized by the estate under the conditional order, including any amount brought into the estate under the consent to the judgment. (7) Costs where opposition frivolous or vexatious - If a creditor opposes the discharge of a bankrupt and the court finds the opposition to be frivolous or vexatious, the court may order the creditor to pay costs, including legal costs, to the estate. (8) [Repealed] - [S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 110(2), effective September 18, 2009 (SI/2009-68)]. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 197; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 106; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 89; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 110.

PART VIII — OFFENCES 198. (1) Bankruptcy offences - Any bankrupt who (a)

makes any fraudulent disposition of the bankrupt’s property before or after the date of the initial bankruptcy event,

(b)

refuses or neglects to answer fully and truthfully all proper questions put to the bankrupt at any examination held pursuant to this Act,

(c)

makes a false entry or knowingly makes a material omission in a statement or accounting,

(d)

after or within one year immediately preceding the date of the initial bankruptcy event, conceals, destroys, mutilates, falsifies, makes an omission in or disposes of, or is privy to the concealment, destruction, mutilation, falsification, omission from or disposition of, a book or document affecting or relating to the bankrupt’s property or affairs, unless the bankrupt had no intent to conceal the state of the bankrupt’s affairs,

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(e)

after or within one year immediately preceding the date of the initial bankruptcy event, obtains any credit or any property by false representations made by the bankrupt or made by any other person to the bankrupt’s knowledge,

(f)

after or within one year immediately preceding the date of the initial bankruptcy event, fraudulently conceals or removes any property of a value of fifty dollars or more or any debt due to or from the bankrupt, or

(g)

after or within one year immediately preceding the date of the initial bankruptcy event, hypothecates, pawns, pledges or disposes of any property that the bankrupt has obtained on credit and has not paid for, unless in the case of a trader the hypothecation, pawning, pledging or disposing is in the ordinary way of trade and unless the bankrupt had no intent to defraud,

is guilty of an offence and is liable, on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding one year or to both, or on conviction on indictment, to a fine not exceeding ten thousand dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years, or to both. (2) Failure to comply with duties - A bankrupt who, without reasonable cause, fails to comply with an order of the court made under section 68 or to do any of the things required of the bankrupt under section 158 is guilty of an offence and is liable (a)

on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding one year, or to both; or

(b)

on conviction on indictment, to a fine not exceeding ten thousand dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years, or to both.

R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 198; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 71; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 107; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 90 (F). 199. Failure to disclose fact of being undischarged - An undischarged bankrupt who (a)

engages in any trade or business without disclosing to all persons with whom the undischarged bankrupt enters into any business transaction that the undischarged bankrupt is an undischarged bankrupt, or

(b)

obtains credit to a total of $1,000 or more from any person or persons without informing them that the undischarged bankrupt is an undischarged bankrupt,

is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction and is liable to a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding one year, or to both. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 199; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 72; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 111. 200. (1) Bankrupt failing to keep proper books of account - Any person becoming bankrupt or making a proposal who has on any previous occasion been bankrupt or made a proposal to the person’s creditors is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction and is liable to a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding one year, or to both, if (a)

being engaged in any trade or business, at any time within the period beginning on the day that is two years before the date of the initial bankruptcy event and ending 173

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on the date of the bankruptcy, both dates included, that person has not kept and preserved proper books of account; or (b)

within the period mentioned in paragraph (a), that person conceals, destroys, mutilates, falsifies or disposes of, or is privy to the concealment, destruction, mutilation, falsification or disposition of, any book or document affecting or relating to the person’s property or affairs unless the person had no intent to conceal the state of the person’s affairs.

(2) Proper books of account defined - For the purposes of this section, a debtor shall be deemed not to have kept proper books of account if he has not kept such books or accounts as are necessary to exhibit or explain his transactions and financial position in his trade or business, including a book or books containing entries from day to day in sufficient detail of all cash received and cash paid, and, where the trade or business has involved dealings in goods, also accounts of all goods sold and purchased, and statements of annual and other stock-takings. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 200; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 73; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 108; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 91 (F). 201. (1) False claim, etc. - Where a creditor, or a person claiming to be a creditor, in any proceedings under this Act, wilfully and with intent to defraud makes any false claim or any proof, declaration or statement of account that is untrue in any material particular, the creditor or person is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction and is liable to a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars, or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding one year, or to both. (2) Inspectors accepting unlawful fee - Where an inspector accepts from the bankrupt or from any person, firm or corporation acting on behalf of the bankrupt or from the trustee any fee, commission or emolument other than or in addition to the regular fees provided for by this Act, the inspector is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction and is liable to a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars, or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding one year, or to both. (3) Unlawful transactions - Where the bankrupt enters into any transaction with any person for the purpose of obtaining a benefit or advantage to which either of them would not be entitled, the bankrupt is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction and is liable to a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars, or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding one year, or to both. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 201; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 74. 202. (1) Other offences - A person who (a)

not being a licensed trustee, does any act as, or represents himself to be, a licensed trustee,

(b)

being a trustee, either before providing the security required by subsection 16(1) or after providing it but at any time while the security is not in force, acts as or exercises any of the powers of trustee,

(c)

having been appointed a trustee, with intent to defraud, fails to observe or to comply with any of the provisions of this Act, or fails duly to do, observe or perform any act or duty that he may be ordered to do, observe or perform by the court pursuant to this Act,

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(d)

having been appointed a trustee, without reasonable excuse, fails to observe or to comply with any of the provisions of this Act, or fails duly to do, observe or perform any act or duty that he may be ordered to do, observe or perform by the court pursuant to this Act,

(e)

having been appointed a trustee to any estate and another trustee having been appointed in his stead, does not deliver to the substituted trustee on demand all unadministered property of the estate, together with the books, records and documents of the estate and of his administration,

(f)

directly or indirectly solicits or canvasses any person to make an assignment or a proposal under this Act, or to file an application for a bankruptcy order,

(g)

being a trustee, directly or indirectly, solicits proxies to vote at a meeting of creditors, or

(h)

being a trustee, makes any arrangement under any circumstances with the bankrupt, or any legal counsel, auctioneer or other person employed in connection with a bankruptcy, for any gift, remuneration or pecuniary or other consideration or benefit whatever beyond the remuneration payable out of the estate, or accepts any such consideration or benefit from any such person, or makes any arrangement for giving up, or gives up, any part of the remuneration, either as a receiver within the meaning of subsection 243(2) or trustee, to the bankrupt or any legal counsel, auctioneer or other person employed in connection with the bankruptcy,

is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction and is liable to a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars, or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding one year, or to both. (2) Offence and punishment - A person who fails to comply with or contravenes any provision of section 10 is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction and is liable to a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars, or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding one year, or to both. (2.1) Idem - Every person who contravenes or fails to comply with an order made under section 204.1 (a)

is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction and is liable to a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars, or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding one year, or to both; or

(b)

is guilty of an indictable offence and is liable to a fine not exceeding ten thousand dollars, or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years, or to both.

(3) Exception - Nothing in paragraph (1)(h) shall be construed to apply to a sharing of trustee’s fees among persons who together act as the trustee of the estate of a bankrupt or as joint trustee to a proposal. (4) Idem - Subject to this Act, every person who contravenes or fails to comply with a provision of this Act, of the General Rules or of the regulations is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction and is liable to a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars, or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding one year, or to both.

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(5) Witnesses failing to attend, etc. - Every person who fails, without valid excuse, to comply with a subpoena, request or summons issued under subsection 14.02(1.1) is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction and liable to a fine of not more than $1,000. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 202; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 75; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 92; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 112. 203. Punishment for removal of bankrupt’s property without notice - A person, except the trustee, who, within thirty days after delivery to the trustee of the proof of claim mentioned in section 81, or who, in case no proof has been delivered, removes or attempts to remove the property or any part thereof mentioned in that section out of the charge or possession of the bankrupt, the trustee or other custodian of the property, except with the written permission of the trustee, is guilty of an offence and liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or to both. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 174. 203.1 Acting while licence suspended or cancelled - Any trustee who exercises any of the powers or performs any of the duties of a trustee while the trustee’s licence has ceased to be valid for failure to pay licence fees, after the trustee’s licence has been suspended or cancelled under subsection 13.2(5) or after having been informed pursuant to subsection 14.02(4) of the suspension or cancellation of the trustee’s licence is guilty of an offence and is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars, or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years, or to both. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 76; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 109. 203.2 Acting contrary to conditions or limitations - Where the Superintendent has placed conditions or limitations on the licence of a trustee and the trustee exercises any of the powers of a trustee other than the powers that the trustee is authorized to exercise, the trustee is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction and is liable to a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars, or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years, or to both. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 76. 204. Officers etc., of corporations - If a corporation commits an offence under this Act, any officer or director, or agent or mandatary, of the corporation, or any person who has or has had, directly or indirectly, control in fact of the corporation, who directed, authorized, assented to, acquiesced in or participated in the commission of the offence is a party to and guilty of the offence and is liable on conviction to the punishment provided for the offence, whether or not the corporation has been prosecuted or convicted. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 204; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 77; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 93 (E). 204.1 Community service - Where a person has been convicted of an offence under this Act, the court may, having regard to the nature of the offence and the circumstances surrounding its commission, and in addition to any other punishment that may be imposed under this Act, make an order directing the person to perform community service, subject to such reasonable conditions as may be specified in the order. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 77.

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Ss. 204-205

204.2 (1) Variation of sanctions - Subject to subsection (2), where a court has made an order under section 204.1 in respect of a person, the court may, on application by the person or the Attorney General of Canada, require the person to appear before it and, after hearing the person or the Attorney General of Canada, as the case may be, may vary the order in one or any combination of the following ways that is applicable and that, in the opinion of the court, is desirable because of a change in the circumstances of the person since the order was made: (a)

by making changes in the order or the conditions specified therein or extending the period for which the order is to remain in force for such period, not exceeding one year, as the court considers desirable; or

(b)

by reducing the period for which the order is to remain in force or relieving the person, either absolutely or partially or for such period as the court considers desirable, of compliance with any condition that is specified in the order.

(2) Notice - Before varying an order under subsection (1), the court may direct that notice be given to such persons as the court considers to be interested, and may hear any such persons. (3) Limitation - Where an application made under subsection (1) in respect of a person has been heard by the court, no other application may be made with respect to the person except with leave of the court. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 77. 204.3 (1) Compensation for loss - Where a person has been convicted of an offence under this Act and any other person has suffered loss or damage because of the commission of the offence, the court may, at the time sentence is imposed, order the person who has been convicted to pay to the person who has suffered loss or damage or to the trustee of the bankrupt an amount by way of satisfaction or compensation for loss of or damage to property suffered by that person as a result of the commission of the offence. (2) Enforceability of order - Where an amount that is ordered to be paid under subsection (1) is not paid forthwith, the person in favour of whom the order has been made may file the order in the superior court of the province in which the trial was held and that order is enforceable against the person who has been convicted in the same manner as if it were a judgment rendered against the person who has been convicted in that court in civil proceedings. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 77; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 110. 205. (1) Report on offences to be made by trustee - Whenever an official receiver or trustee has grounds to believe that an offence under this Act or under any other statute, whether of Canada or a province, has been committed with respect to any bankrupt estate in connection with which he has been acting under this Act, or that for any special reason an investigation should be had in connection with that estate, it is the duty of the official receiver or trustee to report the matter to the court, including in the report a statement of all the facts or circumstances of the case within his knowledge, the names of the witnesses who should in his opinion be examined and a statement respecting the offence or offences believed to have been committed, and to forward a copy of the report forthwith to the Superintendent. (2) Report by inspectors and others - The Superintendent or a creditor, inspector or other interested person who believes on reasonable grounds that a person is guilty of an offence 177

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Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

under this Act or under any other statute, whether of Canada or a province, in connection with a bankrupt, his property or his transactions, may file a report with the court of the facts on which that belief is based, or he may make such further representations supplementary to the report of the official receiver or trustee as he may deem proper. (3) Court may authorize criminal proceedings - Whenever the court is satisfied, on the representation of the Superintendent or any one on his behalf, of the official receiver or trustee or of any creditor, inspector or other interested person, that there is ground to believe that any person is guilty of an offence under this Act or under any other statute, whether of Canada or a province, in connection with the bankrupt, his property or transactions, the court may authorize the trustee to initiate proceedings for the prosecution of that person for that offence. (4) Initiation of criminal proceedings by the trustee - Where a trustee is authorized or directed by the creditors, the inspectors or the court to initiate proceedings against any person believed to have committed an offence, the trustee shall institute the proceedings and shall send or cause to be sent a copy of the resolution or order, duly certified as a true copy thereof, together with a copy of all reports or statements of the facts on which the order or resolution was based, to the Crown Attorney or the agent of the Crown duly authorized to represent the Crown in the prosecution of criminal offences in the district where the alleged offence was committed. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 176. 206. (1) Report of offence - Where the official receiver or trustee believes on reasonable grounds that an offence under this Act or the Criminal Code relating to the property of the bankrupt was committed either before or after the date of the initial bankruptcy event by the bankrupt or any other person, the official receiver or trustee shall make a report thereon to the Deputy Attorney General or other appropriate legal officer of the province concerned or to such person as is duly designated by that legal officer for that purpose. (2) Copy to Superintendent - A copy of a report made under subsection (1) shall be sent by the official receiver or trustee to the Superintendent. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 206; S.C. 1987, c. 12, s. 111; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 94 (F). 207. Substance of offence charged in indictment - In an information, complaint or indictment for an offence under this Act, it is sufficient to set out the substance of the offence charged in the words of this Act, specifying the offence or as near thereto as circumstances admit, without alleging or setting out any debt, act of bankruptcy, trading, adjudication or any proceedings in, or order, warrant or document of, any court acting under this Act. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 178. 208. Time within which prosecutions to be commenced - A prosecution by indictment under this Act shall be commenced within five years from the time of the commission of the offence and, in the case of an offence punishable on summary conviction, the complaint shall be made or the information laid within three years from the time when the subject-matter of the complaint or information arose. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 179.

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Ss. 209-215

PART IX — MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 209. (1) General Rules - The Governor in Council may make, alter or revoke, and may delegate to the judges of the courts exercising bankruptcy jurisdiction under this Act the power to make, alter or revoke the General Rules for carrying into effect the object of this Act. (2) [Repealed] - [S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 113, effective September 18, 2009 (SI/2009-68)]. (3) [Repealed] - [S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 112, effective September 30, 1997 (SI/97-114)]. (4) To be judicially noticed - The General Rules have effect as if enacted by this Act and shall be judicially noticed. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 209; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 112; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 113. 210. [Repealed] - [1992, c. 27, s. 78] 211. [Repealed] - [1992, c. 27, s. 78] 212. Rights of banks, etc. - Nothing in this Act, other than sections 69 to 69.4 and 81 and 81.1, 81.2 and Part XI, interferes with or restricts the rights and privileges conferred on banks, authorized foreign banks within the meaning of section 2 of the Bank Act and banking corporations by that Act. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 212; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 79; S.C. 1999, c. 28, s. 147. 213. Winding-up and Restructuring Act not to apply - If an application for a bankruptcy order or an assignment has been filed under this Act in respect of a corporation, the Windingup and Restructuring Act does not extend or apply to that corporation, despite anything contained in that Act, and any proceedings that are instituted under the Winding-up and Restructuring Act in respect of that corporation before the application or assignment is filed under this Act shall abate subject to any disposition of the costs of those proceedings to be made in the bankruptcy proceedings that the justice of the case may require. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 213; S.C. 1996, c. 6, s. 167; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 95. 214. Fees to officers of the court - The fees payable to officers of the court including official receivers shall be established by the General Rules, whether generally or for a particular province, and where so mentioned in the General Rules, shall belong to the Crown in right of the province. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 214; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 80; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 113. 215. No action against Superintendent, etc., without leave of court - Except by leave of the court, no action lies against the Superintendent, an official receiver, an interim receiver or a trustee with respect to any report made under, or any action taken pursuant to, this Act. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 215; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 80. 215.1 Claims in foreign currency - A claim for a debt that is payable in a currency other than Canadian currency is to be converted to Canadian currency

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(a)

in the case of a proposal in respect of an insolvent person and unless otherwise provided in the proposal, if a notice of intention was filed under subsection 50.4(1), as of the date the notice was filed or, if no notice was filed, as of the date the proposal was filed with the official receiver under subsection 62(1);

(b)

in the case of a proposal in respect of a bankrupt and unless otherwise provided in the proposal, as of the date of the bankruptcy; or

(c)

in the case of a bankruptcy, as of the date of the bankruptcy.

S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 114. 216. [Repealed] - [S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 55, effective September 18, 2009 (SI/2009-68)].

PART X — ORDERLY PAYMENT OF DEBTS 217. Definitions - In this Part, “clerk” means a clerk of the court; “court” means (a)

in the Provinces of Manitoba and Alberta, the Court of Queen’s Bench, and

(b) in any other province, such court as is designated by the regulations for the purposes of this Part; “debtor” means an insolvent debtor, but does not include a corporation; “registered creditor” means a creditor who is named in a consolidation order. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 188; S.C. 1978-79, c. 11, s. 10; S.C. 1984, c. 41, s. 2. 218. (1) Application - This Part applies only to the following classes of debts: (a)

a judgment for the payment of money where the amount of the judgment does not exceed one thousand dollars;

(b)

a judgment for the payment of money where the amount of the judgment is in excess of one thousand dollars if the judgment creditor consents to come under this Part;

(c)

a claim or demand for or in respect of money, debt, account, covenant or otherwise, not in excess of one thousand dollars; and

(d)

a claim or demand for or in respect of money, debt, account, covenant or otherwise, in excess of one thousand dollars if the creditor having the claim or demand consents to come under this Part.

(2) Exception - Notwithstanding subsection (1), this Part does not apply to the following classes of debts:

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(a)

Ss. 218-219

a debt due, owing or payable (i)

to Her Majesty in right of Canada or a province,

(ii)

to a municipality in Canada, or

(iii)

to a school district in Canada;

(b)

a debt relating to the public revenue or one that may be levied and collected in the form of taxes;

(c)

a covenant in a mortgage or charge on land or in an agreement for sale of land; or

(d)

a debt incurred by a trader or merchant in the ordinary course of his business.

(3) Idem - Notwithstanding subsection (1), this Part does not apply to the following classes of debts, unless the creditor consents to come under this Part: (a)

(b)

(c)

in the Province of Manitoba, (i)

a claim for wages that may be heard before, or a judgment therefor by, a magistrate under The Wages Recovery Act, or

(ii)

a claim for a mechanic’s lien or a judgment thereon under The Mechanics’ Liens Act;

in the Province of Alberta, (i)

a claim for wages that may be heard before, or a judgment therefor by, a magistrate under The Masters and Servants Act,

(ii)

a claim for a lien or a judgment thereon under The Mechanics’ Lien Act or The Mechanics Lien Act, 1960, or

(iii)

a claim for a lien under The Garagemen’s Lien Act; or

in any other province, any debt of a class designated by the regulations to be a class of debts to which this Part does not apply.

R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 189. 219. (1) Application for consolidation order - A debtor who resides in a province in respect of which this Part applies may apply to the clerk of the court having jurisdiction where they reside for a consolidation order. (2) Affidavit to be filed - On an application pursuant to subsection (1), the debtor shall file an affidavit setting out the following: (a)

the names and addresses of the debtor’s creditors and the amount the debtor owes to each creditor and, if any of them is related to the debtor, the relationship;

(b)

a statement of the property the debtor owns or in which the debtor has any interest and of the value thereof;

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(c)

the amount of the debtor’s income from all sources, naming them, and, where the debtor is married and cohabiting with the spouse, or is in a common-law partnership, the amount of the income of the debtor’s spouse or common-law partner, as the case may be, from all sources, naming them;

(d)

the debtor’s business or occupation and, where the debtor is married and cohabiting with the spouse, or is in a common-law partnership, the business or occupation of the debtor’s spouse or common-law partner, as the case may be;

(d.1) the name and address of the debtor’s employer and, where the debtor is married and cohabiting with the spouse, or is in a common-law partnership, the name and address of the employer of the debtor’s spouse or common-law partner, as the case may be; (e)

the number of persons dependent on the debtor, the name and relationship of each and particulars of the extent to which each is so dependent;

(f)

the amount payable for board and lodging or for rent or as payment on home property, as the case may be; and

(g)

whether any of the debtor’s creditors’ claims are secured and, if so, the nature and particulars of the security held by each creditor.

R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 219; R.S.C. 1985, c. 31 (1st Supp.), s. 77; S.C. 2000, c. 12, s. 19; S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 56. 220. (1) Duties of clerk - The clerk shall (a)

file the affidavit referred to in subsection 219(2), giving it a number, and enter the particulars it contains in a register;

(b)

on reading the affidavit and hearing the debtor,

(c)

(i)

settle the amounts to be paid by the debtor into court and the times of payment thereof until all of the claims entered in the register are paid in full, and

(ii)

enter in the register particulars of the amounts and times of payment so settled or, where applicable, enter in the register a statement that the present circumstances of the debtor do not warrant the immediate settling of any of those amounts or times; and

fix a date for hearing any objections by creditors.

(2) Notice to be given - The clerk shall give notice of an application for a consolidation order to each creditor named in the affidavit filed in connection with the application, setting out in the notice (a)

the particulars of all entries made in the register with respect to the application, and

(b)

the date fixed for hearing objections by the creditors to the application or to any of the entries made in the register in respect thereof, and the notice shall contain a statement that the creditor will, prior to the date fixed for hearing objections, be

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Ss. 220-223

notified of any objections filed with the clerk pursuant to section 221 in connection with the application. (3) Idem - The notice referred to in subsection (2) shall be served in the prescribed manner and the clerk shall enter in the register the date the notice was sent. (4) Register - The register referred to in this section shall be separate from all other books and records kept by the clerk and shall be available to the public for inspection, free of charge, during the hours when the office of the clerk is open to the public. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 220; S.C. 1992, c. 1, s. 20, c. 27, s. 81. 221. (1) Objection by creditor - A creditor may, within a period of thirty days after the date of the sending of the notice of an application for a consolidation order pursuant to section 220, file with the clerk an objection with respect to any of the following matters: (a)

the amount entered in the register as the amount owing to him or to any other creditor;

(b)

the amounts settled by the clerk as the amounts to be paid by the debtor into court, or the fact that no such amounts have been settled; or

(c)

the times of payment of any such amounts, where applicable.

(2) Idem - The clerk shall enter in the register a memorandum of the date of receipt of any objection filed with him. (3) Notice of objection - Where an objection has been filed by a creditor, the clerk shall forthwith, in the prescribed manner, give notice of the objection and of the time and place appointed for the hearing thereof to the debtor and to each creditor named in the affidavit filed in connection with the application specifying, where applicable, the creditor whose claim has been objected to under subsection (1). R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 221; S.C. 1992, c. 1, ss. 17, 20, c. 27, s. 82. 222. Adding additional creditors - At the time appointed for the hearing of any objection in connection with a consolidation order, the clerk may add to the register the name of any creditor of the debtor of whom he has notice and who is not disclosed in the affidavit of the debtor. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 193. 223. (1) Hearing of objections - The clerk shall, at the time appointed for the hearing thereof, consider any objection in connection with a consolidation order that has been filed with him in accordance with this Part, and (a)

if the objection is to the claim of a creditor and the parties are brought to agreement or if the creditor’s claim is a judgment of a court and the only objection is to the amount paid thereon, he may dispose of the objection in a summary manner and determine the amount owing to the creditor;

(b)

if the objection is to the proposed terms or method of payment of the claims by the debtor or that terms of payment are not but should be fixed, he may dispose of the 183

Ss. 223-226

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

objection in a summary manner and determine, as the circumstances require, the terms and method of payment of the claims, or that no terms be presently fixed; and (c)

in any case he may on notice of motion refer any objection to be disposed of by the court or as the court otherwise directs.

(2) Issue of order - After the conclusion of the hearing referred to in subsection (1), the clerk shall enter in the register his decision or the decision of the court, as the case may be, and issue a consolidation order. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 194. 224. Issue of consolidation order - Where no objection has been received within thirty days after the date of the sending of the notice of an application for a consolidation order pursuant to section 220, the clerk shall (a)

make an entry in the register to that effect; and

(b)

issue the consolidation order.

R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 224; S.C. 1992, c. 1, s. 18, c. 27, s. 83. 225. (1) Contents of consolidation order - A consolidation order shall state the following: (a)

the name of and the amount owing to each creditor named in the register; and

(b)

the amounts to be paid into court by the debtor and the times of payment thereof or, where applicable, that the present circumstances of the debtor do not warrant the immediate settling of any such amounts or times.

(2) Effect of order - A consolidation order (a)

is a judgment of the court in favour of each creditor named in the register for the amount stated therein to be owing to that creditor;

(b)

is an order of the court for the payment by the debtor of the amounts stated therein and at the stated times; and

(c)

bears interest at the rate which by law applies to a judgment debt arising from a judgment of the court that granted the order or at such other rate as may be prescribed by regulation.

R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 225; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 84. 226. (1) Consolidation order not to be issued - A consolidation order that does not provide for the payment in full of all the debts to which it refers within a period of three years shall not be issued unless (a)

all registered creditors consent thereto in writing; or

(b)

the order is approved by the court.

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Ss. 226-231

(1.1) Deemed consent - Where a registered creditor does not give any response to a request for consent under paragraph (1)(a) within thirty days after receiving such a request, the creditor shall be deemed to have consented to the order. (2) Referral to court - Any consolidation order referred to in subsection (1) shall be referred to the court for approval or otherwise by the clerk on notice of motion to any registered creditor who has not consented thereto in writing. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 226; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 85. 227. (1) Review of consolidation order - The court may, on application to review a consolidation order of the clerk made by notice of motion within fifteen days after the making of the order by any of the parties affected thereby, review the consolidation order and confirm or vary it or set it aside and make such disposition of the matter as the court sees fit. (2) Decision to be entered - The clerk shall enter any decision made by the court under subsection (1) in the register and the decision takes effect in place of the order of the clerk. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 227; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 115. 228. Terms may be imposed on debtor - The court may, in deciding any matter brought before it, impose such terms on a debtor with respect to the custody of his property or any disposition thereof or of the proceeds thereof as it deems proper to protect the registered creditors and may give such directions for that purpose as the circumstances require. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 199. 229. Process stayed by consolidation order - On the making of a consolidation order, no process shall be issued out of any court in the province in which the debtor resides against the debtor at the instance of a creditor in respect of any debt to which this Part applies, except as permitted by this Part. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 200. 230. (1) Assignments of debtor’s property to clerk - The clerk may, at any time after the making of a consolidation order, require of and take from the debtor an assignment to himself as clerk of the court of any moneys due, owing or payable or to become due, owing or payable to the debtor, or earned or to be earned by the debtor. (2) Notification - Unless otherwise agreed on, the clerk shall forthwith notify the person owing or about to owe the moneys of the assignment referred to in subsection (1) and all moneys collected thereon shall be applied to the credit of the claims against the debtor under the consolidation order. (3) Writ of execution - The clerk may issue a writ of execution or certificate of judgment in respect of a consolidation order and cause it to be filed in any place where the writ or certificate may bind or be a charge on land or chattels. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 201. 231. (1) Adding creditors after order - Where, at any time before the payment in full of the claims against a debtor under a consolidation order, the clerk is notified of a claim to which 185

Ss. 231-232

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

this Part applies that is not entered in the order, he shall, subject to subsection (2) and on notice to the debtor and creditor and to each registered creditor, (a)

settle the amount owing to the creditor;

(b)

where he deems it necessary to do so, vary the amounts to be paid by the debtor into court and the times of payment thereof in order to provide for the new claim; and

(c)

enter the matters referred to in paragraphs (a) and (b) in the register.

(2) Court to decide - Where the debtor or any registered creditor disputes the claim of a creditor described in subsection (1), the clerk shall on notice of motion refer the matter to the court and the decision of the court shall be entered in the register. (3) Notice - The clerk shall make such amendments to the consolidation order as may be necessary to give effect to any entries in the register made pursuant to this section, and shall give notice thereof to the registered creditors. (4) Creditor to share - On the entry of a claim in the register pursuant to this section, the creditor shall share with the other creditors in any further distribution of moneys paid into court by or on behalf of the debtor. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 202. 232. (1) Secured claims - A registered creditor holding security for a claim may, at any time, elect to rely on his security notwithstanding that the claim is included in a consolidation order. (2) Proceeds in excess - Where the proceeds from the disposal of the security referred to in subsection (1) are in excess of the registered creditor’s claim, the excess shall be paid into court and applied in payment of other judgments against the debtor. (3) Exemption - Subsection (2) does not apply where the security is in the form of chattels exempt from seizure under any law in force in the province in which the consolidation order was issued. (4) Reduced claim - Where the proceeds from the disposal of the security referred to in subsection (1) are less than the registered creditor’s claim, the creditor remains entitled to the balance of his claim. (5) Exception - Subsection (4) does not apply in a case where, under the law in force in the province in which the consolidation order was issued, a creditor (a)

who enforces his security by repossession or repossession and sale, or

(b)

who seizes and sells the security under an execution issued pursuant to a judgment obtained against the debtor in respect of the claim so secured,

is limited in his recovery of the claim to the security so repossessed or the proceeds of the sale thereof. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 203.

186

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S. 233

233. (1) Enforcement of order in default of debtor - A registered creditor may apply by notice of motion to the court where (a)

a debtor defaults in complying with any order or direction of the court;

(b)

any other proceeding for the recovery of money is brought against the debtor;

(c)

the debtor has, after the consolidation order was made, incurred further debts totalling in excess of five hundred dollars;

(d)

a judgment is recovered against the debtor larger in amount than a judgment to which this Part applies without the judgment creditor’s consent, and the judgment creditor refuses to permit his name to be added to the register; or

(e)

the debtor has property or funds that should be made available for the satisfaction of the consolidation order.

(2) Ex parte application - A registered creditor may apply ex parte to the court where a debtor (a)

is about to abscond or has absconded from the province in which the consolidation order was issued leaving personal property liable to seizure under execution; or

(b)

with intent to defraud his creditors has attempted or is attempting to remove from the province in which the consolidation order was issued personal property liable to seizure under execution.

(3) Proceedings authorized - On the application referred to in subsection (1) or (2), the court may (a)

authorize the registered creditor making the application to take on behalf of all the registered creditors such proceedings to enforce the consolidation order as the court deems advisable; or

(b)

where it deems it advisable and on notice to all parties, make an order permitting all the registered creditors to proceed each independently of the others for the enforcement of their claims under the consolidation order.

(4) Moneys applied to judgment - All moneys recovered as a result of proceedings taken pursuant to paragraph (3)(a) after payment of costs incurred thereby shall be paid into the court and shall be applied to the credit of the judgments against the debtor appearing in the register. (5) Proceedings where continuing default - Where a debtor defaults in making any payment into court required to be made under a consolidation order and the default continues for a period of three months, all the registered creditors are entitled to proceed forthwith, each independently of the others and without reference to the court, for the enforcement of their claims under the consolidation order, unless the court otherwise directs on being satisfied, on application by the debtor, that the circumstances giving rise to the default and to its continuation were beyond the control of the debtor. (6) Debtor not entitled to relief - Where any order has been made under paragraph (3)(b) or any proceedings have been commenced under subsection (5), the debtor under the consolidation order is not, without the leave of the court, entitled to any further relief under this Part during the currency of any claim against him entered in the register.

187

Ss. 233-236

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 233; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 116. 234. (1) Re-examination of debtor - A debtor or any registered creditor may at any time apply ex parte to the clerk for a further examination and hearing of the debtor in respect of his financial circumstances. (2) Idem - The further hearing referred to in subsection (1) may only be held (a)

with the leave of the clerk; or

(b)

in the event of the refusal of the clerk, with leave of the court.

(3) Notice of hearing - The clerk shall give all parties to the consolidation order at least thirty days notice of the time appointed for the hearing referred to in subsection (1). (4) Clerk may vary order, etc. - Where after considering the evidence presented at the further hearing referred to in subsection (1) the clerk is of the opinion that (a)

the terms of payment set out in the consolidation order, or

(b)

the decision that the circumstances of the debtor do not warrant the immediate settling of any amounts or times of payment thereof, should be changed because of a change in the circumstances of the debtor, he may

(c)

vary the order with respect to the amounts to be paid by the debtor into court or the times of payment thereof, or

(d)

on notice of motion refer the matter to the court for settlement.

(5) Application of section 227 - Section 227 applies, with such modifications as the circumstances require, to a decision of the clerk under subsection (4). R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 234; S.C. 1992, c. 1, s. 19. 235. (1) Disposition of moneys paid into court - Subject to subsection (3), the clerk shall distribute the moneys paid into court on account of the debts of a debtor at least once every three months. (2) Idem - The clerk shall distribute the money paid under subsection (1) rateably, or as nearly so as is practicable, among the registered creditors. (3) Payments less than five dollars - Except in the case of a final payment under a consolidation order, the clerk is not required to make a payment to any creditor if the amount thereof is less than five dollars. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 206. 236. (1) Oaths - The clerk may for the purposes of this Part examine any person under oath and may administer oaths. (2) Record - The clerk shall make a written record in summary form of all evidence given at a hearing.

188

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

Ss. 236-239 Ss. 1-2

R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 207. 237. (1) If assignment or bankruptcy order made - If a debtor in respect of whom a consolidation order has been issued under this Part makes an assignment under section 49, or if a bankruptcy order is made against the debtor under section 43, or if a proposal by the debtor is approved by the court having jurisdiction in bankruptcy under sections 59 to 61, any moneys that have been paid into court as required by the consolidation order and that have not yet been distributed to the registered creditors shall, immediately after the making of the assignment or bankruptcy order or the approval of the proposal, be distributed among those creditors by the clerk in the proportions to which they are entitled under the consolidation order. (2) Proceedings may be taken under other Parts - The fact that proceedings have been taken under this Part does not prevent the taking of proceedings by or against the debtor under the provisions of any other Part of this Act. (3) Idem - None of the provisions of Parts I to IX of this Act applies to proceedings under this Part. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 237; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 96. 238. Appeal - A decision or order of the court under this Part is subject to appeal in the same manner as if it were a judgment of the court in a civil action. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 209. 239. (1) Clerk to report - On the issue of any consolidation order, the clerk shall forward a copy thereof to the Superintendent. (2) Idem - The clerk shall give to the Superintendent all reports that the Superintendent may require for the administration of this Part. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 239; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 86. 239.1 No dismissal, etc. of employees - No employer shall dismiss, suspend, lay off or otherwise discipline a debtor by reason only that the debtor has applied for a consolidation order under this Part. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 87. 239.2 (1) No discontinuance of public utilities - No public utility shall discontinue service to a debtor by reason only that the debtor (a)

is insolvent;

(b)

has applied for a consolidation order under this Part; or

(c)

has not paid for service rendered before the consolidation order was applied for.

(2) Cash payments - Nothing in subsection (1) shall be construed as requiring further supply of service for other than payment in cash.

189

Ss. 239-243

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 87. 240. Regulations - The Governor in Council may make regulations (a)

prescribing the forms to be used under this Part;

(b)

respecting costs, fees and levies to be paid under this Part;

(c)

designating the “court” for the purpose of this Part in any province except Manitoba and Alberta;

(d)

adapting this Part to the court organization or other circumstances of a particular province;

(e)

varying, in respect of any province, the classes of debts and amounts thereof to which this Part applies;

(f)

changing or prescribing, in respect of any province, the classes of debts to which this Part does not apply;

(f.1)

respecting the transfer of proceedings to a province other than the province in which a consolidation order was originally issued; and

(g)

generally, for carrying into effect the purposes and provisions of this Part.

R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 240; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 88. 241. Audit of proceedings - The accounts of every clerk that relate to proceedings under this Part are subject to audit in the same manner as if the accounts were the accounts of a provincial officer. R.S.C. 1970, c. B-3, s. 212. 242. (1) Application of this Part - The Governor in Council shall, at the request of the lieutenant governor in council of a province, declare, by order, that this Part applies or ceases to apply, as the case may be, in respect of the province. (2) Automatic application - Subject to an order being made under subsection (1) declaring that this Part ceases to apply in respect of a province, if this Part is in force in the province immediately before that subsection comes into force, this Part applies in respect of the province. R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 242; S.C. 2002, c. 7, s. 85; S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 57.

PART XI — SECURED CREDITORS AND RECEIVERS 243. (1) Court may appoint receiver - Subject to subsection (1.1), on application by a secured creditor, a court may appoint a receiver to do any or all of the following if it considers it to be just or convenient to do so:

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Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

S. 243

(a)

take possession of all or substantially all of the inventory, accounts receivable or other property of an insolvent person or bankrupt that was acquired for or used in relation to a business carried on by the insolvent person or bankrupt;

(b)

exercise any control that the court considers advisable over that property and over the insolvent person’s or bankrupt’s business; or

(c)

take any other action that the court considers advisable.

(1.1) Restriction on appointment of receiver - In the case of an insolvent person in respect of whose property a notice is to be sent under subsection 244(1), the court may not appoint a receiver under subsection (1) before the expiry of 10 days after the day on which the secured creditor sends the notice unless (a)

the insolvent person consents to an earlier enforcement under subsection 244(2); or

(b)

the court considers it appropriate to appoint a receiver before then.

(2) Definition of “receiver” - Subject to subsections (3) and (4), in this Part, “receiver” means a person who (a)

is appointed under subsection (1); or

(b)

is appointed to take or takes possession or control - of all or substantially all of the inventory, accounts receivable or other property of an insolvent person or bankrupt that was acquired for or used in relation to a business carried on by the insolvent person or bankrupt - under (i)

an agreement under which property becomes subject to a security (in this Part referred to as a “security agreement”), or

(ii)

a court order made under another Act of Parliament, or an Act of a legislature of a province, that provides for or authorizes the appointment of a receiver or receiver-manager.

(3) Definition of “receiver” - subsection 248(2) - For the purposes of subsection 248(2), the definition “receiver” in subsection (2) is to be read without reference to paragraph (a) or subparagraph (b)(ii). (4) Trustee to be appointed - Only a trustee may be appointed under subsection (1) or under an agreement or order referred to in paragraph (2)(b). (5) Place of filing - The application is to be filed in a court having jurisdiction in the judicial district of the locality of the debtor. (6) Orders respecting fees and disbursements - If a receiver is appointed under subsection (1), the court may make any order respecting the payment of fees and disbursements of the receiver that it considers proper, including one that gives the receiver a charge, ranking ahead of any or all of the secured creditors, over all or part of the property of the insolvent person or bankrupt in respect of the receiver’s claim for fees or disbursements, but the court may not make the order unless it is satisfied that the secured creditors who would be materially affected by the order were given reasonable notice and an opportunity to make representations.

191

Ss. 243-245

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

(7) Meaning of “disbursements” - In subsection (6), “disbursements” does not include payments made in the operation of a business of the insolvent person or bankrupt. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 89; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 115 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 58(1) and (3); S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 58(2). 244. (1) Advance notice - A secured creditor who intends to enforce a security on all or substantially all of (a)

the inventory,

(b)

the accounts receivable, or

(c)

the other property of an insolvent person that was acquired for, or is used in relation to, a business carried on by the insolvent person shall send to that insolvent person, in the prescribed form and manner, a notice of that intention.

(2) Period of notice - Where a notice is required to be sent under subsection (1), the secured creditor shall not enforce the security in respect of which the notice is required until the expiry of ten days after sending that notice, unless the insolvent person consents to an earlier enforcement of the security. (2.1) No advance consent - For the purposes of subsection (2), consent to earlier enforcement of a security may not be obtained by a secured creditor prior to the sending of the notice referred to in subsection (1). (3) Exception - This section does not apply, or ceases to apply, in respect of a secured creditor (a)

whose right to realize or otherwise deal with his security is protected by subsection 69.1(5) or (6); or

(b)

in respect of whom a stay under sections 69 to 69.2 has been lifted pursuant to section 69.4.

(4) Idem - This section does not apply where there is a receiver in respect of the insolvent person. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 89; S.C. 1994, c. 26, s. 9 (E). 245. (1) Receiver to give notice - A receiver shall, as soon as possible and not later than ten days after becoming a receiver, by appointment or otherwise, in respect of property of an insolvent person or a bankrupt, send a notice of that fact, in the prescribed form and manner, to the Superintendent, accompanied by the prescribed fee, and (a)

in the case of a bankrupt, to the trustee; or

(b)

in the case of an insolvent person, to the insolvent person and to all creditors of the insolvent person that the receiver, after making reasonable efforts, has ascertained.

(2) Idem - A receiver in respect of property of an insolvent person shall forthwith send notice of his becoming a receiver to any creditor whose name and address he ascertains after sending the notice referred to in subsection (1).

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Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

Ss. 245-248

(3) Names and addresses of creditors - An insolvent person shall, forthwith after being notified that there is a receiver in respect of any of his property, provide the receiver with the names and addresses of all creditors. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 89. 246. (1) Receiver’s statement - A receiver shall, forthwith after taking possession or control, whichever occurs first, of property of an insolvent person or a bankrupt, prepare a statement containing the prescribed information relating to the receivership, and shall forthwith provide a copy thereof to the Superintendent and (a)

to the insolvent person or the trustee (in the case of a bankrupt); and

(b)

to any creditor of the insolvent person or the bankrupt who requests a copy at any time up to six months after the end of the receivership.

(2) Receiver’s interim reports - A receiver shall, in accordance with the General Rules, prepare further interim reports relating to the receivership, and shall provide copies thereof to the Superintendent and (a)

to the insolvent person or the trustee (in the case of a bankrupt); and

(b)

to any creditor of the insolvent person or the bankrupt who requests a copy at any time up to six months after the end of the receivership.

(3) Receiver’s final report and statement of accounts - A receiver shall, forthwith after completion of duties as receiver, prepare a final report and a statement of accounts, in the prescribed form and containing the prescribed information relating to the receivership, and shall forthwith provide a copy thereof to the Superintendent and (a)

to the insolvent person or the trustee (in the case of a bankrupt); and

(b)

to any creditor of the insolvent person or the bankrupt who requests a copy at any time up to six months after the end of the receivership.

S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 89. 247. Good faith, etc. - A receiver shall (a)

act honestly and in good faith; and

(b)

deal with the property of the insolvent person or the bankrupt in a commercially reasonable manner.

S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 89. 248. (1) Powers of Court - Where the court, on the application of the Superintendent, the insolvent person, the trustee (in the case of a bankrupt), a receiver or a creditor, is satisfied that the secured creditor, the receiver or the insolvent person is failing or has failed to carry out any duty imposed by sections 244 to 247, the court may make an order, on such terms as it considers proper,

193

Ss. 248-252

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

(a)

directing the secured creditor, receiver or insolvent person, as the case may be, to carry out that duty, or

(b)

restraining the secured creditor or receiver, as the case may be, from realizing or otherwise dealing with the property of the insolvent person or bankrupt until that duty has been carried out,

or both. (2) Idem - On the application of the Superintendent, the insolvent person, the trustee (in the case of a bankrupt) or a creditor, made within six months after the statement of accounts was provided to the Superintendent pursuant to subsection 246(3), the court may order the receiver to submit the statement of accounts to the court for review, and the court may adjust, in such manner and to such extent as it considers proper, the fees and charges of the receiver as set out in the statement of accounts. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 89. 249. Receiver may apply to court for directions - A receiver may apply to the court for directions in relation to any provision of this Part, and the court shall give, in writing, such directions, if any, as it considers proper in the circumstances. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 89. 250. (1) Right to apply to court - An application may be made under section 248 or 249 notwithstanding any order of a court as defined in subsection 243(1). (2) Where inconsistency - Where there is any inconsistency between an order made under section 248, or a direction given under section 249, and (a)

the security agreement or court order under which the receiver acts or was appointed, or

(b)

any other order of the court that appointed the receiver,

the order made under section 248 or the direction given under section 249, as the case may be, prevails to the extent of the inconsistency. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 89. 251. Protection of receivers - No action lies against a receiver for loss or damage arising from the sending or providing by the receiver of a notice pursuant to section 245 or a statement or report pursuant to section 246, if done in good faith in compliance or intended compliance with those sections. S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 89; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 117 (F). 252. Defence available - In any proceeding where it is alleged that a secured creditor or a receiver contravened or failed to comply with any provision of this Part, it is a defence if the secured creditor or the receiver, as the case may be, shows that, at the time of the alleged contravention or failure to comply, he had reasonable grounds to believe that the debtor was not insolvent.

194

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

S. 252-253

S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 89.

PART XII — SECURITIES FIRM BANKRUPTCIES Interpretation 253. Definitions - In this Part, “customer” includes (a)

a person with or for whom a securities firm deals as principal, or agent or mandatary, and who has a claim against the securities firm in respect of a security received, acquired or held by the securities firm in the ordinary course of business as a securities firm from or for a securities account of that person (i)

for safekeeping or deposit or in segregation,

(ii)

with a view to sale,

(iii)

to cover a completed sale,

(iv)

pursuant to a purchase,

(v)

to secure performance of an obligation of that person, or

(vi)

for the purpose of effecting a transfer,

(b)

a person who has a claim against the securities firm arising out of a sale or wrongful conversion by the securities firm of a security referred to in paragraph (a), and

(c)

a person who has cash or other assets held in a securities account with the securities firm, but does not include a person who has a claim against the securities firm for cash or securities that, by agreement or operation of law, is part of the capital of the securities firm or a claim that is subordinated to claims of creditors of the securities firm;

“customer compensation body” means a prescribed body and includes, unless it is prescribed to be excluded from this definition, the Canadian Investor Protection Fund; “customer name securities” means securities that on the date of bankruptcy of a securities firm are held by or on behalf of the securities firm for the account of a customer and are registered or recorded in the appropriate manner in the name of the customer or are in the process of being so registered or recorded, but does not include securities registered or recorded in the appropriate manner in the name of the customer that, by endorsement or otherwise, are negotiable by the securities firm; “deferred customer” means a customer whose misconduct, either in the customer’s capacity as a customer or otherwise, caused or materially contributed to the insolvency of a securities firm; “eligible financial contract” [Repealed] - [S.C. 2007, c. 29, s. 101, effective June 22, 2007 (R.A.)].

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“hold”, in relation to a security, includes holding it in electronic form; “net equity” means, with respect to the securities account or accounts of a customer, maintained in one capacity, the net dollar value of the account or accounts, equal to the amount that would be owed by a securities firm to the customer as a result of the liquidation by sale or purchase at the close of business of the securities firm on the date of bankruptcy of the securities firm, of all security positions of the customer in each securities account, other than customer name securities reclaimed by the customer, including any amount in respect of a securities transaction not settled on the date of bankruptcy but settled thereafter, less any indebtedness of the customer to the securities firm on the date of bankruptcy including any amount owing in respect of a securities transaction not settled on the date of bankruptcy but settled thereafter, plus any payment of indebtedness made with the consent of the trustee after the date of bankruptcy; “open contractual commitment” means an enforceable contract of a securities firm to purchase or sell a security that was not completed by payment and delivery on the date of bankruptcy; “securities firm” means a person who carries on the business of buying and selling securities from, to or for a customer, whether or not as a member of an exchange, as principal, or agent or mandatary, and includes any person required to be registered to enter into securities transactions with the public, but does not include a corporate entity that is not a corporation within the meaning of section 2; “security” means any document, instrument or written or electronic record that is commonly known as a security, and includes, without limiting the generality of the foregoing, (a)

a document, instrument or written or electronic record evidencing a share, participation right or other right or interest in property or in an enterprise, including an equity share or stock, or a mutual fund share or unit,

(b)

a document, instrument or written or electronic record evidencing indebtedness, including a note, bond, debenture, mortgage, hypothec, certificate of deposit, commercial paper or mortgage-backed instrument,

(c)

a document, instrument or a written or electronic record evidencing a right or interest in respect of an option, warrant or subscription, or under a commodity future, financial future, or exchange or other forward contract, or other derivative instrument, including an eligible financial contract, and

(d)

such other document, instrument or written or electronic record as is prescribed.

S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 118; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 97 (E); S.C. 2007, c. 29, s. 101; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 117.

Applicability 254. (1) Application of other provisions - All of the provisions of this Act apply, with such modifications as the circumstances require, in respect of claims by customers for securities and customer name securities as if customers were creditors in respect of such claims. (2) Application of transaction provisions - Sections 91 to 101 apply, with such modifications as the circumstances require, in respect of transactions of a customer with or through a securities firm relating to securities.

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Ss. 254-256

(3) Non application - This Part does not apply to proceedings under Part III. (4) Termination, netting or setting off or compensation - Nothing in this Part affects the rights of a party to a contract, including an eligible financial contract, with respect to termination, netting or setting off or compensation. (5) Secured creditors - The operation of this Part is subject to the rights of secured creditors. S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 118; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 98 (E); S.C. 2007, c. 29, s. 102. 255. Conflicts - All the provisions of this Act, in so far as they are applicable, apply in respect of bankruptcies under this Part, but if a conflict arises between the application of the provisions of this Part and the other provisions of this Act, the provisions of this Part prevail. S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 118. 256. (1) Applications re securities firm - In addition to any creditor who may file an application in accordance with sections 43 to 45, an application for a bankruptcy order against a securities firm may be filed by (a)

(b)

(c)

a securities commission established under an enactment of a province, if (i)

the securities firm has committed an act of bankruptcy referred to in section 42 or subsection (2) of this section within the six months before the filing of the application and while the securities firm was licensed or registered by the securities commission to carry on business in Canada, and

(ii)

in the case in which the act of bankruptcy was that referred to in subsection (2), the suspension referred to in that subsection is in effect when the application is filed;

a securities exchange recognized by a provincial securities commission, if (i)

the securities firm has committed an act of bankruptcy referred to in section 42 or subsection (2) of this section within the six months before the filing of the application and while the securities firm was a member of the securities exchange, and

(ii)

in the case in which the act of bankruptcy was that referred to in subsection (2), the suspension referred to in that subsection is in effect when the application is filed;

a customer compensation body, if (i)

the securities firm has committed an act of bankruptcy referred to in section 42 or subsection (2) of this section within the six months before the filing of the application and while the securities firm had customers whose securities accounts were protected, in whole or in part, by the customer compensation body, and

(ii)

in the case in which the act of bankruptcy was that referred to in subsection (2), the suspension referred to in that subsection is in effect when the application is filed; and

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(d)

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

a person who, in respect of property of a securities firm, is a receiver within the meaning of subsection 243(2), a receiver-manager, a liquidator or any other person with similar functions appointed under a federal or provincial enactment relating to securities that provides for the appointment of that other person, if the securities firm has committed an act of bankruptcy referred to in section 42 within the six months before the filing of the application.

(2) Interpretation - For the purposes of paragraphs (1)(a) to (c), (a)

the suspension by a securities commission referred to in paragraph (1)(a) of a securities firm’s registration to trade in securities, or

(b)

the suspension by a securities exchange referred to in paragraph (1)(b) of a securities firm’s membership in that exchange constitutes an act of bankruptcy if the suspension is due to the failure of the firm to meet capital adequacy requirements.

(3) Service on securities commission - If (a)

a securities exchange files an application under paragraph (1)(b), or

(b)

a customer compensation body files an application under paragraph (1)(c),

a copy of the application must be served on the securities commission, if any, having jurisdiction in the locality of the securities firm where the application was filed, before (c)

any prescribed interval preceding the hearing of the application, or

(d)

any shorter interval that may be fixed by the court and that precedes the hearing of the application.

S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 118; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 99; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 118. 257. Statement of customer account - The trustee of the estate of a securities firm shall send to customers a statement of customer accounts with the firm together with the notice under subsection 102(1). S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 118. 258. (1) Deferred customers - Where the trustee is of the opinion that a customer should be treated as a deferred customer, the trustee shall apply to the court for a ruling on the matter and shall send the customer a copy of the application, together with a statement of the reasons why the customer should be so treated, and the court may, on such notice as it considers appropriate, make such order as it considers appropriate in the circumstances. (2) Application by customer compensation body - Where securities accounts of customers are protected by a customer compensation body, the customer compensation body may apply to the court for a ruling as to whether a customer should be treated as a deferred customer and, in the case of such an application, (a)

the customer compensation body shall send the customer a copy of the application together with a statement setting out the reasons why the customer should be so treated; and

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(b)

Ss. 258-261

the court may, on such notice as it considers appropriate, make such order as it considers appropriate in the circumstances.

S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 118. 259. Trustee powers - The trustee may, in respect of a bankruptcy under this Part, without the permission of inspectors until inspectors are appointed and thereafter with the permission of inspectors, (a)

exercise a power of attorney in respect of and transfer any security vested in the trustee;

(b)

sell securities, other than customer name securities;

(c)

purchase securities;

(d)

discharge any security on securities vested in the trustee;

(e)

complete open contractual commitments;

(f)

maintain customers’ securities accounts and meet margin calls;

(g)

distribute cash and securities to customers;

(h)

transfer securities accounts to another securities firm, to the extent practicable, comply with customer requests regarding the disposal of open contractual commitments and the transfer of open contractual commitments to another securities firm, and enter into agreements to indemnify the other securities firm against shortages of cash or securities in transferred accounts;

(i)

liquidate any securities account without notice; and

(j)

sell, without tender, assets of the securities firm essential to the carrying on of its business.

S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 118; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 100(1) (F) and (2) (E). 260. Determination of customer name securities - The trustee shall (a)

determine which of the securities in customers’ securities accounts are to be dealt with as customer name securities and those that are not to be dealt with as such; and

(b)

advise customers with securities determined to be customer name securities of the determination as soon as possible thereafter.

S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 118.

Distribution of Estate 261. (1) Vesting of securities, etc., in trustee - If a securities firm becomes bankrupt, the following securities and cash vest in the trustee: (a)

securities owned by the securities firm;

(b)

securities and cash held by any person for the account of the securities firm; and

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Ss. 261-262

(c)

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

securities and cash held by the securities firm for the account of a customer, other than customer name securities.

(2) Establishment of a customer pool fund and a general fund - Where a securities firm becomes bankrupt and property vests in a trustee under subsection (1) or under other provisions of this Act, the trustee shall establish (a)

a fund, in this Part called the “customer pool fund”, including therein (i)

(ii)

securities, including those obtained after the date of the bankruptcy, but excluding customer name securities and excluding eligible financial contracts to which the firm is a party, that are held by or for the account of the firm (A)

for a securities account of a customer,

(B)

for an account of a person who has entered into an eligible financial contract with the firm and has deposited the securities with the firm to assure the performance of the person’s obligations under the contract, or

(C)

for the firm’s own account,

cash, including cash obtained after the date of the bankruptcy, and including (A)

dividends, interest and other income in respect of securities referred to in subparagraph (i),

(B)

proceeds of disposal of securities referred to in subparagraph (i), and

(C)

proceeds of policies of insurance covering claims of customers to securities referred to in subparagraph (i),

that is held by or for the account of the firm

(iii) (b)

(D)

for a securities account of a customer,

(E)

for an account of a person who has entered into an eligible financial contract with the firm and has deposited the cash with the firm to assure the performance of the person’s obligations under the contract, or

(F)

for the firm’s own securities account, and

any investments of the securities firm in its subsidiaries that are not referred to in subparagraph (i) or (ii); and

a fund, in this Part called the “general fund”, including therein all of the remaining vested property.

S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 118; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 101 (F); S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 119. 262. (1) Allocation and distribution of cash and securities in customer pool fund - Cash and securities in the customer pool fund shall be allocated in the following priority:

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S. 262

(a)

for costs of administration referred to in paragraph 136(1)(b), to the extent that sufficient funds are not available in the general fund to pay such costs;

(b)

to customers, other than deferred customers, in proportion to their net equity; and

(c)

to the general fund.

(1.1) Where property deposited with securities firm under an EFC - Where (a)

a person has, under the terms of an eligible financial contract with the securities firm, deposited property with the firm to assure the performance of the person’s obligations under the contract, and

(b)

that property is included in the customer pool fund pursuant to paragraph 261(2)(a),

that person shall share in the distribution of the customer pool fund as if the person were a customer of the firm with a claim for net equity equal to the net value of the property deposited that would have been returnable to the person after deducting any amount owing by the person under the contract. (2) Distribution - To the extent that securities of a particular type are available in the customer pool fund, the trustee shall distribute them to customers with claims to the securities, in proportion to their claims to the securities, up to the appropriate portion of their net equity, unless the trustee determines that, in the circumstances, it would be more appropriate to sell the securities and distribute the proceeds to the customers with claims to the securities in proportion to their claims to the securities. (2.1) Compensation in kind - Subject to subsection (2), the trustee may satisfy all or part of a customer’s claim to securities of a particular type by delivering to the customer securities of that type to which the customer was entitled at the date of bankruptcy. For greater certainty, the trustee may, for that purpose, exercise the trustee’s power to purchase securities in accordance with section 259. (3) Allocation of property in the general fund - Property in the general fund shall be allocated in the following priority: (a)

to preferred creditors in the order set out in subsection 136(1);

(b)

rateably (i)

to customers, other than deferred customers, having claims for net equity remaining after distribution of property from the customer pool fund and property provided by a customer compensation body, where applicable, in proportion to claims for net equity remaining,

(ii)

where applicable, to a customer compensation body to the extent that it paid or compensated customers in respect of their net equity, and

(iii)

to creditors in proportion to the values of their claims;

(c)

rateably to creditors referred to in section 137; and

(d)

to deferred customers, in proportion to their claims for net equity.

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Ss. 262-266

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 118; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 120 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 104. 263. (1) Delivery of customer name securities - Where a customer is not indebted to a securities firm, the trustee shall deliver to the customer the customer name securities that belong to the customer. (2) Where customer indebted to securities firm - Where a customer to whom customer name securities belong and who is indebted to the securities firm on account of customer name securities not fully paid for, or on another account, discharges their indebtedness in full, the trustee shall deliver to that customer the customer name securities that belong to the customer. (3) Customer indebted to securities firm - If a customer to whom customer name securities belong and who is indebted to the securities firm on account of customer name securities not fully paid for, or on another account, does not discharge their indebtedness in full, the trustee may, on notice to the customer, sell sufficient customer name securities to discharge the indebtedness, and those securities are then free of any right, title or interest of the customer. If the trustee so discharges the customer’s indebtedness, the trustee shall deliver any remaining customer name securities to the customer. S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 118; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 121. 264. Trustee to consult customer compensation body - Where the accounts of customers of a securities firm are protected, in whole or in part, by a customer compensation body, the trustee shall consult the customer compensation body on the administration of the bankruptcy, and the customer compensation body may designate an inspector to act on its behalf. S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 118. 265. Late claims - A customer may prove a claim after the distribution of cash and securities in the customer pool fund and is entitled to receive cash and securities in the hands of the trustee at the time the claim is proven up to the appropriate portion of the customer’s net equity before further distribution is made to other customers, but no such claim shall affect the previous distribution of the customer pool fund or the general fund. S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 118.

Accounting of Trustee 266. Statement of trustee required - In addition to any other statement or report required to be prepared under this Act, a trustee shall prepare (a)

(b)

a statement indicating (i)

the distribution of property in the customer pool fund among customers who have proved their claims, and

(ii)

the disposal of customer name securities; or

such other report relating to that distribution or disposal as the court may direct.

S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 118.

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Ss. 267-268

PART XIII — CROSS-BORDER INSOLVENCIES Purpose 267. Purpose - The purpose of this Part is to provide mechanisms for dealing with cases of cross-border insolvencies and to promote (a)

cooperation between the courts and other competent authorities in Canada with those of foreign jurisdictions in cases of cross-border insolvencies;

(b)

greater legal certainty for trade and investment;

(c)

the fair and efficient administration of cross-border insolvencies that protects the interests of creditors and other interested persons, and those of debtors;

(d)

the protection and the maximization of the value of debtors’ property; and

(e)

the rescue of financially troubled businesses to protect investment and preserve employment.

S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 118; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 122.

Definitions 268. (1) Interpretation - The following definitions apply in this Part. “foreign court” means a judicial or other authority competent to control or supervise a foreign proceeding. “foreign main proceeding” means a foreign proceeding in a jurisdiction where the debtor has the centre of the debtor’s main interests. “foreign non-main proceeding” means a foreign proceeding, other than a foreign main proceeding. “foreign proceeding” means a judicial or an administrative proceeding, including an interim proceeding, in a jurisdiction outside Canada dealing with creditor’s collective interests generally under any law relating to bankruptcy or insolvency in which a debtor’s property and affairs are subject to control or supervision by a foreign court for the purpose of reorganization or liquidation. “foreign representative” means a person or body, including one appointed on an interim basis, who is authorized, in a foreign proceeding in respect of a debtor, to (a)

administer the debtor’s property or affairs for the purpose of reorganization or liquidation; or

(b)

act as a representative in respect of the foreign proceeding.

(2) Centre of debtor’s main interests - For the purposes of this Part, in the absence of proof to the contrary, a debtor’s registered office and, in the case of a debtor who is an individual, the debtor’s ordinary place of residence are deemed to be the centre of the debtor’s main interests. (3) [Repealed 2005, c. 47, s. 122.]

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Ss. 268-270

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

(4) [Repealed 2005, c. 47, s. 122.] (5) [Repealed 2005, c. 47, s. 122.] (6) [Repealed 2005, c. 47, s. 122.] S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 118; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 102(1) and (2) (F); S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 122.

Recognition of Foreign Proceeding 269. (1) Application for recognition of a foreign proceeding - A foreign representative may apply to the court for recognition of the foreign proceeding in respect of which he or she is a foreign representative. (2) Documents that must accompany application - Subject to subsection (3), the application must be accompanied by (a)

a certified copy of the instrument, however designated, that commenced the foreign proceeding or a certificate from the foreign court affirming the existence of the foreign proceeding;

(b)

a certified copy of the instrument, however designated, authorizing the foreign representative to act in that capacity or a certificate from the foreign court affirming the foreign representative’s authority to act in that capacity; and

(c)

a statement identifying all foreign proceedings in respect of the debtor that are known to the foreign representative.

(3) Documents may be considered as proof - The court may, without further proof, accept the documents referred to in paragraphs (2)(a) and (b) as evidence that the proceeding to which they relate is a foreign proceeding and that the applicant is a foreign representative in respect of the foreign proceeding. (4) Other evidence - In the absence of the documents referred to in paragraphs (2)(a) and (b), the court may accept any other evidence of the existence of the foreign proceeding and of the foreign representative’s authority that it considers appropriate. (5) Translation - The court may require a translation of any document accompanying the application. S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 118; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 122. 270. (1) Order recognizing foreign proceeding - If the court is satisfied that the application for the recognition of a foreign proceeding relates to a foreign proceeding and that the applicant is a foreign representative in respect of that foreign proceeding, the court shall make an order recognizing the foreign proceeding. (2) Nature of foreign proceeding to be specified - The court shall specify in the order whether the foreign proceeding is a foreign main proceeding or a foreign non-main proceeding. S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 118; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 122.

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Ss. 271-272

271. (1) Effects of recognition of a foreign main proceeding - Subject to subsections (2) to (4), on the making of an order recognizing a foreign proceeding that is specified to be a foreign main proceeding, (a)

no person shall commence or continue any action, execution or other proceedings concerning the debtor’s property, debts, liabilities or obligations;

(b)

if the debtor carries on a business, the debtor shall not, outside the ordinary course of the business, sell or otherwise dispose of any of the debtor’s property in Canada that relates to the business and shall not sell or otherwise dispose of any other property of the debtor in Canada; and

(c)

if the debtor is an individual, the debtor shall not sell or otherwise dispose of any property of the debtor in Canada.

(2) When subsection (1) does not apply - Subsection (1) does not apply if any proceedings under this Act have been commenced in respect of the debtor at the time the order recognizing the foreign proceeding is made. (3) Exceptions - The prohibitions in paragraphs (1)(a) and (b) are subject to the exceptions specified by the court in the order recognizing the foreign proceeding that would apply in Canada had the foreign proceeding taken place in Canada under this Act. (4) Application of this and other Acts - Nothing in subsection (1) precludes the commencement or the continuation of proceedings under this Act, the Companies’ Creditors Arrangement Act or the Winding-up and Restructuring Act in respect of the debtor. (5) [Repealed 2005, c. 47, s. 122.] S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 118; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 122. 272. (1) Orders - If an order recognizing a foreign proceeding is made, the court may, on application by the foreign representative who applied for the order, if the court is satisfied that it is necessary for the protection of the debtor’s property or the interests of a creditor or creditors, make any order that it considers appropriate, including an order (a)

if the foreign proceeding is a foreign non-main proceeding, imposing the prohibitions referred to in paragraphs 271(1)(a) to (c) and specifying the exceptions to those prohibitions, taking subsection 271(3) into account;

(b)

respecting the examination of witnesses, the taking of evidence or the delivery of information concerning the debtor’s property, affairs, debts, liabilities and obligations;

(c)

entrusting the administration or realization of all or part of the debtor’s property located in Canada to the foreign representative or to any other person designated by the court; and

(d)

appointing a trustee as receiver of all or any part of the debtor’s property in Canada, for any term that the court considers appropriate and directing the receiver to do all or any of the following, namely,

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Ss. 272-275

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

(i)

to take possession of all or part of the debtor’s property specified in the appointment and to exercise the control over the property and over the debtor’s business that the court considers appropriate, and

(ii)

to take any other action that the court considers appropriate.

(2) Restriction - If any proceedings under this Act have been commenced in respect of the debtor at the time an order recognizing the foreign proceeding is made, an order made under subsection (1) must be consistent with any order that may be made in any proceedings under this Act. (3) Application of this and other Acts - The making of an order under paragraph (1)(a) does not preclude the commencement or the continuation of proceedings under this Act, the Companies’ Creditors Arrangement Act or the Winding-up and Restructuring Act in respect of the debtor. S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 118; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 122. 273. Terms and conditions of orders - An order under this Part may be made on any terms and conditions that the court considers appropriate in the circumstances. S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 118; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 122. 274. Commencement or continuation of proceedings - If an order recognizing a foreign proceeding is made, the foreign representative may commence or continue any proceedings under sections 43, 46 to 47.1 and 49 and subsections 50(1) and 50.4(1) in respect of a debtor as if the foreign representative were a creditor of the debtor, or the debtor, as the case may be. S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 118; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 103; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 122.

Obligations 275. (1) Cooperation - court - If an order recognizing a foreign proceeding is made, the court shall cooperate, to the maximum extent possible, with the foreign representative and the foreign court involved in the foreign proceeding. (2) Cooperation - other authorities in Canada - If any proceedings under this Act have been commenced in respect of a debtor and an order recognizing a foreign proceeding is made in respect of the debtor, every person who exercises any powers or performs duties and functions in any proceedings under this Act shall cooperate, to the maximum extent possible, with the foreign representative and the foreign court involved in the foreign proceeding. (3) Forms of cooperation - For the purpose of this section, cooperation may be provided by any appropriate means, including (a)

the appointment of a person to act at the direction of the court;

(b)

the communication of information by any means considered appropriate by the court;

(c)

the coordination of the administration and supervision of the debtor’s assets and affairs;

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Ss. 275-278

(d)

the approval or implementation by courts of agreements concerning the coordination of proceedings; and

(e)

the coordination of concurrent proceedings regarding the same debtor.

S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 118; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 122 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 59. 276. Obligations of foreign representative - If an order recognizing a foreign proceeding is made, the foreign representative who applied for the order shall (a)

(b)

without delay, inform the court of (i)

any substantial change in the status of the recognized foreign proceeding,

(ii)

any substantial change in the status of the foreign representative’s authority to act in that capacity, and

(iii)

any other foreign proceeding in respect of the same debtor that becomes known to the foreign representative; and

publish, without delay after the order is made, once a week for two consecutive weeks, or as otherwise directed by the court, in one or more newspapers in Canada specified by the court, a notice containing the prescribed information.

S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 122.

Multiple Proceedings 277. Concurrent proceedings - If any proceedings under this Act in respect of a debtor are commenced at any time after an order recognizing the foreign proceeding is made, (a)

the court shall review any order made under section 272 and, if it determines that the order is inconsistent with any orders made in the proceedings under this Act, the court shall amend or revoke the order; and

(b)

if the foreign proceeding is a foreign main proceeding, the court shall make an order terminating the application of the prohibitions in paragraphs 271(1)(a) to (c) if the court determines that those prohibitions are inconsistent with any similar prohibitions imposed in the proceedings under this Act.

S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 122. 278. (1) Multiple foreign proceedings - If, at any time after an order is made in respect of a foreign non-main proceeding in respect of a debtor, an order recognizing a foreign main proceeding is made in respect of the debtor, the court shall review any order made under section 272 in respect of the foreign non-main proceeding and, if it determines that the order is inconsistent with any orders made under that section in respect of the foreign main proceedings, the court shall amend or revoke the order. (2) Multiple foreign proceedings - If, at any time after an order is made in respect of a foreign non-main proceeding in respect of the debtor, an order recognizing another foreign non-main proceeding is made in respect of the debtor, the court shall, for the purpose of

207

Ss. 278-283

Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

facilitating the coordination of the foreign non-main proceedings, review any order made under section 272 in respect of the first recognized proceeding and amend or revoke that order if it considers it appropriate. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 122.

Miscellaneous Provisions 279. Authorization to act as representative of proceeding under this Act - The court may authorize any person or body to act as a representative in respect of any proceeding under this Act for the purpose of having them recognized in a jurisdiction outside Canada. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 122. 280. Foreign representative status - An application by a foreign representative for any order under this Part does not submit the foreign representative to the jurisdiction of the court for any other purpose except with regard to the costs of the proceedings, but the court may make any order under this Part conditional on the compliance by the foreign representative with any other court order. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 122. 281. Foreign proceeding appeal - A foreign representative is not prevented from making an application to the court under this Part by reason only that proceedings by way of appeal or review have been taken in a foreign proceeding, and the court may, on an application if such proceedings have been taken, grant relief as if the proceedings had not been taken. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 122. 282. Presumption of insolvency - For the purposes of this Part, if a bankruptcy, an insolvency or a reorganization or a similar order has been made in respect of a debtor in a foreign proceeding, a certified copy of the order is, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, proof that the debtor is insolvent and proof of the appointment of the foreign representative made by the order. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 122. 283. (1) Credit for recovery in other jurisdictions - If a bankruptcy order, a proposal or an assignment is made in respect of a debtor under this Act, the following shall be taken into account in the distribution of dividends to the debtor’s creditors in Canada as if they were a part of that distribution: (a)

the amount that a creditor receives or is entitled to receive outside Canada by way of a dividend in a foreign proceeding in respect of the debtor; and

(b)

the value of any property of the debtor that the creditor acquires outside Canada on account of a provable claim of the creditor or that the creditor acquires outside Canada by way of a transfer that, if the transfer were subject to this Act, would be a preference over other creditors or a transfer at undervalue.

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Ss. 283-285

(2) Restriction - Despite subsection (1), the creditor is not entitled to receive a dividend from the distribution in Canada until every other creditor who has a claim of equal rank in the order of priority established under this Act has received a dividend whose amount is the same percentage of that other creditor’s claim as the aggregate of the amount referred to in paragraph (1)(a) and the value referred to in paragraph (1)(b) is of that creditor’s claim. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 122. 284. (1) Court not prevented from applying certain rules - Nothing in this Part prevents the court, on the application of a foreign representative or any other interested person, from applying any legal or equitable rules governing the recognition of foreign insolvency orders and assistance to foreign representatives that are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act. (2) Public policy exception - Nothing in this Part prevents the court from refusing to do something that would be contrary to public policy. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 122 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 60.

PART XIV — REVIEW OF ACT 285. (1) Review of Act - Within five years after the coming into force of this section, the Minister shall cause to be laid before both Houses of Parliament a report on the provisions and operation of this Act, including any recommendations for amendments to those provisions. (2) Reference to parliamentary committee - The report stands referred to the committee of the Senate, the House of Commons or both Houses of Parliament that is designated or established for that purpose, which shall (a)

as soon as possible after the laying of the report, review the report; and

(b)

report to the Senate, the House of Commons or both Houses of Parliament, as the case may be, within one year after the laying of the Minister’s report, or any further time authorized by the Senate, the House of Commons or both Houses of Parliament.

S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 122.

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Companies’ Creditors Arrangement Act R.S.C. 1985, c. C-36 An Act to facilitate compromises and arrangements between companies and their creditors

Current to June 1, 2011 R.S.C. 1985, c. C-36

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Companies’ Creditors Arrangement Act Contents Section 2 — Definitions .......................................................................... 215 Section 3 — Application ......................................................................... 218 Part I — Compromises and Arrangements ......................................218 Section 4 — Compromise with Unsecured Creditors .............................. 218 Section 5 — Compromise with Secured Creditors .................................. 219 Section 5.1 — Compromise of Claims Against Directors ....................... 219 Section 6 — Creditor and Court Approval .............................................. 219 Section 7 — Court Directions on Meetings of Creditors ......................... 222 Part II — Jurisdiction of Courts.........................................................222 Section 9 — Head Office or Chief Place of Business.............................. 222 Section 10 — Material to be Filed ........................................................... 222 Section 11 — General Powers of The Court .......................................... 223 Section 11.01 — Immediate Payment Provisions (Rights of Suppliers)..................................................................... 223 Section 11.02 — Stays of Proceedings .................................................... 223 Section 11.2 — DIP Financing and Prioritizing Securities ..................... 229 Section 11.3 — Assignment of Agreements ........................................... 230 Section 11.4 — Critical Suppliers ........................................................... 230 Section 11.5(1) — Removal of Directors ................................................ 231 Sections 11.51–11.52 — Security for Directors’ Indemnification and Monitor’s and Advisers’ Costs................. 231 Section 11.6 — Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act ...................................... 232 Section 11.7 — Appointment of Monitor ............................................... 232 Sections 14–15 — Appeals to Court of Appeal and Supreme Court ....... 235 Section 17 — Courts to Aid Each Other.................................................. 236 Part III — General ................................................................................236 Sections 19–20 — Claims in CCCA Cases ............................................. 236 Section 21 — Set-Off Rights ................................................................... 238 Sections 22–22.1 — Classes of Creditors ............................................... 238 Sections 23–25 — Monitors ................................................................... 239 Sections 26–31 — Powers and Duties of Superintendent of Bankruptcy ............................................................... 241 Section 32 — Disclaimer of Agreements ............................................... 244 Section 33 — Collective Agreements ...................................................... 245

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Section 34 — Prohibition Against Terminating Agreements .................. 246 Section 35 — Obligations to Assist Monitor ........................................... 248 Section 36 — Restriction on Sale of Assets ............................................ 248 Section 36.1 — BIA Preference Provisions Apply .................................. 249 Sections 38–40 — Crown Claims ............................................................ 250 Section 43 — Foreign Currency Claims .................................................. 252 Part IV — Cross-Border Insolvencies .............................................. 252 Section 44 — Purpose ............................................................................ 252 Section 45 — Definitions ....................................................................... 253 Section 46 — Application for Recognition of Foreign Proceedings........ 253 Section 47 — Orders Recognizing Foreign Proceedings ......................... 254 Section 48 — Recognition of Foreign Main Proceedings ....................... 254 Sections 49–50 — Protection of Debtor’s Property................................. 255 Section 51 — Proceedings by Foreign Representatives After Recognition ....................................................................... 255 Section 52 — Cooperation with Foreign Courts and Foreign Representatives ................................................................. 256 Section 53 — Notification by Foreign Representatives ........................... 256 Section 54 — Concurrent Proceedings .................................................... 257 Section 55 — Multiple Foreign Proceedings ........................................... 257 Section 56 — Authorization to Act Outside Canada ............................... 257 Section 57 — Non-Attornment by Foreign Representatives ................... 257 Section 58 — Appeals in Foreign Proceedings ....................................... 257 Section 59 — Presumption of Insolvency ............................................... 258 Section 60 — Rule Against Double Recovery......................................... 258 Section 61(2) — Public Policy Exception ............................................... 258 Part V — Administration .................................................................... 258 Section 63 — Five Year Review of Act ................................................. 259

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Ss. 1-2

SHORT TITLE 1. Short title - This Act may be cited as the Companies’ Creditors Arrangement Act. R.S.C. 1970, c. C-25, s. 1.

INTERPRETATION 2. (1) Definitions - In this Act, “aircraft objects” has the same meaning as in subsection 2(1) of the International Interests in Mobile Equipment (aircraft equipment) Act; “bargaining agent” means any trade union that has entered into a collective agreement on behalf of the employees of a company; “bond” includes a debenture, debenture stock or other evidences of indebtedness; “cash-flow statement”, in respect of a company, means the statement referred to in paragraph 10(2)(a) indicating the company’s projected cash flow; “claim” means any indebtedness, liability or obligation of any kind that would be a claim provable within the meaning of section 2 of the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act; “collective agreement”, in relation to a debtor company, means a collective agreement within the meaning of the jurisdiction governing collective bargaining between the debtor company and a bargaining agent; “company” means any company, corporation or legal person incorporated by or under an Act of Parliament or of the legislature of a province, any incorporated company having assets or doing business in Canada, wherever incorporated, and any income trust, but does not include banks, authorized foreign banks within the meaning of section 2 of the Bank Act, railway or telegraph companies, insurance companies and companies to which the Trust and Loan Companies Act applies; “court” means (a)

in Nova Scotia, British Columbia and Newfoundland, the Supreme Court,

(a.1) in Ontario, the Superior Court of Justice, (b)

in Quebec, the Superior Court,

(c)

in New Brunswick, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta, the Court of Queen’s Bench,

(c.1) in Prince Edward Island, the Trial Division of the Supreme Court, and (d)

in Yukon and the Northwest Territories, the Supreme Court, and in Nunavut, the Nunavut Court of Justice;

“debtor company” means any company that

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(a)

is bankrupt or insolvent,

(b)

has committed an act of bankruptcy within the meaning of the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act or is deemed insolvent within the meaning of the Winding-up and Restructuring Act, whether or not proceedings in respect of the company have been taken under either of those Acts,

(c)

has made an authorized assignment or against which a bankruptcy order has been made under the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act, or

(d)

is in the course of being wound up under the Winding-up and Restructuring Act because the company is insolvent;

“director” means, in the case of a company other than an income trust, a person occupying the position of director by whatever name called and, in the case of an income trust, a person occupying the position of trustee by whatever named called; “eligible financial contract” means an agreement of a prescribed kind; “equity claim” means a claim that is in respect of an equity interest, including a claim for, among others, (a)

a dividend or similar payment,

(b)

a return of capital,

(c)

a redemption or retraction obligation,

(d)

a monetary loss resulting from the ownership, purchase or sale of an equity interest or from the rescission, or, in Quebec, the annulment, of a purchase or sale of an equity interest, or

(e)

contribution or indemnity in respect of a claim referred to in any of paragraphs (a) to (d);

“equity interest” means (a)

in the case of a company other than an income trust, a share in the company - or a warrant or option or another right to acquire a share in the company - other than one that is derived from a convertible debt, and

(b)

in the case of an income trust, a unit in the income trust - or a warrant or option or another right to acquire a unit in the income trust - other than one that is derived from a convertible debt;

“financial collateral” means any of the following that is subject to an interest, or in the Province of Quebec a right, that secures payment or performance of an obligation in respect of an eligible financial contract or that is subject to a title transfer credit support agreement: (a)

cash or cash equivalents, including negotiable instruments and demand deposits,

(b)

securities, a securities account, a securities entitlement or a right to acquire securities, or

(c)

a futures agreement or a futures account;

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“income trust” means a trust that has assets in Canada if (a)

its units are listed on a prescribed stock exchange on the day on which proceedings commence under this Act, or

(b)

the majority of its units are held by a trust whose units are listed on a prescribed stock exchange on the day on which proceedings commence under this Act;

“initial application” means the first application made under this Act in respect of a company; “monitor”, in respect of a company, means the person appointed under section 11.7 to monitor the business and financial affairs of the company; “net termination value” means the net amount obtained after netting or setting off or compensating the mutual obligations between the parties to an eligible financial contract in accordance with its provisions; “prescribed” means prescribed by regulation; “secured creditor” means a holder of a mortgage, hypothec, pledge, charge, lien or privilege on or against, or any assignment, cession or transfer of, all or any property of a debtor company as security for indebtedness of the debtor company, or a holder of any bond of a debtor company secured by a mortgage, hypothec, pledge, charge, lien or privilege on or against, or any assignment, cession or transfer of, or a trust in respect of, all or any property of the debtor company, whether the holder or beneficiary is resident or domiciled within or outside Canada, and a trustee under any trust deed or other instrument securing any of those bonds shall be deemed to be a secured creditor for all purposes of this Act except for the purpose of voting at a creditors’ meeting in respect of any of those bonds; “shareholder” includes a member of a company - and, in the case of an income trust, a holder of a unit in an income trust - to which this Act applies; “Superintendent of Bankruptcy” means the Superintendent of Bankruptcy appointed under subsection 5(1) of the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act; “Superintendent of Financial Institutions” means the Superintendent of Financial Institutions appointed under subsection 5(1) of the Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions Act; “title transfer credit support agreement” means an agreement under which a debtor company has provided title to property for the purpose of securing the payment or performance of an obligation of the debtor company in respect of an eligible financial contract; “unsecured creditor” means any creditor of a company who is not a secured creditor, whether resident or domiciled within or outside Canada, and a trustee for the holders of any unsecured bonds issued under a trust deed or other instrument running in favour of the trustee shall be deemed to be an unsecured creditor for all purposes of this Act except for the purpose of voting at a creditors’ meeting in respect of any of those bonds. (2) Meaning of “related” and “dealing at arm’s length” - For the purpose of this Act, section 4 of the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act applies for the purpose of determining whether a person is related to or dealing at arm’s length to a debtor company.

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R.S.C. 1985, c. C-36, s. 2; R.S.C. 1985, c. 27 (2nd Supp.), s. 10; S.C. 1990, c. 17, s. 4; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 90; S.C. 1993, c. 34, s. 52; S.C. 1996, c. 6, s. 167; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 120; S.C. 1999, c. 3, s. 22; S.C. 1998, c. 30, s. 14; S.C. 1999, c. 28, s. 154; S.C. 2001, c. 9, s. 575; S.C. 2002, c. 7, s. 133; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 193; S.C. 2005, c. 3, s. 15; S.C. 2007, c. 29, s. 104; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 124 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, ss. 61 and 105. 3. (1) Application - This Act applies in respect of a debtor company or affiliated debtor companies if the total of claims against the debtor company or affiliated debtor companies, determined in accordance with section 20, is more than $5,000,000 or any other amount that is prescribed. (2) Affiliated companies - For the purposes of this Act, (a)

companies are affiliated companies if one of them is the subsidiary of the other or both are subsidiaries of the same company or each of them is controlled by the same person; and

(b)

two companies affiliated with the same company at the same time are deemed to be affiliated with each other.

(3) Company controlled - For the purposes of this Act, a company is controlled by a person or by two or more companies if (a)

securities of the company to which are attached more than fifty per cent of the votes that may be cast to elect directors of the company are held, other than by way of security only, by or for the benefit of that person or by or for the benefit of those companies; and

(b)

the votes attached to those securities are sufficient, if exercised, to elect a majority of the directors of the company.

(4) Subsidiary - For the purposes of this Act, a company is a subsidiary of another company if (a)

(b)

it is controlled by (i)

that other company,

(ii)

that other company and one or more companies each of which is controlled by that other company, or

(iii)

two or more companies each of which is controlled by that other company; or

it is a subsidiary of a company that is a subsidiary of that other company.

R.S.C. 1985, c. C-36, s. 3; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 121; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 125.

PART I — COMPROMISES AND ARRANGEMENTS 4. Compromise with unsecured creditors - Where a compromise or an arrangement is proposed between a debtor company and its unsecured creditors or any class of them, the court

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may, on the application in a summary way of the company, of any such creditor or of the trustee in bankruptcy or liquidator of the company, order a meeting of the creditors or class of creditors, and, if the court so determines, of the shareholders of the company, to be summoned in such manner as the court directs. R.S.C. 1970, c. C-25, s. 4. 5. Compromise with secured creditors - Where a compromise or an arrangement is proposed between a debtor company and its secured creditors or any class of them, the court may, on the application in a summary way of the company or of any such creditor or of the trustee in bankruptcy or liquidator of the company, order a meeting of the creditors or class of creditors, and, if the court so determines, of the shareholders of the company, to be summoned in such manner as the court directs. R.S.C. 1970, c. C-25, s. 5. 5.1 (1) Claims against directors – compromise - A compromise or arrangement made in respect of a debtor company may include in its terms provision for the compromise of claims against directors of the company that arose before the commencement of proceedings under this Act and that relate to the obligations of the company where the directors are by law liable in their capacity as directors for the payment of such obligations. (2) Exception - A provision for the compromise of claims against directors may not include claims that (a)

relate to contractual rights of one or more creditors; or

(b)

are based on allegations of misrepresentations made by directors to creditors or of wrongful or oppressive conduct by directors.

(3) Powers of court - The court may declare that a claim against directors shall not be compromised if it is satisfied that the compromise would not be fair and reasonable in the circumstances. (4) Resignation or removal of directors - Where all of the directors have resigned or have been removed by the shareholders without replacement, any person who manages or supervises the management of the business and affairs of the debtor company shall be deemed to be a director for the purposes of this section. S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 122. 6. (1) Compromises to be sanctioned by court - If a majority in number representing two thirds in value of the creditors, or the class of creditors, as the case may be - other than, unless the court orders otherwise, a class of creditors having equity claims, - present and voting either in person or by proxy at the meeting or meetings of creditors respectively held under sections 4 and 5, or either of those sections, agree to any compromise or arrangement either as proposed or as altered or modified at the meeting or meetings, the compromise or arrangement may be sanctioned by the court and, if so sanctioned, is binding (a)

on all the creditors or the class of creditors, as the case may be, and on any trustee for that class of creditors, whether secured or unsecured, as the case may be, and on the company; and

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(b)

in the case of a company that has made an authorized assignment or against which a bankruptcy order has been made under the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act or is in the course of being wound up under the Winding-up and Restructuring Act, on the trustee in bankruptcy or liquidator and contributories of the company.

(2) Court may order amendment - If a court sanctions a compromise or arrangement, it may order that the debtor’s constating instrument be amended in accordance with the compromise or arrangement to reflect any change that may lawfully be made under federal or provincial law. (3) Restriction - certain Crown claims - Unless Her Majesty agrees otherwise, the court may sanction a compromise or arrangement only if the compromise or arrangement provides for the payment in full to Her Majesty in right of Canada or a province, within six months after court sanction of the compromise or arrangement, of all amounts that were outstanding at the time of the application for an order under section 11 or 11.02 and that are of a kind that could be subject to a demand under (a)

subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act;

(b)

any provision of the Canada Pension Plan or the Employment Insurance Act that refers to subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act and provides for the collection of a contribution, as defined in the Canada Pension Plan, or an employee’s premium, or employer’s premium, as defined in the Employment Insurance Act, and of any related interest, penalties or other amounts; or

(c)

any provision of provincial legislation that has a purpose similar to subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act, or that refers to that subsection, to the extent that it provides for the collection of a sum, and of any related interest, penalties or other amounts, and the sum (i)

has been withheld or deducted by a person from a payment to another person and is in respect of a tax similar in nature to the income tax imposed on individuals under the Income Tax Act, or

(ii)

is of the same nature as a contribution under the Canada Pension Plan if the province is a “province providing a comprehensive pension plan” as defined in subsection 3(1) of the Canada Pension Plan and the provincial legislation establishes a “provincial pension plan” as defined in that subsection.

(4) Restriction - default of remittance to Crown - If an order contains a provision authorized by section 11.09, no compromise or arrangement is to be sanctioned by the court if, at the time the court hears the application for sanction, Her Majesty in right of Canada or a province satisfies the court that the company is in default on any remittance of an amount referred to in subsection (3) that became due after the time of the application for an order under section 11.02. (5) Restriction - employees, etc. - The court may sanction a compromise or an arrangement only if (a)

the compromise or arrangement provides for payment to the employees and former employees of the company, immediately after the court’s sanction, of

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(b)

S. 6

(i)

amounts at least equal to the amounts that they would have been qualified to receive under paragraph 136(1)(d) of the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act if the company had become bankrupt on the day on which proceedings commenced under this Act, and

(ii)

wages, salaries, commissions or compensation for services rendered after proceedings commence under this Act and before the court sanctions the compromise or arrangement, together with, in the case of travelling salespersons, disbursements properly incurred by them in and about the company’s business during the same period; and

the court is satisfied that the company can and will make the payments as required under paragraph (a).

(6) Restriction - pension plan - If the company participates in a prescribed pension plan for the benefit of its employees, the court may sanction a compromise or an arrangement in respect of the company only if (a)

the compromise or arrangement provides for payment of the following amounts that are unpaid to the fund established for the purpose of the pension plan: (i)

an amount equal to the sum of all amounts that were deducted from the employees’ remuneration for payment to the fund,

(ii)

if the prescribed pension plan is regulated by an Act of Parliament,

(iii)

(b)

(A)

an amount equal to the normal cost, within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Pension Benefits Standards Regulations, 1985, that was required to be paid by the employer to the fund, and

(B)

an amount equal to the sum of all amounts that were required to be paid by the employer to the fund under a defined contribution provision, within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Pension Benefits Standards Act, 1985, and

in the case of any other prescribed pension plan, (A)

an amount equal to the amount that would be the normal cost, within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Pension Benefits Standards Regulations, 1985, that the employer would be required to pay to the fund if the prescribed plan were regulated by an Act of Parliament, and

(B)

an amount equal to the sum of all amounts that would have been required to be paid by the employer to the fund under a defined contribution provision, within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Pension Benefits Standards Act, 1985, if the prescribed plan were regulated by an Act of Parliament; and

the court is satisfied that the company can and will make the payments as required under paragraph (a).

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(7) Non-application of subsection (6) - Despite subsection (6), the court may sanction a compromise or arrangement that does not allow for the payment of the amounts referred to in that subsection if it is satisfied that the relevant parties have entered into an agreement, approved by the relevant pension regulator, respecting the payment of those amounts. (8) Payment - equity claims - No compromise or arrangement that provides for the payment of an equity claim is to be sanctioned by the court unless it provides that all claims that are not equity claims are to be paid in full before the equity claim is to be paid. R.S.C. 1985, c. C-36, s. 6; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 90; S.C. 1996, c. 6, s. 167; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 123; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 194; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 126 as replaced by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 106. 7. Court may give directions - Where an alteration or a modification of any compromise or arrangement is proposed at any time after the court has directed a meeting or meetings to be summoned, the meeting or meetings may be adjourned on such term as to notice and otherwise as the court may direct, and those directions may be given after as well as before adjournment of any meeting or meetings, and the court may in its discretion direct that it is not necessary to adjourn any meeting or to convene any further meeting of any class of creditors or shareholders that in the opinion of the court is not adversely affected by the alteration or modification proposed, and any compromise or arrangement so altered or modified may be sanctioned by the court and have effect under section 6. R.S.C. 1970, c. C-25, s. 7. 8. Scope of Act - This Act extends and does not limit the provisions of any instrument now or hereafter existing that governs the rights of creditors or any class of them and has full force and effect notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in that instrument. R.S.C. 1970, c. C-25, s. 8.

PART II — JURISDICTION OF COURTS 9. (1) Jurisdiction of court to receive applications - Any application under this Act may be made to the court that has jurisdiction in the province within which the head office or chief place of business of the company in Canada is situated, or, if the company has no place of business in Canada, in any province within which any assets of the company are situated. (2) Single judge may exercise powers, subject to appeal - The powers conferred by this Act on a court may, subject to appeal as provided for in this Act, be exercised by a single judge thereof, and those powers may be exercised in chambers during term or in vacation. R.S.C. 1970, c. C-25, s. 9. 10. (1) Form of applications - Applications under this Act shall be made by petition or by way of originating summons or notice of motion in accordance with the practice of the court in which the application is made. (2) Documents that must accompany initial application - An initial application must be accompanied by

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(a)

a statement indicating, on a weekly basis, the projected cash flow of the debtor company;

(b)

a report containing the prescribed representations of the debtor company regarding the preparation of the cash-flow statement; and

(c)

copies of all financial statements, audited or unaudited, prepared during the year before the application or, if no such statements were prepared in that year, a copy of the most recent such statement.

(3) Publication ban - The court may make an order prohibiting the release to the public of any cash-flow statement, or any part of a cash-flow statement, if it is satisfied that the release would unduly prejudice the debtor company and the making of the order would not unduly prejudice the company’s creditors, but the court may, in the order, direct that the cash flow statement or any part of it be made available to any person specified in the order on any terms or conditions that the court considers appropriate. R.S.C. 1985, c. C-36, s. 10; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 127. 11. General power of court - Despite anything in the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act or the Winding-up and Restructuring Act, if an application is made under this Act in respect of a debtor company, the court, on the application of any person interested in the matter, may, subject to the restrictions set out in this Act, on notice to any other person or without notice as it may see fit, make any order that it considers appropriate in the circumstances. R.S.C. 1985, c. C-36, s. 11; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 90; S.C. 1996, c. 6, s. 167; S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 124; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 128. 11.01 Rights of suppliers - No order made under section 11 or 11.02 has the effect of (a)

prohibiting a person from requiring immediate payment for goods, services, use of leased or licensed property or other valuable consideration provided after the order is made; or

(b)

requiring the further advance of money or credit.

S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 128. 11.02 (1) Stays, etc. - initial application - A court may, on an initial application in respect of a debtor company, make an order on any terms that it may impose, effective for the period that the court considers necessary, which period may not be more than 30 days, (a)

staying, until otherwise ordered by the court, all proceedings taken or that might be taken in respect of the company under the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act or the Winding-up and Restructuring Act;

(b)

restraining, until otherwise ordered by the court, further proceedings in any action, suit or proceeding against the company; and

(c)

prohibiting, until otherwise ordered by the court, the commencement of any action, suit or proceeding against the company.

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(2) Stays, etc. - other than initial application - A court may, on an application in respect of a debtor company other than an initial application, make an order, on any terms that it may impose, (a)

staying, until otherwise ordered by the court, for any period that the court considers necessary, all proceedings taken or that might be taken in respect of the company under an Act referred to in paragraph (1)(a);

(b)

restraining, until otherwise ordered by the court, further proceedings in any action, suit or proceeding against the company; and

(c)

prohibiting, until otherwise ordered by the court, the commencement of any action, suit or proceeding against the company.

(3) Burden of proof on application - The court shall not make the order unless (a)

the applicant satisfies the court that circumstances exist that make the order appropriate; and

(b)

in the case of an order under subsection (2), the applicant also satisfies the court that the applicant has acted, and is acting, in good faith and with due diligence.

(4) Restriction - Orders doing anything referred to in subsection (1) or (2) may only be made under this section. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 128 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 62 (F). 11.03 (1) Stays – directors - An order made under section 11.02 may provide that no person may commence or continue any action against a director of the company on any claim against directors that arose before the commencement of proceedings under this Act and that relates to obligations of the company if directors are under any law liable in their capacity as directors for the payment of those obligations, until a compromise or an arrangement in respect of the company, if one is filed, is sanctioned by the court or is refused by the creditors or the court. (2) Exception - Subsection (1) does not apply in respect of an action against a director on a guarantee given by the director relating to the company’s obligations or an action seeking injunctive relief against a director in relation to the company. (3) Persons deemed to be directors - If all of the directors have resigned or have been removed by the shareholders without replacement, any person who manages or supervises the management of the business and affairs of the company is deemed to be a director for the purposes of this section. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 128. 11.04 Persons obligated under letter of credit or guarantee - No order made under section 11.02 has affect on any action, suit or proceeding against a person, other than the company in respect of whom the order is made, who is obligated under a letter of credit or guarantee in relation to the company. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 128.

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11.05 [Repealed] - [Prior to its coming into force by S.C. 2007, c. 29, s. 105, effective June 22, 2007 (R.A.)]. 11.06 Member of the Canadian Payments Association - No order may be made under this Act that has the effect of preventing a member of the Canadian Payments Association from ceasing to act as a clearing agent or group clearer for a company in accordance with the Canadian Payments Act or the by-laws or rules of that Association. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 128 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 64. 11.07 Aircraft objects - No order may be made under section 11.02 that has the effect of preventing a creditor who holds security on aircraft objects - or a lessor of aircraft objects under an agreement with a company from taking possession of the aircraft objects (a)

if, after the commencement of proceedings under this Act, the company defaults in protecting or maintaining the aircraft objects in accordance with the agreement;

(b)

60 days after the commencement of proceedings under this Act unless, during that period, the company

(c)

(i)

remedied the default of every other obligation under the agreement, other than a default constituted by the commencement of proceedings under this Act or the breach of a provision in the agreement relating to the company’s financial condition,

(ii)

agreed to perform the obligations under the agreement, other than an obligation not to become insolvent or an obligation relating to the company’s financial condition, until proceedings under this Act end, and

(iii)

agreed to perform all the obligations arising under the agreement after the proceedings under this Act end; or

if, during the period that begins 60 days after the commencement of the proceedings under this Act and ends on the day on which proceedings under this Act end, the company defaults in performing an obligation under the agreement, other than an obligation not to become insolvent or an obligation relating to the company’s financial condition.

S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 128. 11.08 Restriction - certain powers, duties and functions - No order may be made under section 11.02 that affects (a)

the exercise or performance by the Minister of Finance or the Superintendent of Financial Institutions of any power, duty or function assigned to them by the Bank Act, the Cooperative Credit Associations Act, the Insurance Companies Act or the Trust and Loan Companies Act;

(b)

the exercise or performance by the Governor in Council, the Minister of Finance or the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation of any power, duty or function assigned to them by the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation Act; or

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(c)

the exercise by the Attorney General of Canada of any power, assigned to him or her by the Winding-up and Restructuring Act.

S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 128. 11.09 (1) Stay - Her Majesty - An order made under section 11.02 may provide that (a)

(b)

Her Majesty in right of Canada may not exercise rights under subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act or any provision of the Canada Pension Plan or of the Employment Insurance Act that refers to subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act and provides for the collection of a contribution, as defined in the Canada Pension Plan, or an employee’s premium, or employer’s premium, as defined in the Employment Insurance Act, and of any related interest, penalties or other amounts, in respect of the company if the company is a tax debtor under that subsection or provision, for the period that the court considers appropriate but ending not later than (i)

the expiry of the order,

(ii)

the refusal of a proposed compromise by the creditors or the court,

(iii)

six months following the court sanction of a compromise or an arrangement,

(iv)

the default by the company on any term of a compromise or an arrangement, or

(v)

the performance of a compromise or an arrangement in respect of the company; and

Her Majesty in right of a province may not exercise rights under any provision of provincial legislation in respect of the company if the company is a debtor under that legislation and the provision has a purpose similar to subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act, or refers to that subsection, to the extent that it provides for the collection of a sum, and of any related interest, penalties or other amounts, and the sum (i)

has been withheld or deducted by a person from a payment to another person and is in respect of a tax similar in nature to the income tax imposed on individuals under the Income Tax Act, or

(ii)

is of the same nature as a contribution under the Canada Pension Plan if the province is a “province providing a comprehensive pension plan” as defined in subsection 3(1) of the Canada Pension Plan and the provincial legislation establishes a “provincial pension plan” as defined in that subsection,

for the period that the court considers appropriate but ending not later than the occurrence or time referred to in whichever of subparagraphs (a)(i) to (v) that may apply. (2) When order ceases to be in effect - The portions of an order made under section 11.02 that affect the exercise of rights of Her Majesty referred to in paragraph (1)(a) or (b) cease to be in effect if

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(a)

(b)

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the company defaults on the payment of any amount that becomes due to Her Majesty after the order is made and could be subject to a demand under (i)

subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act,

(ii)

any provision of the Canada Pension Plan or of the Employment Insurance Act that refers to subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act and provides for the collection of a contribution, as defined in the Canada Pension Plan, or an employee’s premium, or employer’s premium, as defined in the Employment Insurance Act, and of any related interest, penalties or other amounts, or

(iii)

any provision of provincial legislation that has a purpose similar to subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act, or that refers to that subsection, to the extent that it provides for the collection of a sum, and of any related interest, penalties or other amounts, and the sum (A)

has been withheld or deducted by a person from a payment to another person and is in respect of a tax similar in nature to the income tax imposed on individuals under the Income Tax Act, or

(B)

is of the same nature as a contribution under the Canada Pension Plan if the province is a “province providing a comprehensive pension plan” as defined in subsection 3(1) of the Canada Pension Plan and the provincial legislation establishes a “provincial pension plan” as defined in that subsection; or

any other creditor is or becomes entitled to realize a security on any property that could be claimed by Her Majesty in exercising rights under (i)

subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act,

(ii)

any provision of the Canada Pension Plan or of the Employment Insurance Act that refers to subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act and provides for the collection of a contribution, as defined in the Canada Pension Plan, or an employee’s premium, or employer’s premium, as defined in the Employment Insurance Act, and of any related interest, penalties or other amounts, or

(iii)

any provision of provincial legislation that has a purpose similar to subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act, or that refers to that subsection, to the extent that it provides for the collection of a sum, and of any related interest, penalties or other amounts, and the sum (A)

has been withheld or deducted by a person from a payment to another person and is in respect of a tax similar in nature to the income tax imposed on individuals under the Income Tax Act, or

(B)

is of the same nature as a contribution under the Canada Pension Plan if the province is a “province providing a comprehensive pension plan” as defined in subsection 3(1) of 227

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the Canada Pension Plan and the provincial legislation establishes a “provincial pension plan” as defined in that subsection. (3) Operation of similar legislation - An order made under section 11.02, other than the portions of that order that affect the exercise of rights of Her Majesty referred to in paragraph (1)(a) or (b), does not affect the operation of (a)

subsections 224(1.2) and (1.3) of the Income Tax Act,

(b)

any provision of the Canada Pension Plan or of the Employment Insurance Act that refers to subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act and provides for the collection of a contribution, as defined in the Canada Pension Plan, or an employee’s premium, or employer’s premium, as defined in the Employment Insurance Act, and of any related interest, penalties or other amounts, or

(c)

any provision of provincial legislation that has a purpose similar to subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act, or that refers to that subsection, to the extent that it provides for the collection of a sum, and of any related interest, penalties or other amounts, and the sum (i)

has been withheld or deducted by a person from a payment to another person and is in respect of a tax similar in nature to the income tax imposed on individuals under the Income Tax Act, or

(ii)

is of the same nature as a contribution under the Canada Pension Plan if the province is a “province providing a comprehensive pension plan” as defined in subsection 3(1) of the Canada Pension Plan and the provincial legislation establishes a “provincial pension plan” as defined in that subsection,

and for the purpose of paragraph (c), the provision of provincial legislation is, despite any Act of Canada or of a province or any other law, deemed to have the same effect and scope against any creditor, however secured, as subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act in respect of a sum referred to in subparagraph (c)(i), or as subsection 23(2) of the Canada Pension Plan in respect of a sum referred to in subparagraph (c)(ii), and in respect of any related interest, penalties or other amounts. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 128. 11.1 (1) Meaning of “regulatory body” - In this section, “regulatory body” means a person or body that has powers, duties or functions relating to the enforcement or administration of an Act of Parliament or of the legislature of a province and includes a person or body that is prescribed to be a regulatory body for the purpose of this Act. (2) Regulatory bodies - order under section 11.02 - Subject to subsection (3), no order made under section 11.02 affects a regulatory body’s investigation in respect of the debtor company or an action, suit or proceeding that is taken in respect of the company by or before the regulatory body, other than the enforcement of a payment ordered by the regulatory body or the court.

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(3) Exception - On application by the company and on notice to the regulatory body and to the persons who are likely to be affected by the order, the court may order that subsection (2) not apply in respect of one or more of the actions, suits or proceedings taken by or before the regulatory body if in the court’s opinion (a)

a viable compromise or arrangement could not be made in respect of the company if that subsection were to apply; and

(b)

it is not contrary to the public interest that the regulatory body be affected by the order made under section 11.02.

(4) Declaration - enforcement of a payment - If there is a dispute as to whether a regulatory body is seeking to enforce its rights as a creditor, the court may, on application by the company and on notice to the regulatory body, make an order declaring both that the regulatory body is seeking to enforce its rights as a creditor and that the enforcement of those rights is stayed. S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 124; S.C. 2001, c. 9, s. 576; S.C. 2007, c. 29, s. 106; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 128 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 65. 11.11 [Repealed] - [S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 128, effective September 19, 2009 (SI/2009-68)]. 11.2 (1) Interim financing - On application by a debtor company and on notice to the secured creditors who are likely to be affected by the security or charge, a court may make an order declaring that all or part of the company’s property is subject to a security or charge -in an amount that the court considers appropriate - in favour of a person specified in the order who agrees to lend to the company an amount approved by the court as being required by the company, having regard to its cash-flow statement. The security or charge may not secure an obligation that exists before the order is made. (2) Priority - secured creditors - The court may order that the security or charge rank in priority over the claim of any secured creditor of the company. (3) Priority - other orders - The court may order that the security or charge rank in priority over any security or charge arising from a previous order made under subsection (1) only with the consent of the person in whose favour the previous order was made. (4) Factors to be considered - In deciding whether to make an order, the court is to consider, among other things, (a)

the period during which the company is expected to be subject to proceedings under this Act;

(b)

how the company’s business and financial affairs are to be managed during the proceedings;

(c)

whether the company’s management has the confidence of its major creditors;

(d)

whether the loan would enhance the prospects of a viable compromise or arrangement being made in respect of the company;

(e)

the nature and value of the company’s property;

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(f)

whether any creditor would be materially prejudiced as a result of the security or charge; and

(g)

the monitor’s report referred to in paragraph 23(1)(b), if any.

S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 124; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 128 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 65. 11.3 (1) Assignment of agreements - On application by a debtor company and on notice to every party to an agreement and the monitor, the court may make an order assigning the rights and obligations of the company under the agreement to any person who is specified by the court and agrees to the assignment. (2) Exceptions - Subsection (1) does not apply in respect of rights and obligations that are not assignable by reason of their nature or that arise under (a)

an agreement entered into on or after the day on which proceedings commence under this Act;

(b)

an eligible financial contract; or

(c)

a collective agreement.

(3) Factors to be considered - In deciding whether to make the order, the court is to consider, among other things, (a)

whether the monitor approved the proposed assignment;

(b)

whether the person to whom the rights and obligations are to be assigned would be able to perform the obligations; and

(c)

whether it would be appropriate to assign the rights and obligations to that person.

(4) Restriction - The court may not make the order unless it is satisfied that all monetary defaults in relation to the agreement - other than those arising by reason only of the company’s insolvency, the commencement of proceedings under this Act or the company’s failure to perform a non-monetary obligation - will be remedied on or before the day fixed by the court. (5) Copy of order - The applicant is to send a copy of the order to every party to the agreement. S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 124; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 128 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 29, s. 107 and c. 36, s. 65; S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 112(17). 11.31 [Repealed] - [S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 128, effective September 18, 2009 (SI/2009-68)]. 11.4 (1) Critical supplier - On application by a debtor company and on notice to the secured creditors who are likely to be affected by the security or charge, the court may make an order declaring a person to be a critical supplier to the company if the court is satisfied that the person is a supplier of goods or services to the company and that the goods or services that are supplied are critical to the company’s continued operation. (2) Obligation to supply - If the court declares a person to be a critical supplier, the court may make an order requiring the person to supply any goods or services specified by the court to

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the company on any terms and conditions that are consistent with the supply relationship or that the court considers appropriate. (3) Security or charge in favour of critical supplier - If the court makes an order under subsection (2), the court shall, in the order, declare that all or part of the property of the company is subject to a security or charge in favour of the person declared to be a critical supplier, in an amount equal to the value of the goods or services supplied under the terms of the order. (4) Priority - The court may order that the security or charge rank in priority over the claim of any secured creditor of the company. S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 124; S.C. 2000, c. 30, s. 156; S.C. 2001, c. 34, s. 33 (E); S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 128 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 65. 11.5 (1) Removal of directors – The court may, on the application of any person interested in the matter, make an order removing from office any director of a debtor company in respect of which an order has been made under this Act if the court is satisfied that the director is unreasonably impairing or is likely to unreasonably impair the possibility of a viable compromise or arrangement being made in respect of the company or is acting or is likely to act inappropriately as a director in the circumstances. (2) Filling vacancy – The court may, by order, fill any vacancy created under sub-section (1). (3) [Repealed 2005, c. 47, s. 128.] S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 124; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 128. 11.51 (1) Security or charge relating to director’s indemnification - On application by a debtor company and on notice to the secured creditors who are likely to be affected by the security or charge, the court may make an order declaring that all or part of the property of the company is subject to a security or charge - in an amount that the court considers appropriate in favour of any director or officer of the company to indemnify the director or officer against obligations and liabilities that they may incur as a director or officer of the company after the commencement of proceedings under this Act. (2) Priority - The court may order that the security or charge rank in priority over the claim of any secured creditor of the company. (3) Restriction - indemnification insurance - The court may not make the order if in its opinion the company could obtain adequate indemnification insurance for the director or officer at a reasonable cost. (4) Negligence, misconduct or fault - The court shall make an order declaring that the security or charge does not apply in respect of a specific obligation or liability incurred by a director or officer if in its opinion the obligation or liability was incurred as a result of the director’s or officer’s gross negligence or wilful misconduct or, in Quebec, the director’s or officer’s gross or intentional fault. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 128 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 66.

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11.52 (1) Court may order security or charge to cover certain costs - On notice to the secured creditors who are likely to be affected by the security or charge, the court may make an order declaring that all or part of the property of a debtor company is subject to a security or charge - in an amount that the court considers appropriate - in respect of the fees and expenses of (a)

the monitor, including the fees and expenses of any financial, legal or other experts engaged by the monitor in the performance of the monitor’s duties;

(b)

any financial, legal or other experts engaged by the company for the purpose of proceedings under this Act; and

(c)

any financial, legal or other experts engaged by any other interested person if the court is satisfied that the security or charge is necessary for their effective participation in proceedings under this Act.

(2) Priority - The court may order that the security or charge rank in priority over the claim of any secured creditor of the company. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 128 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 66. 11.6 Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act matters - Notwithstanding the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act, (a)

proceedings commenced under Part III of the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act may be taken up and continued under this Act only if a proposal within the meaning of the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act has not been filed under that Part; and

(b)

an application under this Act by a bankrupt may only be made with the consent of inspectors referred to in section 116 of the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act but no application may be made under this Act by a bankrupt whose bankruptcy has resulted from (i)

the operation of subsection 50.4(8) of the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act, or

(ii)

the refusal or deemed refusal by the creditors or the court, or the annulment, of a proposal under the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act.

S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 124. 11.7 (1) Court to appoint monitor - When an order is made on the initial application in respect of a debtor company, the court shall at the same time appoint a person to monitor the business and financial affairs of the company. The person so appointed must be a trustee, within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act. (2) Restrictions on who may be monitor - Except with the permission of the court and on any conditions that the court may impose, no trustee may be appointed as monitor in relation to a company (a)

if the trustee is or, at any time during the two preceding years, was (i)

a director, an officer or an employee of the company,

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(b)

S. 11

(ii)

related to the company or to any director or officer of the company, or

(iii)

the auditor, accountant or legal counsel, or a partner or an employee of the auditor, accountant or legal counsel, of the company; or

if the trustee is (i)

the trustee under a trust indenture issued by the company or any person related to the company, or the holder of a power of attorney under an act constituting a hypothec within the meaning of the Civil Code of Quebec that is granted by the company or any person related to the company, or

(ii)

related to the trustee, or the holder of a power of attorney, referred to in subparagraph (i).

(3) Court may replace monitor - On application by a creditor of the company, the court may, if it considers it appropriate in the circumstances, replace the monitor by appointing another trustee, within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act, to monitor the business and financial affairs of the company. (4) [Repealed 2005, c. 47, s. 129.] (5) [Repealed 2005, c. 47, s. 129.] S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 124; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 129. 11.8 (1) No personal liability in respect of matters before appointment - Despite anything in federal or provincial law, if a monitor, in that position, carries on the business of a debtor company or continues the employment of a debtor company’s employees, the monitor is not by reason of that fact personally liable in respect of a liability, including one as a successor employer, (a)

that is in respect of the employees or former employees of the company or a predecessor of the company or in respect of a pension plan for the benefit of those employees; and

(b)

that exists before the monitor is appointed or that is calculated by reference to a period before the appointment.

(2) Status of liability - A liability referred to in subsection (1) shall not rank as costs of administration. (2.1) Liability of other successor employers - Subsection (1) does not affect the liability of a successor employer other than the monitor. (3) Liability in respect of environmental matters - Notwithstanding anything in any federal or provincial law, a monitor is not personally liable in that position for any environmental condition that arose or environmental damage that occurred (a)

before the monitor’s appointment; or

(b)

after the monitor’s appointment unless it is established that the condition arose or the damage occurred as a result of the monitor’s gross negligence or wilful misconduct.

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(4) Reports, etc., still required - Nothing in subsection (3) exempts a monitor from any duty to report or make disclosure imposed by a law referred to in that subsection. (5) Non-liability re certain orders - Notwithstanding anything in any federal or provincial law but subject to subsection (3), where an order is made which has the effect of requiring a monitor to remedy any environmental condition or environmental damage affecting property involved in a proceeding under this Act, the monitor is not personally liable for failure to comply with the order, and is not personally liable for any costs that are or would be incurred by any person in carrying out the terms of the order, (a)

(b)

(c)

if, within such time as is specified in the order, within ten days after the order is made if no time is so specified, within ten days after the appointment of the monitor, if the order is in effect when the monitor is appointed or during the period of the stay referred to in paragraph (b), the monitor (i)

complies with the order, or

(ii)

on notice to the person who issued the order, abandons, disposes of or otherwise releases any interest in any real property affected by the condition or damage;

during the period of a stay of the order granted, on application made within the time specified in the order referred to in paragraph (a) or within ten days after the order is made or within ten days after the appointment of the monitor, if the order is in effect when the monitor is appointed, by (i)

the court or body having jurisdiction under the law pursuant to which the order was made to enable the monitor to contest the order, or

(ii)

the court having jurisdiction under this Act for the purposes of assessing the economic viability of complying with the order; or

if the monitor had, before the order was made, abandoned or renounced any interest in any real property affected by the condition or damage.

(6) Stay may be granted - The court may grant a stay of the order referred to in subsection (5) on such notice and for such period as the court deems necessary for the purpose of enabling the monitor to assess the economic viability of complying with the order. (7) Costs for remedying not costs of administration - Where the monitor has abandoned or renounced any interest in real property affected by the environmental condition or environmental damage, claims for costs of remedying the condition or damage shall not rank as costs of administration. (8) Priority of claims - Any claim by Her Majesty in right of Canada or a province against a debtor company in respect of which proceedings have been commenced under this Act for costs of remedying any environmental condition or environmental damage affecting real property of the company is secured by a charge on the real property and on any other real property of the company that is contiguous thereto and that is related to the activity that caused the environmental condition or environmental damage, and the charge

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(a)

is enforceable in accordance with the law of the jurisdiction in which the real property is located, in the same way as a mortgage, hypothec or other security on real property; and

(b)

ranks above any other claim, right or charge against the property, notwithstanding any other provision of this Act or anything in any other federal or provincial law.

(9) Claim for clean-up costs - A claim against a debtor company for costs of remedying any environmental condition or environmental damage affecting real property of the company shall be a claim under this Act, whether the condition arose or the damage occurred before or after the date on which proceedings under this Act were commenced. S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 124; S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 67. 12. Fixing deadlines - The court may fix deadlines for the purposes of voting and for the purposes of distributions under a compromise or arrangement. R.S.C. 1985, c. C-36, s. 12; S.C. 1992, c. 27, s. 90; S.C. 1996, c. 6, s. 167; S.C. 2004, c. 25, s. 195; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 130 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 68. 13. Leave to appeal - Except in Yukon, any person dissatisfied with an order or a decision made under this Act may appeal from the order or decision on obtaining leave of the judge appealed from or of the court or a judge of the court to which the appeal lies and on such terms as to security and in other respects as the judge or court directs. R.S.C. 1970, c. C-25, s. 13; S.C. 2002, c. 7, s. 134. 14. (1) Court of appeal - An appeal under section 13 lies to the highest court of final resort in or for the province in which the proceeding originated. (2) Practice - All appeals under section 13 shall be regulated as far as possible according to the practice in other cases of the court appealed to, but no appeal shall be entertained unless, within twenty-one days after the rendering of the order or decision being appealed, or within such further time as the court appealed from, or, in Yukon, a judge of the Supreme Court of Canada, allows, the appellant has taken proceedings therein to perfect his or her appeal, and within that time he or she has made a deposit or given sufficient security according to the practice of the court appealed to that he or she will duly prosecute the appeal and pay such costs as may be awarded to the respondent and comply with any terms as to security or otherwise imposed by the judge giving leave to appeal. R.S.C. 1970, c. C-25, s. 14; S.C. 2002, c. 7, s. 135. 15. (1) Appeals - An appeal lies to the Supreme Court of Canada on leave therefor being granted by that Court from the highest court of final resort in or for the province or territory in which the proceeding originated. (2) Jurisdiction of Supreme Court of Canada - The Supreme Court of Canada shall have jurisdiction to hear and to decide according to its ordinary procedure any appeal under subsection (1) and to award costs. (3) Stay of proceedings - No appeal to the Supreme Court of Canada shall operate as a stay of proceedings unless and to the extent ordered by that Court. 235

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(4) Security for costs - The appellant in an appeal under subsection (1) shall not be required to provide any security for costs, but, unless he provides security for costs in an amount to be fixed by the Supreme Court of Canada, he shall not be awarded costs in the event of his success on the appeal. (5) Decision final - The decision of the Supreme Court of Canada on any appeal under subsection (1) is final and conclusive. R.S.C. 1970, c. C-25, s. 15; R.S.C. 1970, c. 44 (1st Supp.), s. 10. 16. Order of court of one province - Every order made by the court in any province in the exercise of jurisdiction conferred by this Act in respect of any compromise or arrangement shall have full force and effect in all the other provinces and shall be enforced in the court of each of the other provinces in the same manner in all respects as if the order had been made by the court enforcing it. R.S.C. 1970, c. C-25, s. 16. 17. Courts shall aid each other on request - All courts that have jurisdiction under this Act and the officers of those courts shall act in aid of and be auxiliary to each other in all matters provided for in this Act, and an order of a court seeking aid with a request to another court shall be deemed sufficient to enable the latter court to exercise in regard to the matters directed by the order such jurisdiction as either the court that made the request or the court to which the request is made could exercise in regard to similar matters within their respective jurisdictions. R.S.C. 1970, c. C-25, s. 17. 18. [Repealed] - [S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131, effective September 18, 2009 (SI/2009-68)]. 18.1 [Repealed] - [S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131, effective September 18, 2009 (SI/2009-68)]. 18.2 [Repealed] - [S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131, effective September 18, 2009 (SI/2009-68)]. 18.3 [Repealed] - [S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131, effective September 18, 2009 (SI/2009-68)]. 18.4 [Repealed] - [S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131, effective September 18, 2009 (SI/2009-68)]. 18.5 [Repealed] - [S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131, effective September 18, 2009 (SI/2009-68)]. 18.6 [Repealed] - [S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131, effective September 18, 2009 (SI/2009-68)].

PART III — GENERAL Claims 19. (1) Claims that may be dealt with by a compromise or arrangement - Subject to subsection (2), the only claims that may be dealt with by a compromise or arrangement in respect of a debtor company are (a)

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(b)

Ss. 19-20

(i)

the day on which proceedings commenced under this Act, and

(ii)

if the company filed a notice of intention under section 50.4 of the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act or commenced proceedings under this Act with the consent of inspectors referred to in section 116 of the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act, the date of the initial bankruptcy event within the meaning of section 2 of that Act; and

claims that relate to debts or liabilities, present or future, to which the company may become subject before the compromise or arrangement is sanctioned by reason of any obligation incurred by the company before the earlier of the days referred to in subparagraphs (a)(i) and (ii).

(2) Exception - A compromise or arrangement in respect of a debtor company may not deal with any claim that relates to any of the following debts or liabilities unless the compromise or arrangement explicitly provides for the claim’s compromise and the creditor in relation to that debt has voted for the acceptance of the compromise or arrangement: (a)

any fine, penalty, restitution order or other order similar in nature to a fine, penalty or restitution order, imposed by a court in respect of an offence;

(b)

any award of damages by a court in civil proceedings in respect of (i)

bodily harm intentionally inflicted, or sexual assault, or

(ii)

wrongful death resulting from an act referred to in subparagraph (i);

(c)

any debt or liability arising out of fraud, embezzlement, misappropriation or defalcation while acting in a fiduciary capacity or, in Quebec, as a trustee or an administrator of the property of others;

(d)

any debt or liability resulting from obtaining property or services by false pretences or fraudulent misrepresentation, other than a debt or liability of the company that arises from an equity claim; or

(e)

any debt for interest owed in relation to an amount referred to in any of paragraphs (a) to (d).

R.S.C. 1985, c. C-36, s. 19; S.C. 1996, c. 6, s. 167; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 69. 20. (1) Determination of amount of claims - For the purposes of this Act, the amount represented by a claim of any secured or unsecured creditor is to be determined as follows: (a)

the amount of an unsecured claim is the amount (i)

in the case of a company in the course of being wound up under the Winding-up and Restructuring Act, proof of which has been made in accordance with that Act,

(ii)

in the case of a company that has made an authorized assignment or against which a bankruptcy order has been made under the Bankruptcy

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and Insolvency Act, proof of which has been made in accordance with that Act, or (iii)

(b)

in the case of any other company, proof of which might be made under the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act, but if the amount so provable is not admitted by the company, the amount is to be determined by the court on summary application by the company or by the creditor; and

the amount of a secured claim is the amount, proof of which might be made under the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act if the claim were unsecured, but the amount if not admitted by the company is, in the case of a company subject to pending proceedings under the Winding-up and Restructuring Act or the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act, to be established by proof in the same manner as an unsecured claim under the Winding-up and Restructuring Act or the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act, as the case may be, and, in the case of any other company, the amount is to be determined by the court on summary application by the company or the creditor.

(2) Admission of claims - Despite subsection (1), the company may admit the amount of a claim for voting purposes under reserve of the right to contest liability on the claim for other purposes, and nothing in this Act, the Winding-up and Restructuring Act or the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act prevents a secured creditor from voting at a meeting of secured creditors or any class of them in respect of the total amount of a claim as admitted. (3) [Repealed 2007, c. 36, s. 70.] R.S.C. 1985, c. C-36, s. 20; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 70. 21. Law of set-off or compensation to apply - The law of set-off or compensation applies to all claims made against a debtor company and to all actions instituted by it for the recovery of debts due to the company in the same manner and to the same extent as if the company were plaintiff or defendant, as the case may be. S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 126; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131.

Classes of Creditors 22. (1) Company may establish classes - A debtor company may divide its creditors into classes for the purpose of a meeting to be held under section 4 or 5 in respect of a compromise or arrangement relating to the company and, if it does so, it is to apply to the court for approval of the division before the meeting is held. (2) Factors - For the purpose of subsection (1), creditors may be included in the same class if their interests or rights are sufficiently similar to give them a commonality of interest, taking into account (a)

the nature of the debts, liabilities or obligations giving rise to their claims;

(b)

the nature and rank of any security in respect of their claims;

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(c)

the remedies available to the creditors in the absence of the compromise or arrangement being sanctioned, and the extent to which the creditors would recover their claims by exercising those remedies; and

(d)

any further criteria, consistent with those set out in paragraphs (a) to (c), that are prescribed.

(3) Related creditors - A creditor who is related to the company may vote against, but not for, a compromise or arrangement relating to the company. S.C. 1997, c. 12, s. 126; S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 71. 22.1 Class - creditors having equity claims - Despite subsection 22(1), creditors having equity claims are to be in the same class of creditors in relation to those claims unless the court orders otherwise and may not, as members of that class, vote at any meeting unless the court orders otherwise. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 124 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s.71.

Monitors 23. (1) Duties and functions - The monitor shall (a)

except as otherwise ordered by the court, when an order is made on the initial application in respect of a debtor company, (i)

publish, without delay after the order is made, once a week for two consecutive weeks, or as otherwise directed by the court, in one or more newspapers in Canada specified by the court, a notice containing the prescribed information, and

(ii)

within five days after the day on which the order is made, (A)

make the order publicly available in the prescribed manner,

(B)

send, in the prescribed manner, a notice to every known creditor who has a claim against the company of more than $1,000 advising them that the order is publicly available, and

(C)

prepare a list, showing the names and addresses of those creditors and the estimated amounts of those claims, and make it publicly available in the prescribed manner;

(b)

review the company’s cash-flow statement as to its reasonableness and file a report with the court on the monitor’s findings;

(c)

make, or cause to be made, any appraisal or investigation the monitor considers necessary to determine with reasonable accuracy the state of the company’s business and financial affairs and the cause of its financial difficulties or insolvency and file a report with the court on the monitor’s findings;

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(d)

file a report with the court on the state of the company’s business and financial affairs - containing the prescribed information, if any (i)

without delay after ascertaining a material adverse change in the company’s projected cash-flow or financial circumstances,

(ii)

not later than 45 days, or any longer period that the court may specify, after the day on which each of the company’s fiscal quarters ends, and

(iii)

at any other time that the court may order;

(iv)

[Repealed 2007, c. 36, s. 72(2)]

(d.1) file a report with the court on the state of the company’s business and financial affairs - containing the monitor’s opinion as to the reasonableness of a decision, if any, to include in a compromise or arrangement a provision that sections 38 and 95 to 101 of the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act do not apply in respect of the compromise or arrangement and containing the prescribed information, if any - at least seven days before the day on which the meeting of creditors referred to in section 4 or 5 is to be held; (e)

advise the company’s creditors of the filing of the report referred to in any of paragraphs (b) to (d.1);

(f)

file with the Superintendent of Bankruptcy, in the prescribed manner and at the prescribed time, a copy of the documents specified in the regulations;

(f.1)

for the purpose of defraying the expenses of the Superintendent of Bankruptcy incurred in performing his or her functions under this Act, pay the prescribed levy at the prescribed time to the Superintendent for deposit with the Receiver General;

(g)

attend court proceedings held under this Act that relate to the company, and meetings of the company’s creditors, if the monitor considers that his or her attendance is necessary for the fulfilment of his or her duties or functions;

(h)

if the monitor is of the opinion that it would be more beneficial to the company’s creditors if proceedings in respect of the company were taken under the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act, so advise the court without delay after coming to that opinion;

(i)

advise the court on the reasonableness and fairness of any compromise or arrangement that is proposed between the company and its creditors;

(j)

make the prescribed documents publicly available in the prescribed manner and at the prescribed time and provide the company’s creditors with information as to how they may access those documents; and

(k)

carry out any other functions in relation to the company that the court may direct.

(2) Monitor not liable - If the monitor acts in good faith and takes reasonable care in preparing the report referred to in any of paragraphs (1)(b) to (d.1), the monitor is not liable for loss or damage to any person resulting from that person’s reliance on the report.

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Ss. 23-28

S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 72. 24. Right of access - For the purposes of monitoring the company’s business and financial affairs, the monitor shall have access to the company’s property, including the premises, books, records, data, including data in electronic form, and other financial documents of the company, to the extent that is necessary to adequately assess the company’s business and financial affairs. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131. 25. Obligation to act honestly and in good faith - In exercising any of his or her powers or in performing any of his or her duties and functions, the monitor must act honestly and in good faith and comply with the Code of Ethics referred to in section 13.5 of the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131.

Powers, Duties and Functions of Superintendent of Bankruptcy 26. (1) Public records - The Superintendent of Bankruptcy must keep, or cause to be kept, in the form that he or she considers appropriate and for the prescribed period, a public record of prescribed information relating to proceedings under this Act. On request, and on payment of the prescribed fee, the Superintendent of Bankruptcy must provide, or cause to be provided, any information contained in that public record. (2) Other records - The Superintendent of Bankruptcy must keep, or cause to be kept, in the form that he or she considers appropriate and for the prescribed period, any other records relating to the administration of this Act that he or she considers appropriate. (3) Agreement to provide compilation - The Superintendent of Bankruptcy may enter into an agreement to provide a compilation of all or part of the information that is contained in the public record. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 73. 27. Applications to court and right to intervene - The Superintendent of Bankruptcy may apply to the court to review the appointment or conduct of a monitor and may intervene, as though he or she were a party, in any matter or proceeding in court relating to the appointment or conduct of a monitor. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131. 28. Complaints - The Superintendent of Bankruptcy must receive and keep a record of all complaints regarding the conduct of monitors. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131.

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29. (1) Investigations - The Superintendent of Bankruptcy may make, or cause to be made, any inquiry or investigation regarding the conduct of monitors that he or she considers appropriate. (2) Rights - For the purpose of the inquiry or investigation, the Superintendent of Bankruptcy or any person whom he or she appoints for the purpose (a)

shall have access to and the right to examine and make copies of the books, records, data, documents or papers - including those in electronic form - in the possession or under the control of a monitor under this Act; and

(b)

may, with the leave of the court granted on an ex parte application, examine the books, records, data, documents or papers - including those in electronic form relating to any compromise or arrangement in respect of which this Act applies that are in the possession or under the control of any other person designated in the order granting the leave, and for that purpose may under a warrant from the court enter and search any premises.

(3) Staff - The Superintendent of Bankruptcy may engage the services of persons having technical or specialized knowledge, and persons to provide administrative services, to assist the Superintendent of Bankruptcy in conducting an inquiry or investigation, and may establish the terms and conditions of their engagement. The remuneration and expenses of those persons, when certified by the Superintendent of Bankruptcy, are payable out of the appropriation for the office of the Superintendent. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 74. 30. (1) Powers in relation to licence - If, after making or causing to be made an inquiry or investigation into the conduct of a monitor, it appears to the Superintendent of Bankruptcy that the monitor has not fully complied with this Act and its regulations or that it is in the public interest to do so, the Superintendent of Bankruptcy may (a)

cancel or suspend the monitor’s licence as a trustee under the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act; or

(b)

place any condition or limitation on the licence that he or she considers appropriate.

(2) Notice to trustee - Before deciding whether to exercise any of the powers referred to in subsection (1), the Superintendent of Bankruptcy shall send the monitor written notice of the powers that the Superintendent may exercise and the reasons why they may be exercised and afford the monitor a reasonable opportunity for a hearing. (3) Summons - The Superintendent of Bankruptcy may, for the purpose of the hearing, issue a summons requiring the person named in it (a)

to appear at the time and place mentioned in it;

(b)

to testify to all matters within their knowledge relative to the subject matter of the inquiry or investigation into the conduct of the monitor; and

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(c)

Ss. 30-31

to bring and produce any books, records, data, documents or papers - including those in electronic form - in their possession or under their control relative to the subject matter of the inquiry or investigation.

(4) Effect throughout Canada - A person may be summoned from any part of Canada by virtue of a summons issued under subsection (3). (5) Fees and allowances - Any person summoned under subsection (3) is entitled to receive the like fees and allowances for so doing as if summoned to attend before the Federal Court. (6) Procedure at hearing - At the hearing, the Superintendent of Bankruptcy (a)

has the power to administer oaths;

(b)

is not bound by any legal or technical rules of evidence in conducting the hearing;

(c)

shall deal with the matters set out in the notice of the hearing as informally and expeditiously as the circumstances and a consideration of fairness permit; and

(d)

shall cause a summary of any oral evidence to be made in writing.

(7) Record - The notice referred to in subsection (2) and, if applicable, the summary of oral evidence referred to in paragraph (6)(d), together with any documentary evidence that the Superintendent of Bankruptcy receives in evidence, form the record of the hearing, and that record and the hearing are public unless the Superintendent of Bankruptcy is satisfied that personal or other matters that may be disclosed are of such a nature that the desirability of avoiding public disclosure of those matters, in the interest of a third party or in the public interest, outweighs the desirability of the access by the public to information about those matters. (8) Decision - The decision of the Superintendent of Bankruptcy after the hearing, together with the reasons for the decision, must be given in writing to the monitor not later than three months after the conclusion of the hearing, and is public. (9) Review by Federal Court - A decision of the Superintendent of Bankruptcy given under subsection (8) is deemed to be a decision of a federal board, commission or other tribunal that may be reviewed and set aside under the Federal Courts Act. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 75. 31. (1) Delegation - The Superintendent of Bankruptcy may, in writing, authorize any person to exercise or perform, subject to any terms and conditions that he or she may specify in the authorization, any of the powers, duties or functions of the Superintendent of Bankruptcy under sections 29 and 30. (2) Notification to monitor - If the Superintendent of Bankruptcy delegates in accordance with subsection (1), the Superintendent or the delegate must give notice of the delegation in the prescribed manner to any monitor who may be affected by the delegation. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131.

243

S. 32

Companies’ Creditors Arrangement Act

Agreements 32. (1) Disclaimer or resiliation of agreements - Subject to subsections (2) and (3), a debtor company may - on notice given in the prescribed form and manner to the other parties to the agreement and the monitor - disclaim or resiliate any agreement to which the company is a party on the day on which proceedings commence under this Act. The company may not give notice unless the monitor approves the proposed disclaimer or resiliation. (2) Court may prohibit disclaimer or resiliation - Within 15 days after the day on which the company gives notice under subsection (1), a party to the agreement may, on notice to the other parties to the agreement and the monitor, apply to a court for an order that the agreement is not to be disclaimed or resiliated. (3) Court-ordered disclaimer or resiliation - If the monitor does not approve the proposed disclaimer or resiliation, the company may, on notice to the other parties to the agreement and the monitor, apply to a court for an order that the agreement be disclaimed or resiliated. (4) Factors to be considered - In deciding whether to make the order, the court is to consider, among other things, (a)

whether the monitor approved the proposed disclaimer or resiliation;

(b)

whether the disclaimer or resiliation would enhance the prospects of a viable compromise or arrangement being made in respect of the company; and

(c)

whether the disclaimer or resiliation would likely cause significant financial hardship to a party to the agreement.

(5) Date of disclaimer or resiliation - An agreement is disclaimed or resiliated (a)

if no application is made under subsection (2), on the day that is 30 days after the day on which the company gives notice under subsection (1);

(b)

if the court dismisses the application made under subsection (2), on the day that is 30 days after the day on which the company gives notice under subsection (1) or on any later day fixed by the court; or

(c)

if the court orders that the agreement is disclaimed or resiliated under subsection (3), on the day that is 30 days after the day on which the company gives notice or on any later day fixed by the court.

(6) Intellectual property - If the company has granted a right to use intellectual property to a party to an agreement, the disclaimer or resiliation does not affect the party’s right to use the intellectual property - including the party’s right to enforce an exclusive use - during the term of the agreement, including any period for which the party extends the agreement as of right, as long as the party continues to perform its obligations under the agreement in relation to the use of the intellectual property. (7) Loss related to disclaimer or resiliation - If an agreement is disclaimed or resiliated, a party to the agreement who suffers a loss in relation to the disclaimer or resiliation is considered to have a provable claim.

244

Companies’ Creditors Arrangement Act

Ss. 32-33

(8) Reasons for disclaimer or resiliation - A company shall, on request by a party to the agreement, provide in writing the reasons for the proposed disclaimer or resiliation within five days after the day on which the party requests them. (9) Exceptions - This section does not apply in respect of (a)

an eligible financial contract;

(b)

a collective agreement;

(c)

a financing agreement if the company is the borrower; or

(d)

a lease of real property or of an immovable if the company is the lessor.

S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 29, s. 108 and c. 36, s. 74; S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 112(20). 33. (1) Collective agreements - If proceedings under this Act have been commenced in respect of a debtor company, any collective agreement that the company has entered into as the employer remains in force, and may not be altered except as provided in this section or under the laws of the jurisdiction governing collective bargaining between the company and the bargaining agent. (2) Application for authorization to serve notice to bargain - A debtor company that is a party to a collective agreement and that is unable to reach a voluntary agreement with the bargaining agent to revise any of the provisions of the collective agreement may, on giving five days notice to the bargaining agent, apply to the court for an order authorizing the company to serve a notice to bargain under the laws of the jurisdiction governing collective bargaining between the company and the bargaining agent. (3) Conditions for issuance of order - The court may issue the order only if it is satisfied that (a)

a viable compromise or arrangement could not be made in respect of the company, taking into account the terms of the collective agreement;

(b)

the company has made good faith efforts to renegotiate the provisions of the collective agreement; and

(c)

a failure to issue the order is likely to result in irreparable damage to the company.

(4) No delay on vote - The vote of the creditors in respect of a compromise or an arrangement may not be delayed solely because the period provided in the laws of the jurisdiction governing collective bargaining between the company and the bargaining agent has not expired. (5) Claims arising from termination or amendment - If the parties to the collective agreement agree to revise the collective agreement after proceedings have been commenced under this Act in respect of the company, the bargaining agent that is a party to the agreement is deemed to have a claim, as an unsecured creditor, for an amount equal to the value of concessions granted by the bargaining agent with respect to the remaining term of the collective agreement.

245

Ss. 33-34

Companies’ Creditors Arrangement Act

(6) Order to disclose information - On the application of the bargaining agent and on notice to the person to whom the application relates, the court may, subject to any terms and conditions it specifies, make an order requiring the person to make available to the bargaining agent any information specified by the court in the person’s possession or control that relates to the company’s business or financial affairs and that is relevant to the collective bargaining between the company and the bargaining agent. The court may make the order only after the company has been authorized to serve a notice to bargain under subsection (2). (7) Parties - For the purpose of this section, the parties to a collective agreement are the debtor company and the bargaining agent that are bound by the collective agreement. (8) Unrevised collective agreements remain in force - For greater certainty, any collective agreement that the company and the bargaining agent have not agreed to revise remains in force, and the court shall not alter its terms. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131. 34. (1) Certain rights limited - No person may terminate or amend, or claim an accelerated payment or forfeiture of the term under, any agreement, including a security agreement, with a debtor company by reason only that proceedings commenced under this Act or that the company is insolvent. (2) Lease - If the agreement referred to in subsection (1) is a lease, the lessor may not terminate or amend the lease by reason only that proceedings commenced under this Act, that the company is insolvent or that the company has not paid rent in respect of any period before the commencement of those proceedings. (3) Public utilities - No public utility may discontinue service to a company by reason only that proceedings commenced under this Act, that the company is insolvent or that the company has not paid for services rendered or goods provided before the commencement of those proceedings. (4) Certain acts not prevented - Nothing in this section is to be construed as (a)

prohibiting a person from requiring payments to be made in cash for goods, services, use of leased property or other valuable consideration provided after the commencement of proceedings under this Act;

(b)

requiring the further advance of money or credit; or

(c)

preventing a lessor of aircraft objects under an agreement with the company from taking possession of the aircraft objects (i)

if, after proceedings commence under this Act, the company defaults in protecting or maintaining the aircraft objects in accordance with the agreement,

(ii)

60 days after the day on which proceedings commence under this Act unless, during that period, the company (A)

remedied the default of every other obligation under the agreement, other than a default constituted by the commencement

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S. 34

of proceedings under this Act or the breach of a provision in the agreement relating to the company’s financial condition,

(iii)

(B)

agreed to perform the obligations under the agreement, other than an obligation not to become insolvent or an obligation relating to the company’s financial condition, until the proceedings under this Act end, and

(C)

agreed to perform all of the obligations arising under the agreement after the proceedings under this Act end, or

if, during the period that begins on the expiry of the 60-day period and ends on the day on which proceedings under this Act end, the company defaults in performing an obligation under the agreement, other than an obligation not to become insolvent or an obligation relating to the company’s financial condition.

(5) Provisions of section override agreement - Any provision in an agreement that has the effect of providing for, or permitting, anything that, in substance, is contrary to this section is of no force or effect. (6) Powers of court - On application by a party to an agreement or by a public utility, the court may declare that this section does not apply - or applies only to the extent declared by the court - if the applicant satisfies the court that the operation of this section would likely cause the applicant significant financial hardship. (7) Eligible financial contracts - Subsection (1) does not apply (a)

in respect of an eligible financial contract; or

(b)

to prevent a member of the Canadian Payments Association from ceasing to act as a clearing agent or group clearer for a company in accordance with the Canadian Payments Act and the by-laws and rules of that Association.

(8) Permitted actions - The following actions are permitted in respect of an eligible financial contract that is entered into before proceedings under this Act are commenced in respect of the company and is terminated on or after that day, but only in accordance with the provisions of that contract: (a)

the netting or setting off or compensation of obligations between the company and the other parties to the eligible financial contract; and

(b)

any dealing with financial collateral including (i)

the sale or foreclosure or, in the Province of Quebec, the surrender of financial collateral, and

(ii)

the setting off or compensation of financial collateral or the application of the proceeds or value of financial collateral.

(9) Restriction - No order may be made under this Act if the order would have the effect of staying or restraining the actions permitted under subsection (8).

247

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Companies’ Creditors Arrangement Act

(10) Net termination values - If net termination values determined in accordance with an eligible financial contract referred to in subsection (8) are owed by the company to another party to the eligible financial contract, that other party is deemed to be a creditor of the company with a claim against the company in respect of those net termination values. (11) Priority - No order may be made under this Act if the order would have the effect of subordinating financial collateral. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 29, s. 109 and c. 36, s. 77; S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 112(23).

Obligations and Prohibitions 35. (1) Obligation to provide assistance - A debtor company shall provide to the monitor the assistance that is necessary to enable the monitor to adequately carry out the monitor’s functions. (2) Obligation to duties set out in section 158 of the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act - A debtor company shall perform the duties set out in section 158 of the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act that are appropriate and applicable in the circumstances S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131. 36. (1) Restriction on disposition of business assets - A debtor company in respect of which an order has been made under this Act may not sell or otherwise dispose of assets outside the ordinary course of business unless authorized to do so by a court. Despite any requirement for shareholder approval, including one under federal or provincial law, the court may authorize the sale or disposition even if shareholder approval was not obtained. (2) Notice to creditors - A company that applies to the court for an authorization is to give notice of the application to the secured creditors who are likely to be affected by the proposed sale or disposition. (3) Factors to be considered - In deciding whether to grant the authorization, the court is to consider, among other things, (a)

whether the process leading to the proposed sale or disposition was reasonable in the circumstances;

(b)

whether the monitor approved the process leading to the proposed sale or disposition;

(c)

whether the monitor filed with the court a report stating that in their opinion the sale or disposition would be more beneficial to the creditors than a sale or disposition under a bankruptcy;

(d)

the extent to which the creditors were consulted;

(e)

the effects of the proposed sale or disposition on the creditors and other interested parties; and

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Companies’ Creditors Arrangement Act

(f)

S. 36

whether the consideration to be received for the assets is reasonable and fair, taking into account their market value.

(4) Additional factors - related persons - If the proposed sale or disposition is to a person who is related to the company, the court may, after considering the factors referred to in subsection (3), grant the authorization only if it is satisfied that (a)

good faith efforts were made to sell or otherwise dispose of the assets to persons who are not related to the company; and

(b)

the consideration to be received is superior to the consideration that would be received under any other offer made in accordance with the process leading to the proposed sale or disposition.

(5) Related persons - For the purpose of subsection (4), a person who is related to the company includes (a)

a director or officer of the company;

(b)

a person who has or has had, directly or indirectly, control in fact of the company; and

(c)

a person who is related to a person described in paragraph (a) or (b).

(6) Assets may be disposed of free and clear - The court may authorize a sale or disposition free and clear of any security, charge or other restriction and, if it does, it shall also order that other assets of the company or the proceeds of the sale or disposition be subject to a security, charge or other restriction in favour of the creditor whose security, charge or other restriction is to be affected by the order. (7) Restriction – employers - The court may grant the authorization only if the court is satisfied that the company can and will make the payments that would have been required under paragraphs 6(4)(a) and (5)(a) if the court had sanctioned the compromise or arrangement. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 78.

Preferences and Transfers at Undervalue 36.1 (1) Application of sections 38 and 95 to 101 of the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act Sections 38 and 95 to 101 of the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act apply, with any modifications that the circumstances require, in respect of a compromise or arrangement unless the compromise or arrangement provides otherwise. (2) Interpretation - For the purposes of subsection (1), a reference in sections 38 and 95 to 101 of the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act (a)

to “date of the bankruptcy” is to be read as a reference to “day on which proceedings commence under this Act”;

(b)

to “trustee” is to be read as a reference to “monitor”; and

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Ss. 36-38

(c)

Companies’ Creditors Arrangement Act

to “bankrupt”, “insolvent person” or “debtor” is to be read as a reference to “debtor company”.

S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s.78.

Her Majesty 37. (1) Deemed trusts - Subject to subsection (2), despite any provision in federal or provincial legislation that has the effect of deeming property to be held in trust for Her Majesty, property of a debtor company shall not be regarded as being held in trust for Her Majesty unless it would be so regarded in the absence of that statutory provision. (2) Exceptions - Subsection (1) does not apply in respect of amounts deemed to be held in trust under subsection 227(4) or (4.1) of the Income Tax Act, subsection 23(3) or (4) of the Canada Pension Plan or subsection 86(2) or (2.1) of the Employment Insurance Act (each of which is in this subsection referred to as a “federal provision”), nor does it apply in respect of amounts deemed to be held in trust under any law of a province that creates a deemed trust the sole purpose of which is to ensure remittance to Her Majesty in right of the province of amounts deducted or withheld under a law of the province if (a)

that law of the province imposes a tax similar in nature to the tax imposed under the Income Tax Act and the amounts deducted or withheld under that law of the province are of the same nature as the amounts referred to in subsection 227(4) or (4.1) of the Income Tax Act, or

(b)

the province is a “province providing a comprehensive pension plan” as defined in subsection 3(1) of the Canada Pension Plan, that law of the province establishes a “provincial pension plan” as defined in that subsection and the amounts deducted or withheld under that law of the province are of the same nature as amounts referred to in subsection 23(3) or (4) of the Canada Pension Plan,

and for the purpose of this subsection, any provision of a law of a province that creates a deemed trust is, despite any Act of Canada or of a province or any other law, deemed to have the same effect and scope against any creditor, however secured, as the corresponding federal provision. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131. 38. (1) Status of Crown claims - In relation to a proceeding under this Act, all claims, including secured claims, of Her Majesty in right of Canada or a province or anybody under an enactment respecting workers’ compensation, in this section and in section 39 called a “workers’ compensation body”, rank as unsecured claims. (2) Exceptions - Subsection (1) does not apply (a)

in respect of claims that are secured by a security or charge of a kind that can be obtained by persons other than Her Majesty or a workers’ compensation body (i)

pursuant to any law, or

(ii)

pursuant to provisions of federal or provincial legislation if those provisions do not have as their sole or principal purpose the establishment 250

Companies’ Creditors Arrangement Act

Ss. 38-39

of a means of securing claims of Her Majesty or a workers’ compensation body; and (b)

to the extent provided in subsection 39(2), to claims that are secured by a security referred to in subsection 39(1), if the security is registered in accordance with subsection 39(1).

(3) Operation of similar legislation - Subsection (1) does not affect the operation of (a)

subsections 224(1.2) and (1.3) of the Income Tax Act,

(b)

any provision of the Canada Pension Plan or of the Employment Insurance Act that refers to subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act and provides for the collection of a contribution, as defined in the Canada Pension Plan, or an employee’s premium, or employer’s premium, as defined in the Employment Insurance Act, and of any related interest, penalties or other amounts, or

(c)

any provision of provincial legislation that has a purpose similar to subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act, or that refers to that subsection, to the extent that it provides for the collection of a sum, and of any related interest, penalties or other amounts if the sum (i)

has been withheld or deducted by a person from a payment to another person and is in respect of a tax similar in nature to the income tax imposed on individuals under the Income Tax Act, or

(ii)

is of the same nature as a contribution under the Canada Pension Plan if the province is a “province providing a comprehensive pension plan” as defined in subsection 3(1) of the Canada Pension Plan and the provincial legislation establishes a “provincial pension plan” as defined in that subsection,

and, for the purpose of paragraph (c), the provision of provincial legislation is, despite any Act of Canada or of a province or any other law, deemed to have the same effect and scope against any creditor, however secured, as subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act in respect of a sum referred to in subparagraph (c)(i), or as subsection 23(2) of the Canada Pension Plan in respect of a sum referred to in subparagraph (c)(ii), and in respect of any related interest, penalties or other amounts. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131. 39. (1) Statutory Crown securities - In relation to proceedings under this Act in respect of a debtor company, a security provided for in federal or provincial legislation for the sole or principal purpose of securing a claim of Her Majesty in right of Canada or a province or a workers’ compensation body is valid in relation to claims against the company only if, before the day on which proceedings commence, the security is registered under a system of registration of securities that is available not only to Her Majesty in right of Canada or a province or a workers’ compensation body, but also to any other creditor who holds a security, and that is open to the public for information or the making of searches. (2) Effect of security - A security referred to in subsection (1) that is registered in accordance with that subsection

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(a)

is subordinate to securities in respect of which all steps necessary to setting them up against other creditors were taken before that registration; and

(b)

is valid only in respect of amounts owing to Her Majesty or a workers’ compensation body at the time of that registration, plus any interest subsequently accruing on those amounts.

S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 79. 40. Act binding on Her Majesty - This Act is binding on Her Majesty in right of Canada or a province. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131.

Miscellaneous 41. Certain sections of Winding up and Restructuring Act do not apply - Sections 65 and 66 of the Winding up and Restructuring Act do not apply to any compromise or arrangement to which this Act applies. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131. 42. Act to be applied conjointly with other Acts - The provisions of this Act may be applied together with the provisions of any Act of Parliament, or of the legislature of any province, that authorizes or makes provision for the sanction of compromises or arrangements between a company and its shareholders or any class of them. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131. 43. Claims in foreign currency - If a compromise or an arrangement is proposed in respect of a debtor company, a claim for a debt that is payable in a currency other than Canadian currency is to be converted to Canadian currency as of the date of the initial application in respect of the company unless otherwise provided in the proposed compromise or arrangement. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131.

PART IV — CROSS-BORDER INSOLVENCIES Purpose 44. Purpose - The purpose of this Part is to provide mechanisms for dealing with cases of cross-border insolvencies and to promote (a)

cooperation between the courts and other competent authorities in Canada with those of foreign jurisdictions in cases of cross-border insolvencies;

(b)

greater legal certainty for trade and investment;

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(c)

the fair and efficient administration of cross-border insolvencies that protects the interests of creditors and other interested persons, and those of debtor companies;

(d)

the protection and the maximization of the value of debtor company’s property; and

(e)

the rescue of financially troubled businesses to protect investment and preserve employment.

S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131.

Interpretation 45. (1) Definitions - The following definitions apply in this Part. “foreign court” means a judicial or other authority competent to control or supervise a foreign proceeding. “foreign main proceeding” means a foreign proceeding in a jurisdiction where the debtor company has the centre of its main interests. “foreign non-main proceeding” means a foreign proceeding, other than a foreign main proceeding. “foreign proceeding” means a judicial or an administrative proceeding, including an interim proceeding, in a jurisdiction outside Canada dealing with creditors’ collective interests generally under any law relating to bankruptcy or insolvency in which a debtor company’s business and financial affairs are subject to control or supervision by a foreign court for the purpose of reorganization. “foreign representative” means a person or body, including one appointed on an interim basis, who is authorized, in a foreign proceeding respect of a debtor company, to (a)

monitor the debtor company’s business and financial affairs for the purpose of reorganization; or

(b)

act as a representative in respect of the foreign proceeding.

(2) Centre of debtor company’s main interests - For the purposes of this Part, in the absence of proof to the contrary, a debtor company’s registered office is deemed to be the centre of its main interests. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131.

Recognition of Foreign Proceeding 46. (1) Application for recognition of a foreign proceeding - A foreign representative may apply to the court for recognition of the foreign proceeding in respect of which he or she is a foreign representative. (2) Documents that must accompany application - Subject to subsection (3), the application must be accompanied by

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(a)

a certified copy of the instrument, however designated, that commenced the foreign proceeding or a certificate from the foreign court affirming the existence of the foreign proceeding;

(b)

a certified copy of the instrument, however designated, authorizing the foreign representative to act in that capacity or a certificate from the foreign court affirming the foreign representative’s authority to act in that capacity; and

(c)

a statement identifying all foreign proceedings in respect of the debtor company that are known to the foreign representative.

(3) Documents may be considered as proof - The court may, without further proof, accept the documents referred to in paragraphs (2)(a) and (b) as evidence that the proceeding to which they relate is a foreign proceeding and that the applicant is a foreign representative in respect of the foreign proceeding. (4) Other evidence - In the absence of the documents referred to in paragraphs (2)(a) and (b), the court may accept any other evidence of the existence of the foreign proceeding and of the foreign representative’s authority that it considers appropriate. (5) Translation - The court may require a translation of any document accompanying the application. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131. 47. (1) Order recognizing foreign proceeding - If the court is satisfied that the application for the recognition of a foreign proceeding relates to a foreign proceeding and that the applicant is a foreign representative in respect of that foreign proceeding, the court shall make an order recognizing the foreign proceeding. (2) Nature of foreign proceeding to be specified - The court shall specify in the order whether the foreign proceeding is a foreign main proceeding or a foreign non-main proceeding. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131. 48. (1) Order relating to recognition of a foreign main proceeding - Subject to subsections (2) to (4), on the making of an order recognizing a foreign proceeding that is specified to be a foreign main proceeding, the court shall make an order, subject to any terms and conditions it considers appropriate, (a)

staying, until otherwise ordered by the court, for any period that the court considers necessary, all proceedings taken or that might be taken against the debtor company under the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act or the Winding up and Restructuring Act;

(b)

restraining, until otherwise ordered by the court, further proceedings in any action, suit or proceeding against the debtor company;

(c)

prohibiting, until otherwise ordered by the court, the commencement of any action, suit or proceeding against the debtor company; and

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(d)

Ss. 48-51

prohibiting the debtor company from selling or otherwise disposing of, outside the ordinary course of its business, any of the debtor company’s property in Canada that relates to the business and prohibiting the debtor company from selling or otherwise disposing of any of its other property in Canada.

(2) Scope of order - The order made under subsection (1) must be consistent with any order that may be made under this Act. (3) When subsection (1) does not apply - Subsection (1) does not apply if any proceedings under this Act have been commenced in respect of the debtor company at the time the order recognizing the foreign proceeding is made. (4) Application of this and other Acts - Nothing in subsection (1) precludes the debtor company from commencing or continuing proceedings under this Act, the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act or the Winding-up and Restructuring Act in respect of the debtor company. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131. 49. (1) Other orders - If an order recognizing a foreign proceeding is made, the court may, on application by the foreign representative who applied for the order, if the court is satisfied that it is necessary for the protection of the debtor company’s property or the interests of a creditor or creditors, make any order that it considers appropriate, including an order (a)

if the foreign proceeding is a foreign non-main proceeding, referred to in subsection 48(1);

(b)

respecting the examination of witnesses, the taking of evidence or the delivery of information concerning the debtor company’s property, business and financial affairs, debts, liabilities and obligations; and

(c)

authorizing the foreign representative to monitor the debtor company’s business and financial affairs in Canada for the purpose of reorganization.

(2) Restriction - If any proceedings under this Act have been commenced in respect of the debtor company at the time an order recognizing the foreign proceeding is made, an order made under subsection (1) must be consistent with any order that may be made in any proceedings under this Act. (3) Application of this and other Acts - The making of an order under paragraph (1)(a) does not preclude the commencement or the continuation of proceedings under this Act, the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act or the Winding-up and Restructuring Act in respect of the debtor company. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131. 50. Terms and conditions of orders - An order under this Part may be made on any terms and conditions that the court considers appropriate in the circumstances. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131. 51. Commencement or continuation of proceedings - If an order is made recognizing a foreign proceeding, the foreign representative may commence and continue proceedings under

255

Ss. 51-53

Companies’ Creditors Arrangement Act

this Act in respect of a debtor company as if the foreign representative were a creditor of the debtor company, or the debtor company, as the case may be. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131.

Obligations 52. (1) Cooperation – court - If an order recognizing a foreign proceeding is made, the court shall cooperate, to the maximum extent possible, with the foreign representative and the foreign court involved in the foreign proceeding. (2) Cooperation - other authorities in Canada - If any proceedings under this Act have been commenced in respect of a debtor company and an order recognizing a foreign proceeding is made in respect of the debtor company, every person who exercises powers or performs duties and functions under the proceedings under this Act shall cooperate, to the maximum extent possible, with the foreign representative and the foreign court involved in the foreign proceeding. (3) Forms of cooperation - For the purpose of this section, cooperation may be provided by any appropriate means, including (a)

the appointment of a person to act at the direction of the court;

(b)

the communication of information by any means considered appropriate by the court;

(c)

the coordination of the administration and supervision of the debtor company’s assets and affairs;

(d)

the approval or implementation by courts of agreements concerning the coordination of proceedings; and

(e)

the coordination of concurrent proceedings regarding the same debtor company.

S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 80. 53. Obligations of foreign representative - If an order recognizing a foreign proceeding is made, the foreign representative who applied for the order shall (a)

(b)

without delay, inform the court of (i)

any substantial change in the status of the recognized foreign proceeding,

(ii)

any substantial change in the status of the foreign representative’s authority to act in that capacity, and

(iii)

any other foreign proceeding in respect of the same debtor company that becomes known to the foreign representative; and

publish, without delay after the order is made, once a week for two consecutive weeks, or as otherwise directed by the court, in one or more newspapers in Canada specified by the court, a notice containing the prescribed information.

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Ss. 53-58

S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131.

Multiple Proceedings 54. Concurrent proceedings - If any proceedings under this Act in respect of a debtor company are commenced at any time after an order recognizing the foreign proceeding is made, the court shall review any order made under section 49 and, if it determines that the order is inconsistent with any orders made in the proceedings under this Act, the court shall amend or revoke the order. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131. 55. (1) Multiple foreign proceedings - If, at any time after an order is made in respect of a foreign non-main proceeding in respect of a debtor company, an order recognizing a foreign main proceeding is made in respect of the debtor company, the court shall review any order made under section 49 in respect of the foreign non-main proceeding and, if it determines that the order is inconsistent with any orders made under that section in respect of the foreign main proceedings, the court shall amend or revoke the order. (2) Multiple foreign proceedings - If, at any time after an order is made in respect of a foreign non-main proceeding in respect of the debtor company, an order recognizing another foreign non-main proceeding is made in respect of the debtor company, the court shall, for the purpose of facilitating the coordination of the foreign non-main proceedings, review any order made under section 49 in respect of the first recognized proceeding and amend or revoke the order if it considers it appropriate. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131.

Miscellaneous Provisions 56. Authorization to act as representative of proceeding under this Act - The court may authorize any person or body to act as a representative in respect of any proceeding under this Act for the purpose of having them recognized in a jurisdiction outside Canada. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131. 57. Foreign representative status - An application by a foreign representative for any order under this Part does not submit the foreign representative to the jurisdiction of the court for any other purpose except with regard to the costs of the proceedings, but the court may make any order under this Part conditional on the compliance by the foreign representative with any other order of the court. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131. 58. Foreign proceeding appeal - A foreign representative is not prevented from making an application to the court under this Part by reason only that proceedings by way of appeal or review have been taken in a foreign proceeding, and the court may, on an application if such proceedings have been taken, grant relief as if the proceedings had not been taken. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131.

257

Ss. 59-62

Companies’ Creditors Arrangement Act

59. Presumption of insolvency - For the purposes of this Part, if an insolvency or a reorganization or a similar order has been made in respect of a debtor company in a foreign proceeding, a certified copy of the order is, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, proof that the debtor company is insolvent and proof of the appointment of the foreign representative made by the order. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131. 60. (1) Credit for recovery in other jurisdictions - In making a compromise or an arrangement of a debtor company, the following shall be taken into account in the distribution of dividends to the company’s creditors in Canada as if they were a part of that distribution: (a)

he amount that a creditor receives or is entitled to receive outside Canada by way of a dividend in a foreign proceeding in respect of the company; and

(b)

the value of any property of the company that the creditor acquires outside Canada on account of a provable claim of the creditor or that the creditor acquires outside Canada by way of a transfer that, if it were subject to this Act, would be a preference over other creditors or a transfer at undervalue.

(2) Restriction - Despite subsection (1), the creditor is not entitled to receive a dividend from the distribution in Canada until every other creditor who has a claim of equal rank in the order of priority established under this Act has received a dividend whose amount is the same percentage of that other creditor’s claim as the aggregate of the amount referred to in paragraph (1)(a) and the value referred to in paragraph (1)(b) is of that creditor’s claim. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131. 61. (1) Court not prevented from applying certain rules - Nothing in this Part prevents the court, on the application of a foreign representative or any other interested person, from applying any legal or equitable rules governing the recognition of foreign insolvency orders and assistance to foreign representatives that are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act. (2) Public policy exception - Nothing in this Part prevents the court from refusing to do something that would be contrary to public policy. S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 81.

PART V — ADMINISTRATION 62. Regulations - The Governor in Council may make regulations for carrying out the purposes and provisions of this Act, including regulations (a)

specifying documents for the purpose of paragraph 23(1)(f); and

(b)

prescribing anything that by this Act is to be prescribed.

S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131 as amended by S.C. 2007, c. 36, s. 82.

258

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S. 63

63. (1) Review of Act - Within five years after the coming into force of this section, the Minister shall cause to be laid before both Houses of Parliament a report on the provisions and operation of this Act, including any recommendations for amendments to those provisions. (2) Reference to parliamentary committee - The report stands referred to the committee of the Senate, the House of Commons or both Houses of Parliament that is designated or established for that purpose, which shall (a)

as soon as possible after the laying of the report, review the report; and

(b)

report to the Senate, the House of Commons or both Houses of Parliament, as the case may be, within one year after the laying of the report of the Minister, or any further time authorized by the Senate, the House of Commons or both Houses of Parliament.

S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 131.

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260

CONSOLIDATION Wage Earner Protection Program Act S.C. 2005, c. 47, s. 1

An Act to establish a program for making payments to individuals in respect of wages owed to them by employers who are bankrupt or subject to a receivership NOTE [Enacted by section 1 of chapter 47 of the Statutes of Canada, 2005, in force July 7, 2008, see SI/2008-78.]

Current to June 1, 2011

Published by the Minister of Justice at the following address: http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca

261

262

Wage Earner Protection Program Act

Wage Earner Protection Program Act Contents Section 2 – Definitions ............................................................................ 265 Section 4 – WEPP Established ................................................................ 266 Sections 5-6 –Eligibility for Payments and Exceptions .......................... 266 Section 7 – Benefits Available ................................................................ 267 Sections 8-10 – Applications for Payment .............................................. 267 Section 14 – Grounds for Appeal of Decision Regarding Eligibility ...... 268 Section 17 – Adjudicator’s Decision ....................................................... 268 Sections 19-20 – No Review of Decision ................................................ 268 Section 21 – Duties of Trustees and Receivers ........................................ 269 Section 22 – Trustees’ and Receivers’ Expenses ..................................... 269 Section 23 – Ministerial Directions to Trustees and Receivers ............... 270 Section 25 – Inspections and Access to Records ..................................... 270 Section 31 – Audits.................................................................................. 272 Section 32 – Overpayments ..................................................................... 272 Section 33 – Garnishments ...................................................................... 272 Section 36 – Crown Subrogated .............................................................. 273 Section 37 – Payments Not Assignable ................................................... 273 Section 38 – Offences .............................................................................. 273 Section 42 – Five-Year Review ............................................................... 275

263

Wage Earner Protection Program Act

264

Wage Earner Protection Program Act

Ss. 1-2

Short Title 1. Short Title - This Act may be cited as the Wage Earner Protection Program Act.

Definitions 2. (1) Definitions - The following definitions apply in this Act. “eligible wages” « salaire admissible » “eligible wages” means (a) wages other than severance pay and termination pay that were earned during the six-month period ending on the date of the bankruptcy or the first day on which there was a receiver in relation to the former employer; and (b) severance pay and termination pay that relate to employment that ended during the period referred to in paragraph (a). “wages” « salaire » “wages” includes salaries, commissions, compensation for services rendered, vacation pay, severance pay, termination pay and any other amounts prescribed by regulation. Employers subject to a receivership (2) For the purposes of this Act, an employer is subject to a receivership when any property of the employer is under the possession or control of a receiver. Meaning of “receiver” (3) In this Act, “receiver” means a receiver within the meaning of subsection 243(2) of the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act. Words and expressions (4) Unless otherwise provided, words and expressions used in this Act have the same meaning as in the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act. Related persons (5) Despite subsection 4(5) of the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act, (a)

for the purposes of paragraph 6(d), an individual is considered to deal at arm’s length with a related person if the Minister is satisfied that, having regard to the circumstances — including the terms and conditions of the individual’s employment with the former employer, their remuneration and the duration, nature and importance of the work performed for the former employer — it is reasonable to conclude that the individual would have entered into a substantially similar

265

Ss. 2-6

Wage Earner Protection Program Act

contract of employment with the former employer if they had been dealing with each other at arm’s length; and (b)

for the purposes of subsection 21(4), individuals who are related to each other are, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, deemed not to deal with each other at arm’s length while so related. (i)

2005, c. 47, s. 1 “2”; 2007, c. 36, s. 83; 2009, c. 2, s. 342.

Designation Of Minister 3. Power of Governor in Council - The Governor in Council may designate a member of the Queen’s Privy Council for Canada to be the Minister for the purposes of this Act.

Program Established 4. Establishment - The Wage Earner Protection Program is established to make payments to individuals in respect of wages owed to them by employers who are bankrupt or subject to a receivership.

Eligibility For Payments 5. Conditions of Eligibility - An individual is eligible to receive a payment if (a)

the individual’s employment ended for a reason prescribed by regulation;

(b)

the former employer is bankrupt or subject to a receivership; and

(c)

the individual is owed eligible wages by the former employer.

(d)

[Repealed, 2009, c. 2, s. 343]

2005, c. 47, s. 1 “5”; 2007, c. 36, s. 84; 2009, c. 2, s. 343.

Exceptions 6. Exceptions - An individual is not eligible to receive a payment in respect of any wages earned during, or that otherwise relate to, a period in which the individual (a)

was an officer or director of the former employer;

(b)

had a controlling interest within the meaning of the regulations in the business of the former employer;

(c)

occupied a managerial position within the meaning of the regulations with the former employer; or

(d)

was not dealing at arm’s length with (i)

an officer or director of the former employer,

266

Wage Earner Protection Program Act

Ss. 6-11

(ii)

a person who had a controlling interest within the meaning of the regulations in the business of the former employer, or

(iii)

an individual who occupied a managerial position within the meaning of the regulations with the former employer.

2005, c. 47, s. 1 “6”; 2007, c. 36, s. 85; 2009, c. 2, s. 344.

Amounts Covered By Program 7.(1) Amount of payment - The amount that may be paid under this Act to an individual is the amount of eligible wages owing to the individual up to a maximum of the greater of the following amounts, less any amount prescribed by regulation: (a)

$3,000; and

(b)

an amount equal to four times the maximum weekly insurable earnings under the Employment Insurance Act.

(2) Bankruptcy and receivership - If the former employer is both bankrupt and subject to a receivership, the amount that may be paid is the greater of the amount determined in respect of the bankruptcy and the amount determined in respect of the receivership. 2005, c. 47, s. 1 “7”; 2007, c. 36, s. 86; 2009, c. 2, s. 345.

Application For Payment 8. Application - To receive a payment, an individual is to apply to the Minister in the manner and during the period provided for in the regulations. 2005, c. 47, s. 1 “8”; 2007, c. 36, s. 87. 9. Minister’s determination of eligibility - If the Minister determines that the applicant is eligible to receive a payment, the Minister shall make the payment. 2005, c. 47, s. 1 “9”; 2007, c. 36, s. 87. 10. Notification - The Minister is to inform the applicant of their eligibility or ineligibility to receive a payment. 2005, c. 47, s. 1 “10”; 2007, c. 36, s. 87.

Review By Minister 11. Request for review - An applicant who is informed under section 10 may request a review of their eligibility or ineligibility, as the case may be. 2005, c. 47, s. 1 “11”; 2007, c. 36, s. 87.

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Ss. 12-20

Wage Earner Protection Program Act

12. Review - The Minister may confirm, vary or rescind a determination of eligibility made under section 9. If the Minister varies the determination, the Minister shall make any payment resulting from the variation. 2005, c. 47, s. 1 “12”; 2007, c. 36, s. 87. 13. Review is Final - Subject to the right of appeal under section 14, the Minister’s confirmation, variation or rescission, as the case may be, is final and may not be questioned or reviewed in any court. 2005, c. 47, s. 1 “13”; 2007, c. 36, s. 87.

Appeal To Adjudicator 14. Appeal on question of law or jurisdiction - The applicant may appeal the decision made by the Minister under section 12 to an adjudicator only on a question of law or jurisdiction. 2005, c. 47, s. 1 “14”; 2007, c. 36, s. 87. 15. Appointment of adjudicator - An appeal is to be heard by an adjudicator appointed by the Minister. 16. Appeal on the record - The appeal is to be an appeal on the record and no new evidence is admissible. 2005, c. 47, s. 1 “16”; 2007, c. 36, s. 88. 17. Adjudicator’s decision - The adjudicator may confirm, vary or rescind the decision made by the Minister under section 12. If the adjudicator varies the decision, the Minister shall make any payment resulting from the variation. 2005, c. 47, s. 1 “17”; 2007, c. 36, s. 88.

18. Copies of decision - The adjudicator must send a copy of his or her decision, and the reasons for it, to each party to the appeal. 19. No review by certiorari, etc. - No order may be made to review, prohibit or restrain and no process entered or proceeding taken to question, review, prohibit or restrain in any court — whether by way of injunction, certiorari, prohibition, quo warranto or otherwise — an action of an adjudicator under this Act. 2005, c. 47, s. 1 “19”; 2007, c. 36, s. 89. 20. Decision is final - The adjudicator’s decision is final and may not be questioned or reviewed in any court. 2005, c. 47, s. 1 “20”; 2007, c. 36, s. 89.

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Wage Earner Protection Program Act

Ss. 21-22

Administration Duties of Trustees and Receivers 21.(1) General duties - For the purposes of this Act, a trustee or a receiver, as the case may be, shall (a)

identify each individual who is owed eligible wages;

(b)

determine the amount of eligible wages owing to each individual;

(c)

inform each individual other than one who is in a class prescribed by regulation of the existence of the program established by section 4 and of the conditions under which payments may be made under this Act;

(d)

provide the Minister and each individual other than one who is in a class prescribed by regulation with the information prescribed by regulation in relation to the individual and with the amount of eligible wages owing to the individual; and

(e)

inform the Minister of when the trustee is discharged or the receiver completes their duties, as the case may be.

(2) Compliance with directions - A trustee or receiver shall comply with any directions of the Minister relating to the administration of this Act. (3) Duty to assist - A person, other than one described in subsection (4), who has or has access to information described in paragraph (1)(d) shall, on request, provide it to the trustee or the receiver, as the case may be. (4) Duty to assist - payroll contractors - In the case of a person who is dealing at arm’s length with and providing payroll services to a bankrupt or insolvent person, they shall provide a description of the information that they do not have access to, an estimate of the cost of providing the information that they have and an estimate of the cost of providing the information that they only have access to. 2005, c. 47, s. 1 “21”; 2007, c. 36, s. 89; 2009, c. 2, s. 346.

22.(1) Fees and expenses - The trustee’s or receiver’s fees and expenses, in relation to the performance of their duties under this Act, are to be paid out of the estate of the bankrupt employer or the property of the insolvent employer, as the case may be. (2) Minister to pay fees and expenses - The Minister shall, in the circumstances prescribed by regulation, pay the fees or expenses that are prescribed by regulation. 2005, c. 47, s. 1 “22”; 2007, c. 36, s. 89.

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Ss. 23-25

Wage Earner Protection Program Act

Powers of Minister 23.(1) Directions to trustees and receivers - The Minister may give directions to trustees and receivers in respect of the performance of their duties under this Act. (2) Directions not statutory instruments - A direction given by the Minister is not a statutory instrument within the meaning of the Statutory Instruments Act. 24.(1) Power to summon, etc. - For the purposes of the administration of this Act, the Minister may (a)

summon any person before him or her and require the person to give evidence, orally or in writing, and on oath or, if the person is entitled to affirm in civil matters, on solemn affirmation;

(b)

require any person to provide the Minister with any information or document that the Minister considers necessary; and

(c)

require any person to provide an affidavit or a statutory declaration attesting to the truth of any information provided by the person.

(2) Taking oaths, etc. - Any person, if designated by the Minister for the purpose, may administer oaths and take and receive affidavits, statutory declarations and solemn affirmations for the purpose of or incidental to the administration of this Act. Every person so designated has, with respect to any such oath, affidavit, declaration or affirmation, all the powers of a commissioner for administering oaths or taking affidavits. (3) Acceptance of oaths, etc. - The Minister may, for the purposes of administering this Act, accept any oath administered or any affidavit, statutory declaration or solemn affirmation taken or received by any person who has the powers of a commissioner for taking affidavits and who is an officer or employee of (a)

a department or other portion of the federal public administration specified in any of Schedules I, IV and V to the Financial Administration Act; or

(b)

a department of the government of a province.

25.(1) Inspections - A person designated by the Minister for the purpose may, at any reasonable time, enter any place in which he or she reasonably believes there is any information or document relevant to the administration of this Act and may, in that place, (a)

inspect any books, records, electronic data or other documents that he or she reasonably believes may contain information that is relevant to the administration of this Act;

(b)

use or cause to be used any computer system to examine any data contained in or available to the computer system;

(c)

reproduce or cause to be reproduced any record from the data in the form of a print-out or other intelligible output;

(d)

take any document or other thing from the place for examination or, in the case of a document, for copying; and

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(e)

Ss. 25-29

use or cause to be used any copying equipment to make copies of any documents.

(2) Prior authorization - If any place referred to in subsection (1) is a dwelling-house, the designated person may not enter the dwelling-house without the consent of the occupant, except under the authority of a warrant issued under subsection (3). (3) Warrant to enter dwelling-house - A judge may issue a warrant authorizing the designated person to enter a dwelling-house subject to the conditions specified in the warrant if, on ex parte application, the judge is satisfied by information on oath that (a)

there are reasonable grounds to believe that the dwelling-house is a place referred to in subsection (1);

(b)

entry into the dwelling-house is necessary for any purpose related to the administration of this Act; and

(c)

entry into the dwelling-house has been, or there are reasonable grounds to believe that entry will be, refused.

(4) Orders if entry not authorized - If the judge is not satisfied that entry into the dwellinghouse is necessary for any purpose related to the administration of this Act, the judge may, to the extent that access was or may be expected to be refused and that information or documents are or may be expected to be kept in the dwelling-house, (a)

order the occupant of the dwelling-house to provide the Minister, or a person designated by the Minister for the purpose, with reasonable access to any information or document that is or should be kept in the dwelling-house; and

(b)

make any other order that is appropriate in the circumstances to carry out the purposes of this Act.

26. Duty to assist - The owner or person in charge of a place that is entered by the designated person and every person found there must (a)

give the designated person all reasonable assistance to enable him or her to exercise his or her powers and perform his or her duties; and

(b)

provide the designated person with any information relevant to the administration of this Act that he or she requires.

27. Information to be made available to Minister - Despite subsection 139(5) of the Employment Insurance Act, personal information relating to an applicant that is collected or obtained by the Canada Employment Insurance Commission must, if requested by the Minister, be made available to the Minister to determine the applicant’s eligibility to receive a payment under this Act. 2005, c. 47, ss. 1 “27”, 140. 28. [Repealed, 2005, c. 47, s. 140] 29. Social Insurance Number - No person may knowingly use, communicate or allow to be communicated a Social Insurance Number that was obtained for a purpose related to an

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application for a payment under this Act except for the purpose of the administration or enforcement of this Act or the Income Tax Act. 2005, c. 47, s. 1 “29”; 2007, c. 36, s. 90. 30. Delegation - The Minister may delegate to any person the exercise of any power or the performance of any duty or function that may be exercised or performed by the Minister under this Act. 31.(1) Audit of applications - Subject to subsections (2) to (4), the Minister may, on his or her initiative, conduct an audit of any application for payment under this Act. (2) Applications with payment - An audit of an application in respect of which a payment was made may be conducted at any time within three years after the day on which the payment was made. (3) Exception - If the Minister has reasonable grounds to believe that a payment was made on the basis of any false or misleading information, an audit of the application in respect of which the payment was made may be conducted at any time within six years after the payment was made. (4) Other applications - An audit of an application in respect of which no payment was made may be conducted at any time within three years after the day on which the applicant was sent a notice informing the applicant that he or she was not eligible to receive a payment. 32.(1) Determination of overpayment - If the Minister determines that an individual received a payment in an amount greater than the amount that they were eligible to receive, the Minister shall send them a notice (a)

informing them of the determination; and

(b)

specifying the amount that they were not eligible to receive.

(2) Debt due to Her Majesty - The amount specified in the notice constitutes a debt due to Her Majesty in right of Canada and may be recovered by the Minister of National Revenue. (3) Certificate of default - The amount of any debt referred to in subsection (2) that remains unpaid 30 days after the day on which the notice is sent may be certified by the Minister, and registration of the certificate in the Federal Court has the same effect as a judgment of that Court for the amount specified in the certificate and all related registration costs. 2005, c. 47, s. 1 “32”; 2007, c. 36, s. 91. 33. Garnishment - If the Minister is of the opinion that a person is or is about to become liable to pay an amount to an individual who is indebted to Her Majesty under section 32, the Minister may, by written notice, order the person to pay to the Receiver General on account of the individual’s liability all or part of the amount otherwise payable to the individual. 2005, c. 47, s. 1 “33”; 2007, c. 36, s. 91. 34. No payment or partial payment - If the Minister determines that an individual did not receive all or part of a payment that they were eligible to receive, the Minister shall make a payment to them in an amount equal to the amount that they did not receive. 272

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2005, c. 47, s. 1 “34”; 2007, c. 36, s. 92(E).

Financial Provisions 35. Payments out of C.R.F. - There may be paid out of the Consolidated Revenue Fund all payments authorized to be made under this Act. 36.(1) Subrogation - If a payment is made under this Act to an individual in respect of unpaid wages, Her Majesty in right of Canada is, to the extent of the amount of the payment, subrogated to any rights the individual may have in respect of the unpaid wages against (a)

the bankrupt or insolvent employer; and

(b)

if the bankrupt or insolvent employer is a corporation, a director of the corporation.

(2) Maintaining an action - For the purposes of subsection (1), Her Majesty in right of Canada may maintain an action in the name of the individual or Her Majesty in right of Canada. 2005, c. 47, s. 1 “36”; 2007, c. 36, s. 93. 37. Amount not assignable - An amount that is payable under this Act is not capable of being assigned, charged, attached, anticipated or given as security and any transaction appearing to do so is void or, in Quebec, null. 2005, c. 47, s. 1 “37”; 2007, c. 36, s. 93.

Offences and Penalties 38. (1) Offences - Every person commits an offence who (a)

makes a false or misleading entry, or omits to enter a material particular, in any record or book of account that contains information that supports an application under this Act;

(b)

in relation to an application under this Act, makes a representation that the person knows to be false or misleading;

(c)

in relation to an application under this Act, makes a declaration that the person knows to be false or misleading because of the nondisclosure of facts;

(d)

being required under this Act to provide information, does not provide it or makes a representation that the person knows to be false or misleading;

(e)

obtains a payment under this Act by false pretence;

(f)

being the payee of any cheque issued as a payment under this Act, knowingly negotiates or attempts to negotiate it knowing that the person is not entitled to the payment or any part of the payment; or

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(g)

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participates in, consents to or acquiesces in an act or omission mentioned in any of paragraphs (a) to (f).

(2) Trustees and receivers - Every person who fails to comply with any of the requirements of subsection 21(1), (3) or (4) commits an offence. (3) Limitation of prosecutions - A prosecution for an offence under subsection (1) or (2) may be commenced at any time within six years after the day on which the subject matter of the prosecution arose. (4) Due diligence - No person may be convicted of an offence under subsection (2) if the person establishes that they exercised due diligence to prevent the commission of the offence. 2005, c. 47, s. 1 “38”; 2007, c. 36, s. 93. 39.(1) Obstruction - Every person commits an offence who delays or obstructs a person in the exercise of their powers or the performance of their duties under this Act. (2) Limitation of prosecutions - A prosecution for an offence under subsection (1) may be commenced at any time within two years after the day on which the subject matter of the prosecution arose. 2005, c. 47, s. 1 “39”; 2007, c. 36, s. 93. 40. Punishment - Every person who is guilty of an offence under section 38 or 39 is liable on summary conviction to a fine of not more than $5,000 or to imprisonment for a term of not more than six months, or to both.

Regulations 41. Regulations - The Governor in Council may make regulations generally for carrying out the purposes of this Act, including regulations (a)

prescribing amounts for the purposes of subsection 2(1);

(b)

prescribing reasons for the purposes of paragraph 5(a);

(c)

defining “controlling interest” and “managerial position” for the purposes of section 6;

(d)

prescribing an amount for the purposes of subsection 7(1);

(e)

respecting the allocation of payments to the different components of wages;

(f)

respecting the period during which and the manner in which applications for payments are to be made under section 8;

(g)

respecting the period during which and the manner in which a review may be requested under section 11 or an appeal may be made under section 14;

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(h)

prescribing the classes of individuals that the trustee or receiver is not required to inform under paragraph 21(1)(c) or to whom they are not required to provide information under paragraph 21(1)(d);

(i)

respecting the information that is to be provided by trustees and receivers to the Minister and to individuals for the purposes of paragraph 21(1)(d) and respecting the period during which and the manner in which that information is to be provided;

(j)

respecting the period during which and the manner in which the information referred to in paragraph 21(1)(c) and subsections 21(3) and (4) is to be provided; and

(k)

prescribing fees and expenses for the purposes of subsection 22(2) and the circumstances in which they are to be paid.

2005, c. 47, s. 1 “41”; 2007, c. 36, s. 94; 2009, c. 2, s. 347.

Review Of Act 42. Review - Within five years after the day on which this section comes into force, the Minister must cause a review of this Act and its administration and operation to be conducted, and cause a report on the review to be laid before each House of Parliament on any of the first 15 days on which that House is sitting after the review is completed.

RELATED PROVISIONS — 2005, c. 47, s. 132, as amended by 2007, c. 36, s. 107: 132. Wage Earner Protection Program Act - The Wage Earner Protection Program Act, as enacted by section 1 of this Act, applies in respect of wages owing by an employer only if (a)

the employer becomes bankrupt on or after the day on which that section comes into force; or

(b)

all or part of the employer’s property comes into the possession or under the control of a receiver on or after the day on which that section comes into force.

— 2009, c. 2, s. 357: 357. Application - The provisions of the Wage Earner Protection Program Act and the Wage Earner Protection Program Regulations as amended by sections 342 to 354 apply (a)

in respect of wages owing to an individual by an employer who becomes bankrupt after January 26, 2009; and

(b)

in respect of wages owing to an individual by an employer any of whose property comes under the possession or control of a receiver within the meaning of subsection 243(2) of the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act after January 26, 2009.

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The American Law Institute in association with

THE INTERNATIONAL INSOLVENCY INSTITUTE

Guidelines Applicable to Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases As Adopted and Promulgated in Transnational Insolvency: Principles of Cooperation Among the NAFTA Countries by The American Law Institute At Washington, D.C., May, 2000 and as adopted by THE INTERNATIONAL INSOLVENCY INSTITUTE at New York, June, 2001

277

The American Law Institute

The International Insolvency Institute

4025 Chestnut Street

Scotia Plaza, Suite 2100 40 King Street West

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 191043099

Toronto, Ontario M5H 3C2

Telephone: (215) 243-1600 Telecopier: (215) 243-1636

Telephone: (416) 869-5757 Telecopier: (416) 360-8877

E-mail: [email protected] Website: http://www.ali.org

Email: [email protected] Website: http://www.iiiglobal.org

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COPYRIGHT © 2003 By THE AMERICAN LAW INSTITUTE All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America The Guidelines Applicable to Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases were developed by The American Law Institute during and as part of its Transnational Insolvency Project and the use of the Guidelines in cross-border cases is specifically permitted and encouraged. The text of the Guidelines is available in English and several other languages including Chinese, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, Swedish, and Spanish on the website of the International Insolvency Institute at http://www.iiiglobal.org/international/guidelines.html. The American Law Institute 4025 Chestnut Street Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-3099 Telephone: (215) 243-1600 Telecopier: (215) 243-1636 E-mail: [email protected] Website: http://www.ali.org

The International Insolvency Institute Scotia Plaza, Suite 2100 40 King Street West Toronto, Ontario M5H 3C2 Telephone: (416) 869-5757 Telecopier: (416) 360-8877 E-mail: [email protected] Website: http://www.iiiglobal.org

279

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Guidelines Applicable to Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases

Guidelines Applicable to Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases Contents Foreword by the Director of The American Law Institute .............283 Foreword by the Chair of the International Insolvency Institute ...............................................................................................284 Judicial Preface .................................................................................285 Guidelines Applicable to Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases ..........................................................................287 Introduction ............................................................................................ 287 Guideline 1 – Communication to be Consistent with Rules of Procedure ........................................................................ 288 Guideline 2 – Communication for Coordinating Proceedings .............. 288 Guideline 3 – Communication with Insolvency Administrators ........... 288 Guideline 4 – Communication by Insolvency Administrators .............. 288 Guideline 5 – Courts may receive Communication............................... 288 Guideline 6 – Means of Communication............................................... 288 Guideline 7 – Procedures Applicable to Communication between Courts ............................................................................. 289 Guideline 8 – Procedures Applicable to Communication with Foreign Administrators ................................................... 289 Guideline 9 – Joint Court Hearings - Procedures .................................. 290 Guideline 10 – Recognition of Statutes and Regulations ........................ 291 Guideline 11 – Recognition of Court Orders .......................................... 291 Guideline 12 – Notice to Non-Resident Parties ...................................... 291 Guideline 13 – Non-Attornment to Jurisdiction ...................................... 291 Guideline 14 – Relief from Stay for Proceedings in Other Court ........... 291 Guideline 15 – Communication for Coordination and Harmonization ................................................................ 292 Guideline 16 – Amendment and Modification of Directions .................. 292 Guideline 17 – Non-Determination of Controversial Matters and Non-Waiver of Substantive Rights ................................. 292

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Guidelines Applicable to Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases

Foreword by the Director of The American Law Institute In May of 2000 The American Law Institute gave its final approval to the work of the ALI’s Transnational Insolvency Project. This consisted of the four volumes eventually published, after a period of delay required by the need to take into account a newly enacted Mexican Bankruptcy Code, in 2003 under the title of Transnational Insolvency: Cooperation Among the NAFTA Countries. These volumes included both the first phase of the project, separate Statements of the bankruptcy laws of Canada, Mexico, and the United States, and the project’s culminating phase, a volume comprising Principles of Cooperation Among the NAFTA Countries. All reflected the joint input of teams of Reporters and Advisers from each of the three NAFTA countries and a fully transnational perspective. Published by Juris Publishing, Inc., they can be ordered on the ALI website (www.ali.org). A byproduct of our work on the Principles volume, these Guidelines Applicable to Court-toCourt Communications in Cross-Border Cases appeared originally as Appendix B of that volume and were approved by the ALI in 2000 along with the rest of the volume. But the Guidelines have played a vital and influential role apart from the Principles, having been widely translated and distributed, cited and applied by courts, and independently approved by both the International Insolvency Institute and the Insolvency Institute of Canada. Although they were initially developed in the context of a project arrived at improving cooperation among bankruptcy courts within the NAFTA countries, their acceptance by the III, whose members include leaders of the insolvency bar from more than 40 countries, suggests a pertinence and applicability that extends far beyond the ambit of NAFTA. Indeed, there appears to be no reason to restrict the Guidelines to insolvency cases; they should prove useful whenever sensible and coherent standards for cooperation among courts involved in overlapping litigation are called for. See, e.g., American Law Institute, International Jurisdiction and Judgments Project §12(e) (Tentative Draft No. 2, 2004). The American Law Institute expresses its gratitude to the International Insolvency Institute for its continuing efforts to publicize the Guidelines and to make them more widely known to judges and lawyers around the world; to III Chair E. Bruce Leonard of Toronto, who as Canadian Co-Reporter for the Transnational Insolvency Project was the principal drafter of the Guidelines in English and has been primarily responsible for arranging and overseeing their translation into the various other languages in which they now appear; and to the translators themselves, whose work will make the Guidelines much more universally accessible. We hope that this greater availability, in these new English and bilingual editions, will help to foster better communication, and thus better understanding, among the diverse courts and legal systems throughout our increasingly globalized world. Lance Liebman Director The American Law Institute January 30, 2004

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Foreword by the Chair of the International Insolvency Institute The International Insolvency Institute, a world-wide association of leading insolvency professionals, judges, academics, and regulators, is please to recommend the adoption and the application in cross-border and multinational cases of the American Law Institute’s Guidelines Applicable to Court-to-Court Communication in Cross-Border Cases. The Guidelines were reviewed and studies by a Committee of the III and were unanimously approved but its membership at the III’s Annual General Meeting and Conference in New York in June 2001. Since their approval by the III, the Guidelines have been applied in several cross-border cases with considerable success in achieving the coordination that is so necessary to preserve values for all of the creditors that are involved in international cases. The III recommends without qualification that insolvency professionals and judges adopt the Guidelines at the earliest possible stage of a cross-border case so that they will be in place whenever there is a need for the courts involved to communicate with each other, e.g., whenever the actions of one court could impact on issues that are before the other court. Although the Guidelines were developed in an insolvency context, it has been noted by litigation professionals and judges that the Guidelines would be equally valuable and constructive in any international case where two or more courts are involved. In fact, in multijurisdictional litigation, the positive effect of the Guidelines would be even greater in cases where several courts are involved. It is important to appreciate that the Guidelines require that all domestic practices and procedures be complied with and that the Guidelines do not alter or affect the substantive rights of the parties or give any advantage to any party over any other party. The International Insolvency Institute expresses appreciation to its members who have arranged for the translation of the Guidelines into French, German, Italian, Korean, Japanese, Chinese, Portuguese, Russian, and Swedish and extends its appreciation to The American Law Institute for the translation into Spanish. The III also expresses its appreciation to The American Law Institute, the American College of Bankruptcy, and the Ontario Superior Court of Justice Commercial List Committee for their kind and generous financial support in enabling the publication and dissemination of the Guidelines in bilingual versions in major countries around the world Readers who become aware of cases in which the Guidelines have been applied are highly encourages to provide the details of those cases to the III (fax: 416-360-8877; email: [email protected]) so that everyone can benefit from the experience and positive results that flow from the adoption and application of the Guidelines. The continuing progress of the Guidelines and the cases in which the Guidelines have been applied will be maintained on the III’s website at www.iiiglobal.org. The III and all of its members are very pleased to have been a part of the development and success of the Guidelines and commend The American Law Institute for its vision in developing the Guidelines and in supporting their worldwide circulation to insolvency professionals, judges, academics, and regulators. The use of the Guidelines in international cases will change international insolvencies and reorganizations for the better forever, and the insolvency community owes a considerable debt to The American Law Institute for the inspiration and vision that has made this possible. E. Bruce Leonard Chairman The International Insolvency Institute Toronto, Ontario March 2004

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Judicial Preface We believe that the advantages of co-operation and co-ordination between Courts is clearly advantageous to all of the stakeholders who are involved in insolvency and reorganization cases that extend beyond the boundaries of one country. The benefit of communications between Courts in international proceedings has been recognized by the United Nations through the Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency developed by the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law and approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1997. The advantages of communications have also been recognized in the European Union Regulation on Insolvency Proceedings which became effective for the Member States of the European Union in 2002. The Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases were developed in the American Law Institute’s Transnational Insolvency Project involving the NAFTA countries of Mexico, the United States and Canada. The Guidelines have been approved by the membership of the ALI and by the International Insolvency Institute whose membership covers over 40 countries from around the world. We appreciate that every country is unique and distinctive and that every country has its own proud legal traditions and concepts. The Guidelines are not intended to alter or change the domestic rules or procedures that are applicable in any country and are not intended to affect or curtail the substantive rights of any party in proceedings before the Courts. The Guidelines are intended to encourage and facilitate co-operation in international cases while observing all applicable rules and procedures of the Courts that are respectively involved. The Guidelines may be modified to meet either the procedural law of the jurisdiction in question or the particular circumstances in individual cases so as to achieve the greatest level of co-operation possible between the Courts in dealing with a multinational insolvency or liquidation. The Guidelines, however, are not restricted to insolvency cases and may be of assistance in dealing with non-insolvency cases that involve more than one country. Several of us have already used the Guidelines in cross-border cases and would encourage stakeholders and counsel in international cases to consider the advantages that could be achieved in their cases from the application and implementation of the Guidelines. Mr. Justice David Baragwanath High Court of New Zealand Auckland, New Zealand

Chief Justice Donald I. Brenner Supreme Court of British Columbia Vancouver

Hon. Sidney B. Brooks United States Bankruptcy Court District of Colorado Denver

Hon. Charles G. Case, II United States Bankruptcy Court District of Arizona Phoenix

Mr. Justice Miodrag Dordević Supreme Court of Slovenia Ljubljana

Mr. Justice J.M. Farley Ontario Superior Court of Justice Toronto

Hon. James L. Garrity, Jr. United States Bankruptcy Court Southern District of New York (Ret’d) Shearman & Sterling New York

Hon. Allan L. Gropper Southern District of New York United States Bankruptcy Court New York

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Mr. Justice Paul R. Heath High Court of New Zealand Auckland, New Zealand

Hon. Hyungdu Kim Supreme Court of Korea Seoul

Chief Judge Burton R. Lifland United States Bankruptcy Appellate Panel for the Second Circuit New York

Mr. Justice Gavin Lightman Royal Courts of Justice London

Hon. George Paine II United States Bankruptcy Court District of Tennessee Nashville

Hon. Chiyong Rim District Court Western District of Seoul Seoul, Korea

Mr. Justice Adolfo A.N. Rouillon Court of Appeal Rosario, Argentina

Hon. Shinjiro Takagi Supreme Court of Japan (Ret’d) Industrial Revitalization Corporation of Japan Tokyo

Mr. Justice Wisit Wisitsora – At Business Reorganization Office Government of Thailand Bangkok

Mr. Justice R.H. Zulman Supreme Court of Appeal of South Africa Parklands

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Guidelines Applicable to Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases Introduction One of the most essential elements of cooperation in cross-border cases is communication among the administrating authorities of the countries involved. Because of the importance of the courts in insolvency and reorganization proceedings, it is even more essential that the supervising courts be able to coordinate their activities to assure the maximum available benefit for the stakeholders of financially troubled enterprises. These Guidelines are intended to enhance coordination and harmonization of insolvency proceedings that involve more than one country through communications among the jurisdictions involved. Communications by judges directly with judges or administrators in a foreign country, however, raise issues of credibility and proper procedures. The context alone is likely to create concern in litigants unless the process is transparent and clearly fair. Thus, communication among courts in cross-border cases is both more important and more sensitive than in domestic cases. These Guidelines encourage such communications while channeling them through transparent procedures. The Guidelines are meant to permit rapid cooperation in a developing insolvency case while ensuring due process to all concerned. A Court intending to employ the Guidelines — in whole or part, with or without modifications — should adopt them formally before applying them. A Court may wish to make its adoption of the Guidelines contingent upon, or temporary until, their adoption by other courts concerned in the matter. The adopting Court may want to make adoption or continuance conditional upon adoption of the Guidelines by the other Court in a substantially similar form, to ensure that judges, counsel, and parties are not subject to different standards of conduct. The Guidelines should be adopted following such notice to the parties and counsel as would be given under local procedures with regard to any important procedural decision under similar circumstances. If communication with other courts is urgently needed, the local procedures, including notice requirements, that are used in urgent or emergency situations should be employed, including, if appropriate, an initial period of effectiveness, followed by further consideration of the Guidelines at a later time. Questions about the parties entitled to such notice (for example, all parties or representative parties or representative counsel) and the nature of the court’s consideration of any objections (for example, with or without a hearing) are governed by the Rules of Procedure in each jurisdiction and are not addressed in the Guidelines. The Guidelines are not meant to be static, but are meant to be adapted and modified to fit the circumstances of individual cases and to change and evolve as the international insolvency community gains experience from working with them. They are to apply only in a manner that is consistent with local procedures and local ethical requirements. They do not address the details of notice and procedure that depend upon the law and practice in each jurisdiction. However, the Guidelines represent approaches that are likely to be highly useful in achieving efficient and just resolutions of cross-border insolvency issues. Their use, with such modifications and under such circumstances as may be appropriate in a particular case, is therefore recommended.

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Guidelines Applicable to Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases

Guideline 1 Except in circumstances of urgency, prior to a communication with another Court, the Court should be satisfied that such a communication is consistent with all applicable Rules of Procedure in its country. Where a Court intends to apply these Guidelines (in whole or in part and with or without modifications), the Guidelines to be employed should, wherever possible, be formally adopted before they are applied. Coordination of Guidelines between courts is desirable and officials of both courts may communicate in accordance with Guideline 8(d) with regard to the application and implementation of the Guidelines.

Guideline 2 A Court may communicate with another Court in connection with matters relating to proceedings before it for the purposes of coordinating and harmonizing proceedings before it with those in the other jurisdiction.

Guideline 3 A Court may communicate with an Insolvency Administrator in another jurisdiction or an authorized Representative of the Court in that jurisdiction in connection with the coordination and harmonization of the proceedings before it with the proceedings in the other jurisdiction.

Guideline 4 A Court may permit a duly authorized Insolvency Administrator to communicate with a foreign Court directly, subject to the approval of the foreign Court, or through an Insolvency Administrator in the other jurisdiction or through an authorized Representative of the foreign Court on such terms as the Court considers appropriate.

Guideline 5 A Court may receive communications from a foreign Court or from an authorized Representative of the foreign Court or from a foreign Insolvency Administrator and should respond directly if the communication is from a foreign Court (subject to Guideline 7 in the case of two-way communications) and may respond directly or through an authorized Representative of the Court or through a duly authorized Insolvency Administrator if the communication is from a foreign Insolvency Administrator, subject to local rules concerning ex parte communications.

Guideline 6 Communications from a Court to another Court may take place by or through the Court: (a)

Sending or transmitting copies of formal orders, judgments, opinions, reasons for decision, endorsements, transcripts of proceedings, or other documents directly to the other Court and providing advance notice to counsel for affected parties in such manner as the Court considers appropriate;

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G6-G8

(b)

Directing counsel or a foreign or domestic Insolvency Administrator to transmit or deliver copies of documents, pleadings, affidavits, factums, briefs, or other documents that are filed or to be filed with the Court to the other Court in such fashion as may be appropriate and providing advance notice to counsel for affected parties in such manner as the Court considers appropriate;

(c)

Participating in two-way communications with the other Court by telephone or video conference call or other electronic means, in which case Guideline 7 should apply.

Guideline 7 In the event of communications between the Courts in accordance with Guidelines 2 and 5 by means of telephone or video conference call or other electronic means, unless otherwise directed by either of the two Courts: (a)

Counsel for all affected parties should be entitled to participate in person during the communication and advance notice of the communication should be given to all parties in accordance with the Rules of Procedure applicable in each Court;

(b)

The communication between the Courts should be recorded and may be transcribed. A written transcript may be prepared from a recording of the communication which, with the approval of both Courts, should be treated as an official transcript of the communication;

(c)

Copies of any recording of the communication, of any transcript of the communication prepared pursuant to any Direction of either Court, and of any official transcript prepared from a recording should be filed as part of the record in the proceedings and made available to counsel for all parties in both Courts subject to such Directions as to confidentiality as the Courts may consider appropriate; and

(d)

The time and place for communications between the Courts should be to the satisfaction of both Courts. Personnel other than Judges in each Court may communicate fully with each other to establish appropriate arrangements for the communication without the necessity for participation by counsel unless otherwise ordered by either of the Courts.

Guideline 8 In the event of communications between the Court and an authorized Representative of the foreign Court or a foreign Insolvency Administrator in accordance with Guidelines 3 and 5 by means of telephone or video conference call or other electronic means, unless otherwise directed by the Court: (a)

Counsel for all affected parties should be entitled to participate in person during the communication and advance notice of the communication should be given to all parties in accordance with the Rules of Procedure applicable in each Court;

(b)

The communication should be recorded and may be transcribed. A written transcript may be prepared from a recording of the communication which, with the 289

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approval of the Court, can be treated as an official transcript of the communication; (c)

Copies of any recording of the communication, of any transcript of the communication prepared pursuant to any Direction of the Court, and of any official transcript prepared from a recording should be filed as part of the record in the proceedings and made available to the other Court and to counsel for all parties in both Courts subject to such Directions as to confidentiality as the Court may consider appropriate; and

(d)

The time and place for the communication should be to the satisfaction of the Court. Personnel of the Court other than Judges may communicate fully with the authorized Representative of the foreign Court or the foreign Insolvency Administrator to establish appropriate arrangements for the communication without the necessity for participation by counsel unless otherwise ordered by the Court.

Guideline 9 A Court may conduct a joint hearing with another Court. In connection with any such joint hearing, the following should apply, unless otherwise ordered or unless otherwise provided in any previously approved Protocol applicable to such joint hearing: (a)

Each Court should be able to simultaneously hear the proceedings in the other Court.

(b)

Evidentiary or written materials filed or to be filed in one Court should, in accordance with the Directions of that Court, be transmitted to the other Court or made available electronically in a publicly accessible system in advance of the hearing. Transmittal of such material to the other Court or its public availability in an electronic system should not subject the party filing the material in one Court to the jurisdiction of the other Court.

(c)

Submissions or applications by the representative of any party should be made only to the Court in which the representative making the submissions is appearing unless the representative is specifically given permission by the other Court to make submissions to it.

(d)

Subject to Guideline 7(b), the Court should be entitled to communicate with the other Court in advance of a joint hearing, with or without counsel being present, to establish Guidelines for the orderly making of submissions and rendering of decisions by the Courts, and to coordinate and resolve any procedural, administrative, or preliminary matters relating to the joint hearing.

(e)

Subject to Guideline 7(b), the Court, subsequent to the joint hearing, should be entitled to communicate with the other Court, with or without counsel present, for the purpose of determining whether coordinated orders could be made by both Courts and to coordinate and resolve any procedural or nonsubstantive matters relating to the joint hearing.

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Guideline 10 The Court should, except upon proper objection on valid grounds and then only to the extent of such objection, recognize and accept as authentic the provisions of statutes, statutory or administrative regulations, and rules of court of general application applicable to the proceedings in the other jurisdiction without the need for further proof or exemplification thereof.

Guideline 11 The Court should, except upon proper objection on valid grounds and then only to the extent of such objection, accept that Orders made in the proceedings in the other jurisdiction were duly and properly made or entered on or about their respective dates and accept that such Orders require no further proof or exemplification for purposes of the proceedings before it, subject to all such proper reservations as in the opinion of the Court are appropriate regarding proceedings by way of appeal or review that are actually pending in respect of any such Orders.

Guideline 12 The Court may coordinate proceedings before it with proceedings in another jurisdiction by establishing a Service List that may include parties that are entitled to receive notice of proceedings before the Court in the other jurisdiction (“Non-Resident Parties”). All notices, applications, motions, and other materials served for purposes of the proceedings before the Court may be ordered to also be provided to or served on the Non-Resident Parties by making such materials available electronically in a publicly accessible system or by facsimile transmission, certified or registered mail or delivery by courier, or in such other manner as may be directed by the Court in accordance with the procedures applicable in the Court.

Guideline 13 The Court may issue an Order or issue Directions permitting the foreign Insolvency Administrator or a representative of creditors in the proceedings in the other jurisdiction or an authorized Representative of the Court in the other jurisdiction to appear and be heard by the Court without thereby becoming subject to the jurisdiction of the Court.

Guideline 14 The Court may direct that any stay of proceedings affecting the parties before it shall, subject to further order of the Court, not apply to applications or motions brought by such parties before the other Court or that relief be granted to permit such parties to bring such applications or motions before the other Court on such terms and conditions as it considers appropriate. Court-to-Court communications in accordance with Guidelines 6 and 7 hereof may take place if an application or motion brought before the Court affects or might affect issues or proceedings in the Court in the other jurisdiction.

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Guideline 15 A Court may communicate with a Court in another jurisdiction or with an authorized Representative of such Court in the manner prescribed by these Guidelines for purposes of coordinating and harmonizing proceedings before it with proceedings in the other jurisdiction regardless of the form of the proceedings before it or before the other Court wherever there is commonality among the issues and/or the parties in the proceedings. The Court should, absent compelling reasons to the contrary, so communicate with the Court in the other jurisdiction where the interests of justice so require.

Guideline 16 Directions issued by the Court under these Guidelines are subject to such amendments, modifications, and extensions as may be considered appropriate by the Court for the purposes described above and to reflect the changes and developments from time to time in the proceedings before it and before the other Court. Any Directions may be supplemented, modified, and restated from time to time and such modifications, amendments, and restatements should become effective upon being accepted by both Courts. If either Court intends to supplement, change, or abrogate Directions issued under these Guidelines in the absence of joint approval by both Courts, the Court should give the other Courts involved reasonable notice of its intention to do so.

Guideline 17 Arrangements contemplated under these Guidelines do not constitute a compromise or waiver by the Court of any powers, responsibilities, or authority and do not constitute a substantive determination of any matter in controversy before the Court or before the other Court nor a waiver by any of the parties of any of their substantive rights and claims or a diminution of the effect of any of the Orders made by the Court or the other Court.

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UNITED NATIONS COMMISSION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE LAW (UNCITRAL) UNCITRAL Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency

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United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) MODEL LAW ON CROSS-BORDER INSOLVENCY Contents PREAMBLE

............................................................................................. 297

CHAPTER I. GENERAL PROVISIONS .................................................. 297 Article 1. Scope of Application ........................................................... 297 Article 2. Definitions ........................................................................... 297 Article 3. International Obligations of This State ............................... 298 Article 4. Competent Court or Authority ............................................ 298 Article 5. Authorization of [Insert the Title of Administrator in Reorganization or Liquidation Under the Law of the Enacting State] to act in a Foreign State ............................ 298 Article 6. Public Policy Exception ...................................................... 298 Article 7. Additional Assistance Under Other Laws ........................... 298 Article 8. Interpretation ...................................................................... 299 CHAPTER II. ACCESS OF FOREIGN REPRESENTATIVES AND CREDITORS TO COURTS IN THIS STATE ................................ 299 Article 9. Right of Direct Access ......................................................... 299 Article 10. Limited Jurisdiction ............................................................ 299 Article 11. Application by a Foreign Representative to Commence a Proceeding Under [Laws of the Enacting State Relating to Insolvency] ....................................................... 299 Article 12. Participation of a Foreign Representative in a Proceeding Under [Laws of Enacting State Relating to Insolvency] .......................................................................... 299 Article 13. Access of Foreign Creditors to a Proceeding Under [Laws of the Enacting State Relating to Insolvency] ......... 299 Article 14. Notification to Foreign Creditors of a Proceeding Under [Laws of the Enacting State Relating to Insolvency] .......................................................................... 299 CHAPTER III. RECOGNITION OF FOREIGN PROCEEDING AND RELIEF ............................................................................................. 300 Article 15. Application for Recognition of a Foreign Proceeding ......................................................................... 300 295

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Article 16. Article 17. Article 18. Article 19. Article 20. Article 21. Article 22. Article 23. Article 24.

Presumptions Concerning Recognition ............................... 300 Decision to Recognize a Foreign Proceeding ..................... 301 Subsequent Information ...................................................... 301 Relief That May be Granted Upon Application for Recognition of a Foreign Proceeding ................................. 301 Effects of a Recognition of a Foreign Main Proceeding .......................................................................... 302 Relief That May be Granted Upon Recognition of a Foreign Proceeding ............................................................ 302 Protection of Creditors and Other Interested Persons ........ 303 Actions to Avoid Acts Detrimental to Creditors .................. 303 Intervention by a Foreign Representative in Proceedings in this State ..................................................... 303

CHAPTER IV. COOPERATION WITH FOREIGN COURTS AND FOREIGN REPRESENTATIVES .................................................... 304 Article 25. Cooperation and Direct Communication Between a Court of this State and Foreign Courts or Foreign Representatives ................................................................... 304 Article 26. Cooperation and Direct Communication Between the [Administrator in a Reorganization or Liquidation Under the Law of the Enacting State] and Foreign Courts or Foreign Representatives ..................................... 304 Article 27. Forms of Cooperation ........................................................ 304 CHAPTER V. CONCURRENT PROCEEDINGS ................................... 304 Article 28. Commencement of a Proceeding Under [Laws of the Enacting State Relating to Insolvency] After Recognition of a Foreign Main Proceeding ........................ 304 Article 29. Coordination of a Proceeding Under [Laws of the Enacting State Relating to Insolvency] and a Foreign Proceeding .......................................................................... 305 Article 30. Coordination of More Than One Foreign Proceeding ........ 305 Article 31. Presumption of Insolvency Based on Recognition of a Foreign Main Proceeding ................................................... 306 Article 32. Rule of Payment in Concurrent Proceedings ...................... 306

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Part One UNCITRAL MODEL LAW ON CROSS-BORDER INSOLVENCY Preamble The purpose of this Law is to provide effective mechanisms for dealing with cases of crossborder insolvency so as to promote the objectives of: (a)

Cooperation between the courts and other competent authorities of this State and foreign States involved in cases of cross-border insolvency;

(b)

Greater legal certainty for trade and investment;

(c)

Fair and efficient administration of cross-border insolvencies that protects the interests of all creditors and other interested persons, including the debtor;

(d)

Protection and maximization of the value of the debtor’s assets; and

(e)

Facilitation of the rescue of financially troubled businesses, thereby protecting investment and preserving employment.

Chapter I. General provisions Article 1. Scope of application 1. This Law applies where: (a)

Assistance is sought in this State by a foreign Court or a foreign representative in connection with a foreign proceeding; or

(b)

Assistance is sought in a foreign State in connection with a proceeding under [identify laws of the enacting State relating to insolvency]; or

(c)

A foreign proceeding and a proceeding under [identify laws of the enacting State relating to insolvency] in respect of the same debtor are taking place concurrently; or

(d)

Creditors or other interested persons in a foreign State have an interest in requesting the commencement of, or participating in, a proceeding under [identify laws of the enacting State relating to insolvency].

2. This Law does not apply to a proceeding concerning [designate any types of entities, such as banks or insurance companies, that are subject to a special insolvency regime in this State and that this State wishes to exclude from this Law].

Article 2. Definitions For the purposes of this Law: (a)

“Foreign proceeding” means a collective judicial or administrative proceeding in a foreign State, including an interim proceeding, pursuant to a law relating to

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insolvency in which proceeding the assets and affairs of the debtor are subject to control or supervision by a foreign court, for the purpose of reorganization or liquidation; (b)

“Foreign main proceeding” means a foreign proceeding taking place in the State where the debtor has the centre of its main interests;

(c)

“Foreign non-main proceeding” means a foreign proceeding, other than a foreign main proceeding, taking place in a State where the debtor has an establishment within the meaning of subparagraph (f) of this article;

(d)

“Foreign representative” means a person or body, including one appointed on an interim basis, authorized in a foreign proceeding to administer the reorganization or the liquidation of the debtor’s assets or affairs or to act as a representative of the foreign proceeding;

(e)

“Foreign court” means a judicial or other authority competent to control or supervise a foreign proceeding;

(f)

“Establishment” means any place of operations where the debtor carries out a non-transitory economic activity with human means and goods or services.

Article 3. International obligations of this State To the extent that this Law conflicts with an obligation of this State arising out of any treaty or other form of agreement to which it is a party with one or more other States, the requirements of the treaty or agreement prevail.

Article 4. [Competent court or authority] The functions referred to in this Law relating to recognition of foreign proceedings and cooperation with foreign courts shall be performed by [specify the court, courts, authority or authorities competent to perform those functions in the enacting State].

Article 5. Authorization of [insert the title of the person or body administering reorganization or liquidation under the law of the enacting State] to act in a foreign State A(n) [insert the title of the person or body administering a reorganization or liquidation under the law of the enacting State] is authorized to act in a foreign State on behalf of a proceeding under [identify laws of the enacting State relating to insolvency], as permitted by the applicable foreign law.

Article 6. Public policy exception Nothing in this Law prevents the court from refusing to take an action governed by this Law if the action would be manifestly contrary to the public policy of this State.

Article 7. Additional assistance under other laws Nothing in this Law limits the power of a court or a [insert the title of the person or body administering a reorganization or liquidation under the law of the enacting State] to provide additional assistance to a foreign representative under other laws of this State.

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Article 8. Interpretation In the interpretation of this Law, regard is to be had to its international origin and to the need to promote uniformity in its application and the observance of good faith.

Chapter II. Access of foreign representatives and creditors to courts in this state Article 9. Right of direct access A foreign representative is entitled to apply directly to a court in this State.

Article 10. Limited jurisdiction The sole fact that an application pursuant to this Law is made to a court in this State by a foreign representative does not subject the foreign representative or the foreign assets and affairs of the debtor to the jurisdiction of the courts of this State for any purpose other than the application.

Article 11. Application by a foreign representative to commence a proceeding under [identify laws of the enacting State relating to insolvency] A foreign representative is entitled to apply to commence a proceeding under [identify laws of the enacting State relating to insolvency] if the conditions for commencing such a proceeding are otherwise met.

Article 12. Participation of a foreign representative in a proceeding under [identify laws of the enacting State relating to insolvency] Upon recognition of a foreign proceeding, the foreign representative is entitled to participate in a proceeding regarding the debtor under [identify laws of the enacting State relating to insolvency].

Article 13. Access of foreign creditors to a proceeding under [identify laws of the enacting State relating to insolvency] 1. Subject to paragraph 2 of this article, foreign creditors have the same rights regarding the commencement of, and participation in, a proceeding under [identify laws of the enacting State relating to insolvency] as creditors in this State. 2. Paragraph 1 of this article does not affect the ranking of claims in a proceeding under [identify laws of the enacting State relating to insolvency], except that the claims of foreign creditors shall not be ranked lower than [identify the class of general non-preference claims, while providing that a foreign claim is to be ranked lower than the general non-preference claims if an equivalent local claim (e.g. claim for a penalty or deferred-payment claim) has a rank lower than the general non-preference claims].

Article 14. Notification to foreign creditors of a proceeding under [identify laws of the enacting State relating to insolvency] 1. Whenever under [identify laws of the enacting State relating to insolvency] notification is to be given to creditors in this State, such notification shall also be given to the known creditors that do not have addresses in this State. The court may order that appropriate steps be taken with a view to notifying any creditor whose address is not yet known. 299

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2. Such notification shall be made to the foreign creditors individually, unless the court considers that, under the circumstances, some other form of notification would be more appropriate. No letters rogatory or other, similar formality is required. 3. When a notification of commencement of a proceeding is to be given to foreign creditors, the notification shall: (a)

Indicate a reasonable time period for filing claims and specify the place for their filing;

(b)

Indicate whether secured creditors need to file their secured claims; and

(c)

Contain any other information required to be included in such a notification to creditors pursuant to the law of this State and the orders of the court.

Chapter III. Recognition of a foreign proceeding and relief Article 15. Application for recognition of a foreign proceeding 1. A foreign representative may apply to the court for recognition of the foreign proceeding in which the foreign representative has been appointed. 2. An application for recognition shall be accompanied by: (a)

A certified copy of the decision commencing the foreign proceeding and appointing the foreign representative; or

(b)

A certificate from the foreign court affirming the existence of the foreign proceeding and of the appointment of the foreign representative; or

(c)

In the absence of evidence referred to in subparagraphs (a) and (b), any other evidence acceptable to the court of the existence of the foreign proceeding and of the appointment of the foreign representative.

3. An application for recognition shall also be accompanied by a statement identifying all foreign proceedings in respect of the debtor that are known to the foreign representative. 4. The court may require a translation of documents supplied in support of the application for recognition into an official language of this State.

Article 16. Presumptions concerning recognition 1. If the decision or certificate referred to in paragraph 2 of article 15 indicates that the foreign proceeding is a proceeding within the meaning of subparagraph (a) of article 2 and that the foreign representative is a person or body within the meaning of subparagraph (d) of article 2, the court is entitled to so presume. 2. The court is entitled to presume that documents submitted in support of the application for recognition are authentic, whether or not they have been legalized. 3. In the absence of proof to the contrary, the debtor’s registered office, or habitual residence in the case of an individual, is presumed to be the centre of the debtor’s main interests.

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A17-A19

Article 17. Decision to recognize a foreign proceeding 1. Subject to article 6, a foreign proceeding shall be recognized if: (a)

The foreign proceeding is a proceeding within the meaning of subparagraph (a) of article 2;

(b)

The foreign representative applying for recognition is a person or body within the meaning of subparagraph (d) of article 2;

(c)

The application meets the requirements of paragraph 2 of article 15; and

(d)

The application has been submitted to the court referred to in article 4.

2. The foreign proceeding shall be recognized: (a)

As a foreign main proceeding if it is taking place in the State where the debtor has the centre of its main interests; or

(b)

As a foreign non-main proceeding if the debtor has an establishment within the meaning of subparagraph (f) of article 2 in the foreign State.

3. An application for recognition of a foreign proceeding shall be decided upon at the earliest possible time. 4. The provisions of articles 15, 16, 17 and 18 do not prevent modification or termination of recognition if it is shown that the grounds for granting it were fully or partially lacking or have ceased to exist.

Article 18. Subsequent information From the time of filing the application for recognition of the foreign proceeding, the foreign representative shall inform the court promptly of: (a)

Any substantial change in the status of the recognized foreign proceeding or the status of the foreign representative’s appointment; and

(b)

Any other foreign proceeding regarding the same debtor that becomes known to the foreign representative.

Article 19. Relief that may be granted upon application for recognition of a foreign proceeding 1. From the time of filing an application for recognition until the application is decided upon, the court may, at the request of the foreign representative, where relief is urgently needed to protect the assets of the debtor or the interests of the creditors, grant relief of a provisional nature, including: (a)

Staying execution against the debtor’s assets;

(b)

Entrusting the administration or realization of all or part of the debtor’s assets located in this State to the foreign representative or another person designated by the court, in order to protect and preserve the value of assets that, by their nature

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or because of other circumstances, are perishable, susceptible to devaluation or otherwise in jeopardy; (c)

Any relief mentioned in paragraph 1 (c), (d) and (g) of article 21.

2. [Insert provisions (or refer to provisions in force in the enacting State) relating to notice.] 3. Unless extended under paragraph 1 (f) of article 21, the relief granted under this article terminates when the application for recognition is decided upon. 4. The court may refuse to grant relief under this article if such relief would interfere with the administration of a foreign main proceeding.

Article 20. Effects of recognition of a foreign main proceeding 1. Upon recognition of a foreign proceeding that is a foreign main proceeding, (a)

Commencement or continuation of individual actions or individual proceedings concerning the debtor’s assets, rights, obligations or liabilities is stayed;

(b)

Execution against the debtor’s assets is stayed; and

(c)

The right to transfer, encumber or otherwise dispose of any assets of the debtor is suspended.

2. The scope, and the modification or termination, of the stay and suspension referred to in paragraph 1 of this article are subject to [refer to any provisions of law of the enacting State relating to insolvency that apply to exceptions, limitations, modifications or termination in respect of the stay and suspension referred to in paragraph 1 of this article]. 3. Paragraph 1 (a) of this article does not affect the right to commence individual actions or proceedings to the extent necessary to preserve a claim against the debtor. 4. Paragraph 1 of this article does not affect the right to request the commencement of a proceeding under [identify laws of the enacting State relating to insolvency] or the right to file claims in such a proceeding.

Article 21. Relief that may be granted upon recognition of a foreign proceeding 1. Upon recognition of a foreign proceeding, whether main or non-main, where necessary to protect the assets of the debtor or the interests of the creditors, the court may, at the request of the foreign representative, grant any appropriate relief, including: (a)

Staying the commencement or continuation of individual actions or individual proceedings concerning the debtor’s assets, rights, obligations or liabilities, to the extent they have not been stayed under paragraph 1 (a) of article 20;

(b)

Staying execution against the debtor’s assets to the extent it has not been stayed under paragraph 1 (b) of article 20;

(c)

Suspending the right to transfer, encumber or otherwise dispose of any assets of the debtor to the extent this right has not been suspended under paragraph 1 (c) of article 20;

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(d)

Providing for the examination of witnesses, the taking of evidence or the delivery of information concerning the debtor’s assets, affairs, rights, obligations or liabilities;

(e)

Entrusting the administration or realization of all or part of the debtor’s assets located in this State to the foreign representative or another person designated by the court;

(f)

Extending relief granted under paragraph 1 of article 19;

(g)

Granting any additional relief that may be available to [insert the title of a person or body administering a reorganization or liquidation under the law of the enacting State] under the laws of this State.

2. Upon recognition of a foreign proceeding, whether main or non-main, the court may, at the request of the foreign representative, entrust the distribution of all or part of the debtor’s assets located in this State to the foreign representative or another person designated by the court, provided that the court is satisfied that the interests of creditors in this State are adequately protected. 3. In granting relief under this article to a representative of a foreign non-main proceeding, the court must be satisfied that the relief relates to assets that, under the law of this State, should be administered in the foreign non-main proceeding or concerns information required in that proceeding.

Article 22. Protection of creditors and other interested persons 1. In granting or denying relief under article 19 or 21, or in modifying or terminating relief under paragraph 3 of this article, the court must be satisfied that the interests of the creditors and other interested persons, including the debtor, are adequately protected. 2. The court may subject relief granted under article 19 or 21 to conditions it considers appropriate. 3. The court may, at the request of the foreign representative or a person affected by relief granted under article 19 or 21, or at its own motion, modify or terminate such relief.

Article 23. Actions to avoid acts detrimental to creditors 1. Upon recognition of a foreign proceeding, the foreign representative has standing to initiate [refer to the types of actions to avoid or otherwise render ineffective acts detrimental to creditors that are available in this State to a person or body administering a reorganization or liquidation]. 2. When the foreign proceeding is a foreign non-main proceeding, the court must be satisfied that the action relates to assets that, under the law of this State, should be administered in the foreign non-main proceeding.

Article 24. Intervention by a foreign representative in proceedings in this State Upon recognition of a foreign proceeding, the foreign representative may, provided the requirements of the law of this State are met, intervene in any proceedings in which the debtor is a party.

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Chapter IV. Cooperation with foreign courts and foreign representatives Article 25. Cooperation and direct communication between a court of this State and foreign courts or foreign representatives 1. In matters referred to in article 1, the court shall cooperate to the maximum extent possible with foreign courts or foreign representatives, either directly or through a [insert the title of a person or body administering a reorganization or liquidation under the law of the enacting State]. 2. The court is entitled to communicate directly with, or to request information or assistance directly from, foreign courts or foreign representatives.

Article 26. Cooperation and direct communication between the [insert the title of a person or body administering a reorganization or liquidation under the law of the enacting State] and foreign courts or foreign representatives 1. In matters referred to in article 1, a [insert the title of a person or body administering a reorganization or liquidation under the law of the enacting State] shall, in the exercise of its functions and subject to the supervision of the court, cooperate to the maximum extent possible with foreign courts or foreign representatives. 2. The [insert the title of a person or body administering a reorganization or liquidation under the law of the enacting State] is entitled, in the exercise of its functions and subject to the supervision of the court, to communicate directly with foreign courts or foreign representatives.

Article 27. Forms of cooperation Cooperation referred to in articles 25 and 26 may be implemented by any appropriate means, including: (a)

Appointment of a person or body to act at the direction of the court;

(b)

Communication of information by any means considered appropriate by the court;

(c)

Coordination of the administration and supervision of the debtor’s assets and affairs;

(d)

Approval or implementation by courts of agreements concerning the coordination of proceedings;

(e)

Coordination of concurrent proceedings regarding the same debtor;

(f)

[The enacting State may wish to list additional forms or examples of cooperation].

Chapter V. Concurrent proceedings Article 28. Commencement of a proceeding under [identify laws of the enacting State relating to insolvency] after recognition of a foreign main proceeding After recognition of a foreign main proceeding, a proceeding under [identify laws of the enacting State relating to insolvency] may be commenced only if the debtor has assets in this State; the effects of that proceeding shall be restricted to the assets of the debtor that are

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located in this State and, to the extent necessary to implement cooperation and coordination under articles 25, 26 and 27, to other assets of the debtor that, under the law of this State, should be administered in that proceeding.

Article 29. Coordination of a proceeding under [identify laws of the enacting State relating to insolvency] and a foreign proceeding Where a foreign proceeding and a proceeding under [identify laws of the enacting State relating to insolvency] are taking place concurrently regarding the same debtor, the court shall seek cooperation and coordination under articles 25, 26 and 27, and the following shall apply: (a)

(b)

(c)

When the proceeding in this State is taking place at the time the application for recognition of the foreign proceeding is filed, (i)

Any relief granted under article 19 or 21 must be consistent with the proceeding in this State; and

(ii)

If the foreign proceeding is recognized in this State as a foreign main proceeding, article 20 does not apply;

When the proceeding in this State commences after recognition, or after the filing of the application for recognition, of the foreign proceeding, (i)

Any relief in effect under article 19 or 21 shall be reviewed by the court and shall be modified or terminated if inconsistent with the proceeding in this State; and

(ii)

If the foreign proceeding is a foreign main proceeding, the stay and suspension referred to in paragraph 1 of article 20 shall be modified or terminated pursuant to paragraph 2 of article 20 if inconsistent with the proceeding in this State;

In granting, extending or modifying relief granted to a representative of a foreign non-main proceeding, the court must be satisfied that the relief relates to assets that, under the law of this State, should be administered in the foreign non-main proceeding or concerns information required in that proceeding.

Article 30. Coordination of more than one foreign proceeding In matters referred to in article 1, in respect of more than one foreign proceeding regarding the same debtor, the court shall seek cooperation and coordination under articles 25, 26 and 27, and the following shall apply: (a)

Any relief granted under article 19 or 21 to a representative of a foreign non-main proceeding after recognition of a foreign main proceeding must be consistent with the foreign main proceeding;

(b)

If a foreign main proceeding is recognized after recognition, or after the filing of an application for recognition, of a foreign non-main proceeding, any relief in effect under article 19 or 21 shall be reviewed by the court and shall be modified or terminated if inconsistent with the foreign main proceeding;

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If, after recognition of a foreign non-main proceeding, another foreign non-main proceeding is recognized, the court shall grant, modify or terminate relief for the purpose of facilitating coordination of the proceedings.

Article 31. Presumption of insolvency based on recognition of a foreign main proceeding In the absence of evidence to the contrary, recognition of a foreign main proceeding is, for the purpose of commencing a proceeding under [identify laws of the enacting State relating to insolvency], proof that the debtor is insolvent.

Article 32. Rule of payment in concurrent proceedings Without prejudice to secured claims or rights in rem, a creditor who has received part payment in respect of its claim in a proceeding pursuant to a law relating to insolvency in a foreign State may not receive a payment for the same claim in a proceeding under [identify laws of the enacting State relating to insolvency] regarding the same debtor, so long as the payment to the other creditors of the same class is proportionately less than the payment the creditor has already received.

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Chapter 15 United States Bankruptcy Code Contents 1501. Purpose And Scope Of Application ............................................. 311 SUBCHAPTER I — GENERAL PROVISIONS ...................................312 1502. Definitions. .................................................................................. 312 1503. International Obligations of The United States ............................ 313 1504. Commencement of Ancillary Case .............................................. 313 1505. Authorization to Act in a Foreign Country .................................. 313 1506. Public Policy Exception ................................................................ 313 1507. Court May Provide Additional Assistance ................................... 313 1508. Interpretation of this Chapter ........................................................ 313 SUBCHAPTER II — ACCESS OF FOREIGN REPRESENTATIVES AND CREDITORS TO THE COURT ..............314 1509. Right of Direct Access ................................................................. 314 1510. Limited Jurisdiction ..................................................................... 314 1511. Commencement of Case Under Section 301 or 303 .................... 314 1512. Participation of a Foreign Representative in a Case Under This Title ...................................................................................... 315 1513. Access of Foreign Creditors to a Case Under This Title .............. 315 1514. Notification to Foreign Creditors Concerning a Case Under This Title ...................................................................................... 315 SUBCHAPTER III — RECOGNITION OF A FOREIGN PROCEEDING AND RELIEF ..............................................................316 1515. Application for Recognition ........................................................ 316 1516. Presumptions Concerning Recognition ........................................ 316 1517. Order Granting Recognition ......................................................... 316 1518. Filing Subsequent Information...................................................... 317 1519. Relief That May be Granted Upon Filing Petition for Recognition .................................................................................. 317 1520. Effects of Recognition of a Foreign Main Proceeding ................. 318 1521. Relief That May be Granted Upon Recognition .......................... 318 1522. Protection of Creditors and Other Interested Persons .................. 319 1523. Actions to Avoid Acts Detrimental to Creditors .......................... 320

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1524. Intervention by a Foreign Representative .................................... 320 SUBCHAPTER IV — COOPERATION WITH FOREIGN COURTS AND FOREIGN REPRESENTATIVES ............................... 320 1525. Cooperation and Direct Communication Between the Court and Foreign Courts or Foreign Representatives ........................... 320 1526. Cooperation and Direct Communication Between the Trustee and Foreign Courts or Foreign Representatives .............. 320 1527. Forms of Cooperation .................................................................. 320 SUBCHAPTER V — CONCURRENT PROCEEDINGS ..................... 321 1528. Commencement of a Case Under This Title After Recognition of a Foreign Main Proceeding ................................. 321 1529. Coordination of a Case Under This Title and a Foreign Proceeding .................................................................................... 321 1530. Coordination of More Than 1 Foreign Proceeding ...................... 322 1531. Presumption of Insolvency Based on Recognition of a Foreign Main Proceeding ............................................................. 322 1532. Rule of Payment in Concurrent Proceedings ............................... 322

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S. 1501

Sec. 1501. Purpose and scope of application. (a)

The purpose of this chapter is to incorporate the Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency so as to provide effective mechanisms for dealing with cases of crossborder insolvency with the objectives of— (i)

(b)

(c)

cooperation between— (A)

courts of the United States, United States trustees, trustees, examiners, debtors, and debtors in possession; and

(B)

the courts and other competent authorities of foreign countries involved in cross-border insolvency cases

(ii)

greater legal certainty for trade and investment;

(iii)

fair and efficient administration of cross-border insolvencies that protects the interests of all creditors, and other interested entities, including the debtor;

(iv)

protection and maximization of the value of the debtor’s assets; and

(v)

facilitation of the rescue of financially troubled businesses, thereby protecting investment and preserving employment.

This chapter applies where— (i)

assistance is sought in the United States by a foreign court or a foreign representative in connection with a foreign proceeding;

(ii)

assistance is sought in a foreign country in connection with a case under this title;

(iii)

a foreign proceeding and a case under this title with respect to the same debtor are pending concurrently; or

(iv)

creditors or other interested persons in a foreign country have an interest in requesting the commencement of, or participating in, a case or proceeding under this title.

This chapter does not apply to— (i)

a proceeding concerning an entity, other than a foreign insurance company, identified by exclusion in section 109(b);

(ii)

an individual, or to an individual and such individual’s spouse, who have debts within the limits specified in section 109(e) and who are citizens of the United States or aliens lawfully admitted for permanent residence in the United States; or

(iii)

an entity subject to a proceeding under the Securities Investor Protection Act of 1970, a stockbroker subject to subchapter III of chapter 7 of this title, or a commodity broker subject to subchapter IV of chapter 7 of this title.

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(d)

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The court may not grant relief under this chapter with respect to any deposit, escrow, trust fund, or other security required or permitted under any applicable State insurance law or regulation for the benefit of claim holders in the United States. (i)

a proceeding concerning an entity, other than a foreign insurance company, identified by exclusion in section 109(b);

(ii)

an individual, or to an individual and such individual’s spouse, who have debts within the limits specified in section 109(e) and who are citizens of the United States or aliens lawfully admitted for permanent residence in the United States; or

(iii)

an entity subject to a proceeding under the Securities Investor Protection Act of 1970, a stockbroker subject to subchapter III of chapter 7 of this title, or a commodity broker subject to subchapter IV of chapter 7 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER I — GENERAL PROVISIONS Sec. 1502. Definitions. For the purposes of this chapter, the term— (a)

‘debtor’ means an entity that is the subject of a foreign proceeding;

(b)

‘establishment’ means any place of operations where the debtor carries out a nontransitory economic activity;

(c)

‘foreign court’ means a judicial or other authority competent to control or supervise a foreign proceeding;

(d)

‘foreign main proceeding’ means a foreign proceeding pending in the country where the debtor has the center of its main interests;

(e)

‘foreign nonmain proceeding’ means a foreign proceeding, other than a foreign main proceeding, pending in a country where the debtor has an establishment;

(f)

‘trustee’ includes a trustee, a debtor in possession in a case under any chapter of this title, or a debtor under chapter 9 of this title;

(g)

‘recognition’ means the entry of an order granting recognition of a foreign main proceeding or foreign nonmain proceeding under this chapter; and

(h)

‘within the territorial jurisdiction of the United States’, when used with reference to property of a debtor, refers to tangible property located within the territory of the United States and intangible property deemed under applicable nonbankruptcy law to be located within that territory, including any property subject to attachment or garnishment that may properly be seized or garnished by an action in a Federal or State court in the United States.

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Sec. 1503. International obligations of the United States. To the extent that this chapter conflicts with an obligation of the United States arising out of any treaty or other form of agreement to which it is a party with one or more other countries, the requirements of the treaty or agreement prevail.

Sec. 1504. Commencement of ancillary case. A case under this chapter is commenced by the filing of a petition for recognition of a foreign proceeding under section 1515.

Sec. 1505. Authorization to act in a foreign country. A trustee or another entity (including an examiner) may be authorized by the court to act in a foreign country on behalf of an estate created under section 541. An entity authorized to act under this section may act in any way permitted by the applicable foreign law.

Sec. 1506. Public policy exception. Nothing in this chapter prevents the court from refusing to take an action governed by this chapter if the action would be manifestly contrary to the public policy of the United States.

Sec. 1507. Additional assistance. Nothing in this chapter prevents the court from refusing to take an action governed by this chapter if the action would be manifestly contrary to the public policy of the United States. (a)

Subject to the specific limitations stated elsewhere in this chapter the court, if recognition is granted, may provide additional assistance to a foreign representative under this title or under other laws of the United States.

(b)

In determining whether to provide additional assistance under this title or under other laws of the United States, the court shall consider whether such additional assistance, consistent with the principles of comity, will reasonably assure— (i)

just treatment of all holders of claims against or interests in the debtor’s property;

(ii)

protection of claim holders in the United States against prejudice and

(iii)

prevention of preferential or fraudulent dispositions of property of the debtor;

(iv)

distribution of proceeds of the debtor’s property substantially in accordance with the order prescribed by this title; and

(v)

if appropriate, the provision of an opportunity for a fresh start for the individual that such foreign proceeding concerns.

Sec. 1508. Interpretation. In interpreting this chapter, the court shall consider its international origin, and the need to promote an application of this chapter that is consistent with the application of similar statutes adopted by foreign jurisdictions.

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SUBCHAPTER II — ACCESS OF FOREIGN REPRESENTATIVES AND CREDITORS TO THE COURT Sec. 1509. Right of direct access. (a)

A foreign representative may commence a case under section 1504 by filing directly with the court a petition for recognition of a foreign proceeding under section 1515.

(b)

If the court grants recognition under section 1517, and subject to any limitations that the court may impose consistent with the policy of this chapter— (i)

the foreign representative has the capacity to sue and be sued in a court in the United States;

(ii)

the foreign representative may apply directly to a court in the United States for appropriate relief in that court; and

(iii)

a court in the United States shall grant comity or cooperation to the foreign representative.

(c)

A request for comity or cooperation by a foreign representative in a court in the United States other than the court which granted recognition shall be accompanied by a certified copy of an order granting recognition under section 1517.

(d)

If the court denies recognition under this chapter, the court may issue any appropriate order necessary to prevent the foreign representative from obtaining comity or cooperation from courts in the United States.

(e)

Whether or not the court grants recognition, and subject to sections 306 and 1510, a foreign representative is subject to applicable nonbankruptcy law.

(f)

Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, the failure of a foreign representative to commence a case or to obtain recognition under this chapter does not affect any right the foreign representative may have to sue in a court in the United States to collect or recover a claim which is the property of the debtor.

Sec. 1510. Limited jurisdiction. The sole fact that a foreign representative files a petition under section 1515 does not subject the foreign representative to the jurisdiction of any court in the United States for any other purpose.

Sec. 1511. Commencement of case under section 301 or 303. (a)

(b)

Upon recognition, a foreign representative may commence— (i)

an involuntary case under section 303; or

(ii)

a voluntary case under section 301 or 302, if the foreign proceeding is a foreign main proceeding.

The petition commencing a case under subsection (a) must be accompanied by a certified copy of an order granting recognition. The court where the petition for

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recognition has been filed must be advised of the foreign representative’s intent to commence a case under subsection (a) prior to such commencement.

Sec. 1512. Participation of a foreign representative in a case under this title Upon recognition of a foreign proceeding, the foreign representative in the recognized proceeding is entitled to participate as a party in interest in a case regarding the debtor under this title.

Sec. 1513. Access of foreign creditors to a case under this title. (a)

Foreign creditors have the same rights regarding the commencement of, and participation in, a case under this title as domestic creditors. (i)

Subsection (a) does not change or codify present law as to the priority of claims under section 507 or 726, except that the claim of a foreign creditor under those sections shall not be given a lower priority than that of general unsecured claims without priority solely because the holder of such claim is a foreign creditor. (A)

Subsection (a) and paragraph (1) do not change or codify present law as to the allowability of foreign revenue claims or other foreign public law claims in a proceeding under this title.

(B)

Allowance and priority as to a foreign tax claim or other foreign public law claim shall be governed by any applicable tax treaty of the United States, under the conditions and circumstances specified therein.

Sec. 1514. Notification to foreign creditors concerning a case under this title. (a)

Whenever in a case under this title notice is to be given to creditors generally or to any class or category of creditors, such notice shall also be given to the known creditors generally, or to creditors in the notified class or category, that do not have addresses in the United States. The court may order that appropriate steps be taken with a view to notifying any creditor whose address is not yet known.

(b)

Such notification to creditors with foreign addresses described in subsection (a) shall be given individually, unless the court considers that, under the circumstances, some other form of notification would be more appropriate. No letter or other formality is required.

(c)

When a notification of commencement of a case is to be given to foreign creditors, such notification shall— (i)

indicate the time period for filing proofs of claim and specify the place for filing such proofs of claim;

(ii)

indicate whether secured creditors need to file proofs of claim; and

(iii)

contain any other information required to be included in such notification to creditors under this title and the orders of the court.

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(d)

Chapter 15 United States Bankruptcy Code

Any rule of procedure or order of the court as to notice or the filing of a proof of claim shall provide such additional time to creditors with foreign addresses as is reasonable under the circumstances.

SUBCHAPTER III — RECOGNITION OF A FOREIGN PROCEEDING AND RELIEF Sec. 1515. Application for recognition. (a)

A foreign representative applies to the court for recognition of a foreign proceeding in which the foreign representative has been appointed by filing a petition for recognition.

(b)

A petition for recognition shall be accompanied by— (i)

a certified copy of the decision commencing such foreign proceeding and appointing the foreign representative;

(ii)

a certificate from the foreign court affirming the existence of such foreign proceeding and of the appointment of the foreign representative; or

(iii)

in the absence of evidence referred to in paragraphs (1) and (2), any other evidence acceptable to the court of the existence of such foreign proceeding and of the appointment of the foreign representative.

(c)

A petition for recognition shall also be accompanied by a statement identifying all foreign proceedings with respect to the debtor that are known to the foreign representative.

(d)

The documents referred to in paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (b) shall be translated into English. The court may require a translation into English of additional documents.

Sec. 1516. Presumptions concerning recognition. (a)

If the decision or certificate referred to in section 1515(b) indicates that the foreign proceeding is a foreign proceeding and that the person or body is a foreign representative, the court is entitled to so presume.

(b)

The court is entitled to presume that documents submitted in support of the petition for recognition are authentic, whether or not they have been legalized.

(c)

In the absence of evidence to the contrary, the debtor’s registered office, or habitual residence in the case of an individual, is presumed to beSCIII the Ss. center of the 1517-1519 debtor’s main interests.

Sec. 1517. Order granting recognition. (a)

Subject to section 1506, after notice and a hearing, an order recognizing a foreign proceeding shall be entered if— (i)

such foreign proceeding for which recognition is sought is a foreign main proceeding or foreign nonmain proceeding within the meaning of section 1502; 316

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(b)

Ss. 1517-1519

(ii)

the foreign representative applying for recognition is a person or body; and

(iii)

the petition meets the requirements of section 1515.

Such foreign proceeding shall be recognized— (i)

as a foreign main proceeding if it is pending in the country where the debtor has the center of its main interests; or

(ii)

as a foreign nonmain proceeding if the debtor has an establishment within the meaning of section 1502 in the foreign country where the proceeding is pending.

(c)

A petition for recognition of a foreign proceeding shall be decided upon at the earliest possible time. Entry of an order recognizing a foreign proceeding constitutes recognition under this chapter.

(d)

The provisions of this subchapter do not prevent modification or termination of recognition if it is shown that the grounds for granting it were fully or partially lacking or have ceased to exist, but in considering such action the court shall give due weight to possible prejudice to parties that have relied upon the order granting recognition. A case under this chapter may be closed in the manner prescribed under section 350.

Sec. 1518. Subsequent information. From the time of filing the petition for recognition of a foreign proceeding, the foreign representative shall file with the court promptly a notice of change of status concerning— (a)

any substantial change in the status of such foreign proceeding or the status of the foreign representative’s appointment; and

(b)

any other foreign proceeding regarding the debtor that becomes known to the foreign representative.

Sec. 1519. Relief that may be granted upon filing petition for recognition. (a)

From the time of filing a petition for recognition until the court rules on the petition, the court may, at the request of the foreign representative, where relief is urgently needed to protect the assets of the debtor or the interests of the creditors, grant relief of a provisional nature, including— (i)

staying execution against the debtor’s assets;

(ii)

entrusting the administration or realization of all or part of the debtor’s assets located in the United States to the foreign representative or another person authorized by the court, including an examiner, in order to protect and preserve the value of assets that, by their nature or because of other circumstances, are perishable, susceptible to devaluation or otherwise in jeopardy; and

(iii)

any relief referred to in paragraph (3), (4), or (7) of section 1521(a).

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(b)

Unless extended under section 1521(a)(6), the relief granted under this section terminates when the petition for recognition is granted.

(c)

It is a ground for denial of relief under this section that such relief would interfere with the administration of a foreign main proceeding.

(d)

The court may not enjoin a police or regulatory act of a governmental unit, including a criminal action or proceeding, under this section.

(e)

The standards, procedures, and limitations applicable to an injunction shall apply to relief under this section.

(f)

The exercise of rights not subject to the stay arising under section 362(a) pursuant to paragraph (6), (7), (17), or (27) of section 362(b) or pursuant to section 362(n) shall not be stayed by any order of a court or administrative agency in any proceeding under this chapter.

Sec. 1520. Effects of recognition of a foreign main proceeding. (a)

Upon recognition of a foreign proceeding that is a foreign main proceeding— (i)

sections 361 and 362 apply with respect to the debtor and the property of the debtor that is within the territorial jurisdiction of the United States;

(ii)

sections 363, 549, and 552 apply to a transfer of an interest of the debtor in property that is within the territorial jurisdiction of the United States to the same extent that the sections would apply to property of an estate;

(iii)

unless the court orders otherwise, the foreign representative may operate the debtor’s business and may exercise the rights and powers of a trustee under and to the extent provided by sections 363 and 552; and

(iv)

section 552 applies to property of the debtor that is within the territorial jurisdiction of the United States.

(b)

Subsection (a) does not affect the right to commence an individual action or proceeding in a foreign country to the extent necessary to preserve a claim against the debtor.

(c)

Subsection (a) does not affect the right of a foreign representative or an entity to file a petition commencing a case under this title or the right of any party to file claims or take other proper actions in such a case.

Sec. 1521. Relief that may be granted upon recognition. (a)

Upon recognition of a foreign proceeding, whether main or nonmain, where necessary to effectuate the purpose of this chapter and to protect the assets of the debtor or the interests of the creditors, the court may, at the request of the foreign representative, grant any appropriate relief, including— (i)

staying the commencement or continuation of an individual action or proceeding concerning the debtor’s assets, rights, obligations or liabilities to the extent they have not been stayed under section 1520(a);

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(ii)

staying execution against the debtor’s assets to the extent it has not been stayed under section 1520(a);

(iii)

suspending the right to transfer, encumber or otherwise dispose of any assets of the debtor to the extent this right has not been suspended under section 1520(a);

(iv)

providing for the examination of witnesses, the taking of evidence or the delivery of information concerning the debtor’s assets, affairs, rights, obligations or liabilities;

(v)

entrusting the administration or realization of all or part of the debtor’s assets within the territorial jurisdiction of the United States to the foreign representative or another person, including an examiner, authorized by the court;

(vi)

extending relief granted under section 1519(a); and

(vii)

granting any additional relief that may be available to a trustee, except for relief available under sections 522, 544, 545, 547, 548, 550, and 724(a).

(b)

Upon recognition of a foreign proceeding, whether main or nonmain, the court may, at the request of the foreign representative, entrust the distribution of all or part of the debtor’s assets located in the United States to the foreign representative or another person, including an examiner, authorized by the court, provided that the court is satisfied that the interests of creditors in the United States are sufficiently protected.

(c)

In granting relief under this section to a representative of a foreign nonmain proceeding, the court must be satisfied that the relief relates to assets that, under the law of the United States, should be administered in the foreign nonmain proceeding or concerns information required in that proceeding.

(d)

The court may not enjoin a police or regulatory act of a governmental unit, including a criminal action or proceeding, under this section.

(e)

The standards, procedures, and limitations applicable to an injunction shall apply to relief under paragraphs (1), (2), (3), and (6) of subsection (a).

(f)

The exercise of rights not subject to the stay arising under section 362(a) pursuant to paragraph (6), (7), (17), or (27) of section 362(b) or pursuant to section 362(n) shall not be stayed by any order of a court or administrative agency in any proceeding under this chapter.

Sec. 1522. Protection of creditors and other interested persons. (a)

The court may grant relief under section 1519 or 1521, or may modify or terminate relief under subsection (c), only if the interests of the creditors and other interested entities, including the debtor, are sufficiently protected.

(b)

The court may subject relief granted under section 1519 or 1521, or the operation of the debtor’s business under section 1520(a)(3), to conditions it considers appropriate, including the giving of security or the filing of a bond.

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(c)

The court may, at the request of the foreign representative or an entity affected by relief granted under section 1519 or 1521, or at its own motion, modify or terminate such relief.

(d)

Section 1104(d) shall apply to the appointment of an examiner under this chapter. Any examiner shall comply with the qualification requirements imposed on a trustee by section 322.

Sec. 1523. Actions to avoid acts detrimental to creditors. (a)

Upon recognition of a foreign proceeding, the foreign representative has standing in a case concerning the debtor pending under another chapter of this title to initiate actions under sections 522, 544, 545, 547, 548, 550, 553, and 724(a).

(b)

When a foreign proceeding is a foreign nonmain proceeding, the court must be satisfied that an action under subsection (a) relates to assets that, under United States law, should be administered in the foreign nonmain proceeding.

Sec. 1524. Intervention by a foreign representative. Upon recognition of a foreign proceeding, the foreign representative may intervene in any proceedings in a State or Federal court in the United States in which the debtor is a party.

SUBCHAPTER IV — COOPERATION WITH FOREIGN COURTS AND FOREIGN REPRESENTATIVES Sec. 1525. Cooperation and direct communication between the court and foreign courts or foreign representatives. (a)

Consistent with section 1501, the court shall cooperate to the maximum extent possible with a foreign court or a foreign representative, either directly or through the trustee.

(b)

The court is entitled to communicate directly with, or to request information or assistance directly from, a foreign court or a foreign representative, subject to the rights of a party in interest to notice and participation.

Sec. 1526. Cooperation and direct communication between the trustee and foreign courts or foreign representatives. (a)

Consistent with section 1501, the trustee or other person, including an examiner, authorized by the court, shall, subject to the supervision of the court, cooperate to the maximum extent possible with a foreign court or a foreign representative.

(b)

The trustee or other person, including an examiner, authorized by the court is entitled, subject to the supervision of the court, to communicate directly with a foreign court or a foreign representative.

Sec. 1527. Forms of cooperation. Cooperation referred to in sections 1525 and 1526 may be implemented by any appropriate means, including—

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(a)

appointment of a person or body, including an examiner, to act at the direction of the court;

(b)

communication of information by any means considered appropriate by the court;

(c)

coordination of the administration and supervision of the debtor’s assets and affairs;

(d)

approval or implementation of agreements concerning the coordination of proceedings; and

(e)

coordination of concurrent proceedings regarding the same debtor.

SUBCHAPTER V — CONCURRENT PROCEEDINGS Sec. 1528. Commencement of a case under this title after recognition of a foreign main proceeding. After recognition of a foreign main proceeding, a case under another chapter of this title may be commenced only if the debtor has assets in the United States. The effects of such case shall be restricted to the assets of the debtor that are within the territorial jurisdiction of the United States and, to the extent necessary to implement cooperation and coordination under sections 1525, 1526, and 1527, to other assets of the debtor that are within the jurisdiction of the court under sections 541(a) of this title, and 1334(e) of title 28, to the extent that such other assets are not subject to the jurisdiction and control of a foreign proceeding that has been recognized under this chapter.

Sec. 1529. Coordination of a case under this title and a foreign proceeding. If a foreign proceeding and a case under another chapter of this title are pending concurrently regarding the same debtor, the court shall seek cooperation and coordination under sections 1525, 1526, and 1527, and the following shall apply: (a)

(b)

If the case in the United States pending at the time the petition for recognition of such foreign proceeding is filed— (i)

any relief granted under section 1519 or 1521 must be consistent with the relief granted in the case in the United States; and

(ii)

section 1520 does not apply even if such foreign proceeding is recognized as a foreign main proceeding.

If a case in the United States under this title commences after recognition, or after the date of the filing of the petition for recognition, of such foreign proceeding— (i)

any relief in effect under section 1519 or 1521 shall be reviewed by the court and shall be modified or terminated if inconsistent with the case in the United States; and

(ii)

if such foreign proceeding is a foreign main proceeding, the stay and suspension referred to in section 1520(a) shall be modified or terminated if inconsistent with the relief granted in the case in the United States.

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(c)

In granting, extending, or modifying relief granted to a representative of a foreign nonmain proceeding, the court must be satisfied that the relief relates to assets that, under the laws of the United States, should be administered in the foreign nonmain proceeding or concerns information required in that proceeding.

(d)

In achieving cooperation and coordination under sections 1528 and 1529, the court may grant any of the relief authorized under section 305.

Sec. 1530. Coordination of more than 1 foreign proceeding. In matters referred to in section 1501, with respect to more than 1 foreign proceeding regarding the debtor, the court shall seek cooperation and coordination under sections 1525, 1526, and 1527, and the following shall apply: (a)

Any relief granted under section 1519 or 1521 to a representative of a foreign nonmain proceeding after recognition of a foreign main proceeding must be consistent with the foreign main proceeding.

(b)

If a foreign main proceeding is recognized after recognition, or after the filing of a petition for recognition, of a foreign nonmain proceeding, any relief in effect under section 1519 or 1521 shall be reviewed by the court and shall be modified or terminated if inconsistent with the foreign main proceeding.

(c)

If, after recognition of a foreign nonmain proceeding, another foreign nonmain proceeding is recognized, the court shall grant, modify, or terminate relief for the purpose of facilitating coordination of the proceedings.

Sec. 1531. Presumption of insolvency based on recognition of a foreign main proceeding. In the absence of evidence to the contrary, recognition of a foreign main proceeding is, for the purpose of commencing a proceeding under section 303, proof that the debtor is generally not paying its debts as such debts become due.

Sec. 1532. Rule of payment in concurrent proceedings Without prejudice to secured claims or rights in rem, a creditor who has received payment with respect to its claim in a foreign proceeding pursuant to a law relating to insolvency may not receive a payment for the same claim in a case under any other chapter of this title regarding the debtor, so long as the payment to other creditors of the same class is proportionately less than the payment the creditor has already received.

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Information provided in part courtesy of the International Insolvency Institute and by Cassels Brock & Blackwell LLP, Toronto

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Cross-Border Insolvency Protocols Contents (A) Chronological Listing ................................................................. 327 (B) Alphabetical Listing ................................................................... 331 (C) Cross-Border Insolvency Orders and Protocols providing for Court-to-Court Communications .............................................. 335

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CB. A

Cross-Border Insolvency Orders and Protocols (A) Chronological Listing Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol and Order in Re Barzel Industries Canada Inc. between Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice Geoffrey B. Morawetz), Case No. 09CL-8363 (September 15, 2009), including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases and United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware (Hon. Christopher S. Sontchi), Case No. 09-13204 (CSS) (September 17, 2009), including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol and Order in Re AbitibiBowater Inc. between the Superior Court of the Province of Quebec (Hon. Clement Gascon), Case No. 500-11-036133-094 (July 28, 2009), including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases and the United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware (Hon. Kevin J. Carey), Case No. 09-11296 (KJC) (July 7, 2009), including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Courtto-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol and Order in Re Eddie Bauer Holdings, Inc., et al. between the Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice Geoffrey B. Morawetz), Case No. 09-8240-CL (June 25, 2009), including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases and the United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware (Hon. Mary F. Walrath), Case No. 09-12099 (June 24, 2009), including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol and Order in Re Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc., et al. issued by the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York (Hon. James M. Peck), Case No. 08-13555 (June 17, 2009), including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol and Order in Re Bernard L. Madoff Investment Securities LLC issued by the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York (Hon. Burton R. Lifland), Adv. Pro. No. 08-1789 (June 9, 2009), including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol and Order in Re SemCanada Crude Company et al. between the Queen's B[Type a quote from the document or the summary of an interesting point. You can position the text box anywhere in the document. Use the Text Box Tools tab to change the formatting of the pull quote text box.]ench of Alberta for the Judicial District of Calgary (Justice B.E.C. Romaine), Action No. 0801-08510 (May 22, 2009), including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases and the United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware (Hon. Brendan L. Shannon), Case No. 08-11525 (BLS), (September 24, 2009).

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CB. A

Cross-Border Insolvency Protocols

Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Masonite International Inc. between Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice Colin L. Campbell), Case No. 09-8075-00CL (March 16, 2009) and United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware (Hon. Peter J. Walsh), Case No. 09-10844 (PJW), (April 14, 2009) substantially incorporating the principles of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Smurfit-Stone Container Canada Inc. between Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Toronto (Madam Justice Sarah E. Pepall), Case No. 097966-00CL (March 12, 2009) and United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware (Hon. Brendan L. Shannon), Case No. 09-10235 (BLS), (March 12, 2009) substantially incorporating the principles of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Nortel Networks Corporation between Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice Geoffrey B. Morawetz), Case No. 09-CL-7950 (January 14, 2009) and United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware (Hon. Kevin Gross), Case No. 09-10138 (KG), (January 15, 2009) including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in CrossBorder Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Quebecor World Inc. between the Superior Court for the Province of Quebec (Mr. Justice Robert Mongeon), Case No. 500-11-032338-085 (January 21, 2008) and the United States Bankruptcy Court, Southern District of New York (Hon. James Peck), Case No. 08-10152, (April 17, 2008), including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Progressive Moulded Products Ltd. between the Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice Geoffrey B. Morawetz), Case No. CV08-7590-00CL, (June 24, 2008) and the United States Bankruptcy for the District of Delaware, including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol and Order in Re Calpine Corporation between the United States Bankruptcy for the Southern District of New York (Hon. Burton R. Lifland), Case No. 05-60200 (April 9, 2007) and Court of Queens Bench of Alberta (Madam Justice B.E.C. Romaine), Case No. 0501-17864 (April 7, 2007) including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Pope & Talbot Ltd. between the British Columbia Supreme Court, Vancouver (Chief Justice Donald I. Brenner), Case No. SO77839, (December 14, 2007) and the United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware, (Hon. Christopher Sontchi), Case No. 07-11738 including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. Re Refco Capital Markets ( Supreme Court of Bermuda) (Mr. Justice Ian Kawaley) Case No. 2005:328 (December 12, 2006) (Approving the application of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases.)

328

Cross-Border Insolvency Protocols

CB. A

Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Sendo International Limited between the commercial Court of Nanterre, France (Mr. Justice Jerome Mandrillon) and the Chancery Division of the High Court of Justice, London (June 1, 2006.) Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Systech Retail Systems Corporation between the Ontario Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice J.D. Ground), Court File No. 03-CL-4836, (January 20, 2003) and the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Eastern District of North Carolina, Raleigh Division (Hon. A. Thomas Small), Case No. 03-00142-5-ATS, (January 30, 2003) including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-toCourt Communications in Cross-Border Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Mosaic Group Inc. between the Ontario Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice J.M. Farley), Court File No. 02-CL-4816, (December 7, 2002) and the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Northern District of Texas (Hon. Harlin DeWayne Hale), Case No. 02-81440, (January 8, 2003), including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross Border Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Federal-Mogul Global Inc. et al. between the United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware (Hon. Randall Newsome), Case No. 0110578, (October 4, 2001) and the Chancery Division of the High Court of Justice of England, (October 1, 2001) and Final Order Approving Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Federal-Mogul Global Inc. et al., United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware (Hon. Randall Newsome), Case No. 01-10578, (January 7, 2002). Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Financial Asset Management Foundation between Supreme Court of British Columbia (Chief Justice Donald I. Brenner) Case No. 11213464/VA.01 (August 1, 2001) and United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of California (Hon. Louise Adler) Case No. 01-03649-304 (July 25, 2001). Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Pioneer Companies between the Quebec Superior Court, (Re PCI Chemicals Canada Inc.,) (Madam Justice Danielle Mayrand), Case No. 500005-066677-012, (August 1, 2001) and United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of Texas, (Re Pioneer Companies Inc.) Case No. 01-38259, (August 1, 2001): providing for Court-to-Court communications consistent with The American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. (English/French). Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re 360Networks Inc. between British Columbia Supreme Court, Vancouver (Mr. Justice D.F. Tysoe), Case No. L011792, (June 28, 2001) and United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York (Hon. Allan L. Gropper), Case No. 01-13721-alg, (August 29, 2001). Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Laidlaw Inc. between Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice J.M. Farley), Case No. 01-CL-4178, (August 10, 2001) and United States Bankruptcy Court for the Western District of New York (Hon. Michael J. Kaplan), Case No. 01-14099, (August 20, 2001). Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re PSINet Inc. et al. between Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice J.M. Farley), Case No. 01-CL-4155, (July 10, 2001) and United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York (Hon. Robert E. Gerber), Case No. 01-13213, (July 10, 2001) including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases.

329

CB. A

Cross-Border Insolvency Protocols

Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Matlack Inc. between Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice J.M. Farley), Case No. 01-CL-4109, (April 19, 2001) and United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware (Hon. Mary F. Walrath), Case No. 0101114 (MFW), (May 24, 2001) including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re AgriBio Tech Inc. between Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice J.M. Farley), Case No. 31-OR-371448, (June 16, 2000) and United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Nevada (Hon. Linda B. Riegle), Case No. 500-10534 LBR, (June 28, 2000) providing for Court-to-Court Communications. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Manhattan Investment Fund Limited between United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York (Hon. Burton R. Lifland), Case No. 00-10922BRL, (April 2000) and High Court of Justice of the British Virgin Islands (Chief Justice Austin Ward), Case No. 19 of 2000, (April, 2000) and Supreme Court of Bermuda (Mr. Justice Kenneth A. Benjamin), Case No. 2000/37, (April 2000). Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Inverworld, Inc. between United States District Court for the Western District of Texas (Hon. Frederick Biery), Case No. SA99-C0822FB, (October 22, 1999) and U.K. High Court of Justice, Chancery Division, (1999) and the Grand Court of the Cayman Island, (1999). Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Philip Services Corporation between United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware (Hon. Mary Walrath), Case No. 99-B-02385, (June 28, 1999) and Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice Robert A. Blair), Case No. 99-CL-3442, (June 25, 1999). Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Livent Inc. between United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York (Hon. Arthur Gonzales), Case No. 98-B-48312, and Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice J.D. Ground), Case No. 98-CL-3162, (June 11, 1999). Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Loewen Group between United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware (Chief Judge Peter J. Walsh) Case No. 99-1244, (June 30, 1999) and Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice J.M. Farley) Case No. 99CL-3384, (June 1, 1999). Cross-Border Liquidation Protocol in Re AIOC Corporation and AIOC Resources AG between United States and Switzerland: United States Bankruptcy Court for Southern District Court of New York (Chief Judge Tina L. Brozman), Case Nos. 96 B 41895 and 96 B 41896, (April 3, 1998). Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Solv-Ex Canada Limited and Re Solv-Ex Corporation between Alberta Court of Queen’s Bench (Mr. Justice G.R. Forsyth), Case No. 9701-10022, (January 28, 1998) and United States Bankruptcy Court for the District CB. of New A-B Mexico (Hon. Mark McFeely), Case No. 11-97-14362-MA, (January 28, 1998). Cross-Border Liquidation Protocol in Re Tee-Comm Electronics Inc. between Ontario Court of Justice and United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware (Hon. Peter J. Walsh), Case No. 97-1100 (PJW), (July 3, 1997).

330

Cross-Border Insolvency Protocols

CB. A-B

Cross-Border Insolvency Concordat as Adopted by the Council of the International Bar Association Section on Business Law (Paris: September 17, 1995) and by the Council of the International Bar Association (Madrid: May 31, 1996). Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol between the United States and Israel in Re Nakash United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York, Case No. 94 B 44840, (May 23, 1996) and District Court of Jerusalem, Case No. 1595/87, (May 23, 1996). Order Co-ordinating Canadian and United States Reorganizational Plans in Re Everfresh Beverages Inc. Ontario Court of Justice; Toronto (Mr. Justice J.M. Farley), Case No. 32077978, (May 15, 1996). Orders Approving Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol between Canada and the United States in Re Everfresh Beverages Inc., Ontario Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice J.M. Farley), Case No. 32-077978, (December 20, 1995) and United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York. (Hon. Burton R. Lifland), Case No. 95 B 45405, (December 20, 1995). Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Commodore Electronics Limited and Commodore International Limited between the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York and the Supreme Court of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas (December 8, 1994). Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Olympia & York Developments Limited between Ontario Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice R.A. Blair), Case No. B125/92, (July 26, 1993) and United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York (Hon. James L. Garrity, Jr.), Case No’s 92-B-42698-42701, (July 15, 1993) (Reasons for Decision of the Ontario Court of Justice: (1993), 20 C.B.R. (3d) 165). Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol and Order Approving Protocol in Re Maxwell Communication plc between the United States and the United Kingdom. United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York (Hon. Tina L. Brozman), Case No. 91 B 15741, (January 15, 1992) and the High Court of Justice, Chancery Division, Companies Court, Case No. 0014001 of 1991, (December 31, 1991).

(B) Alphabetical Listing Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re 360Networks Inc. between British Columbia Supreme Court, Vancouver (Mr. Justice D.F. Tysoe), Case No. L011792, (June 28, 2001) and United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York (Hon. Allan L. Gropper), Case No. 01-13721-alg, (August 29, 2001). Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re AgriBio Tech Inc. between Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice J.M. Farley), Case No. 31-OR-371448, (June 16, 2000) and United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Nevada (Hon. Linda B. Riegle), Case No. 500-10534 LBR, (June 28, 2000) providing for Court-to-Court Communications. Cross-Border Liquidation Protocol in Re AIOC Corporation and AIOC Resources AG between United States and Switzerland: United States Bankruptcy Court for Southern District Court of New York (Chief Judge Tina L. Brozman), Case Nos. 96 B 41895 and 96 B 41896, (April 3, 1998).

331

CB. B

Cross-Border Insolvency Protocols

Orders Adopting the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases with certain modifications in Re Androscoggin Energy LLC, United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Maine (Hon. Louis H. Kornreich), Case No. 0412221-LHK, (January 12, 2005), and Ontario Superior Court of Justice (Mr. Justice J.M. Farley), Court File No. 04-CL-5643 January 6, 2005). Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol and Order in Re Calpine Corporation between the United States Bankruptcy for the Southern District of New York (Hon. Burton R. Lifland), Case No. 05-60200 (April 9, 2007) and Court of Queen’s Bench of Alberta (Madam Justice B.E.C. Romaine), Case No. 0501-17864 (April 7, 2007) including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications for Cross-Border Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Commodore Electronics Limited and Commodore International Limited between the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York and the Supreme Court of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas (December 8, 1994). Cross-Border Insolvency Concordat as Adopted by the Council of the International Bar Association Section on Business Law (Paris: September 17, 1995) and by the Council of the International Bar Association (Madrid: May 31, 1996). Order Co-ordinating Canadian and United States Reorganizational Plans in Re Everfresh Beverages Inc. Ontario Court of Justice; Toronto (Mr. Justice J.M. Farley), Case No. 32077978, (May 15, 1996). Orders Approving Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol between Canada and the United States in Re Everfresh Beverages Inc., Ontario Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice J.M. Farley), Case No. 32-077978, (December 20, 1995) and United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York. (Hon. Burton R. Lifland), Case No. 95 B 45405, (December 20, 1995). Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Federal-Mogul Global Inc. et al. between the United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware (Hon. Randall Newsome), Case No. 0110578, (October 4, 2001) and the Chancery Division of the High Court of Justice of England, (October 1, 2001) and Final Order Approving Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Federal-Mogul Global Inc. et al., United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware (Hon. Randall Newsome), Case No. 01-10578, (January 7, 2002). Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Financial Asset Management Foundation between Supreme Court of British Columbia (Chief Justice Donald I. Brenner) Case No. 11213464/VA.01 (August 1, 2001) and United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of California (Hon. Louise Adler) Case No. 01-03649-304 (July 25, 2001). Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Inverworld, Inc. between United States District Court for the Western District of Texas (Hon. Frederick Biery), Case No. SA99-C0822FB, (October 22, 1999) and U.K. High Court of Justice, Chancery Division, (1999) and the Grand Court of the Cayman Island, (1999). Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Laidlaw Inc. between Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice J.M. Farley), Case No. 01-CL-4178, (August 10, 2001) and

332

Cross-Border Insolvency Protocols

CB. B

United States Bankruptcy Court for the Western District of New York (Hon. Michael J. Kaplan), Case No. 01-14099, (August 20, 2001). Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Livent Inc. between United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York (Hon. Arthur Gonzales), Case No. 98-B-48312, and Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice J.D. Ground), Case No. 98-CL-3162, (June 11, 1999). Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Loewen Group between United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware (Chief Judge Peter J. Walsh) Case No. 99-1244, (June 30, 1999) and Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice J.M. Farley) Case No. 99CL-3384, (June 1, 1999). Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Manhattan Investment Fund Limited between United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York (Hon. Burton R. Lifland), Case No. 00-10922BRL, (April 2000) and High Court of Justice of the British Virgin Islands (Chief Justice Austin Ward), Case No. 19 of 2000, (April, 2000) and Supreme Court of Bermuda (Mr. Justice Kenneth A. Benjamin), Case No. 2000/37, (April 2000). Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Masonite International Inc. between Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice Colin L. Campbell), Case No. 09-8075-00CL (March 16, 2009) and United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware (Hon. Peter J. Walsh), Case No. 09-10844 (PJW), (April 14, 2009) substantially incorporating the principles of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Matlack Inc. between Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice J.M. Farley), Case No. 01-CL-4109, (April 19, 2001) and United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware (Hon. Mary F. Walrath), Case No. 0101114 (MFW), (May 24, 2001) including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol and Order Approving Protocol in Re Maxwell Communication plc between the United States and the United Kingdom. United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York (Hon. Tina L. Brozman), Case No. 91 B 15741, (January 15, 1992) and the High Court of Justice, Chancery Division, Companies Court, Case No. 0014001 of 1991, (December 31, 1991). Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Mosaic Group Inc. between the Ontario Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice J.M. Farley), Court File No. 02-CL-4816, (December 7, 2002) and the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Northern District of Texas (Hon. Harlin DeWayne Hale), Case No. 02-81440, (January 8, 2003), including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross Border Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol between the United States and Israel in Re Nakash United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York, Case No. 94 B 44840, (May 23, 1996) and District Court of Jerusalem, Case No. 1595/87, (May 23, 1996). Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Nortel Networks Corporation between Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice Geoffrey B. Morawetz), Case No. 09-CL-7950 (January 14, 2009) and United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware (Hon.

333

CB. B

Cross-Border Insolvency Protocols

Kevin Gross), Case No. 09-10138 (KG), (January 15, 2009) including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in CrossBorder Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Olympia & York Developments Limited between Ontario Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice R.A. Blair), Case No. B125/92, (July 26, 1993) and United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York (Hon. James L. Garrity, Jr.), Case No’s 92-B-42698-42701, (July 15, 1993) (Reasons for Decision of the Ontario Court of Justice: (1993), 20 C.B.R. (3d) 165). Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Philip Services Corporation between United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware (Hon. Mary Walrath), Case No. 99-B-02385, (June 28, 1999) and Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice Robert A. Blair), Case No. 99-CL-3442, (June 25, 1999). Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Pioneer Companies between the Quebec Superior Court, (Re PCI Chemicals Canada Inc.,) (Madam Justice Danielle Mayrand), Case No. 500005-066677-012, (August 1, 2001) and United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of Texas, (Re Pioneer Companies Inc.) Case No. 01-38259, (August 1, 2001): providing for Court-to-Court communications consistent with The American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Pope & Talbot Ltd. between the British Columbia Supreme Court, Vancouver (Chief Justice Donald I. Brenner), Case No. SO77839, (December 14, 2007) and the United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware, (Hon. Christopher Sontchi), Case No. 07-11738 including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Progressive Moulded Products Ltd. between the Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice Geoffrey B. Morawetz), Case No. CV08-7590-00CL, (June 24, 2008) and the United States Bankruptcy Court, including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re PSINet Inc. et al. between Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice J.M. Farley), Case No. 01-CL-4155, (July 10, 2001) and United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York (Hon. Robert E. Gerber), Case No. 01-13213, (July 10, 2001) including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Quebecor World Inc. between the Superior Court for the Province of Quebec (Mr. Justice Robert Mongeon), Case No. 500-11-032338-085 (January 21, 2008) and the United States Bankruptcy Court, Southern District of New York (Hon. James Peck), Case No. 08-10152, (April 17, 2008), including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. Re Refco Capital Markets ( Supreme Court of Bermuda) (Mr. Justice Ian Kawaley) Case No. 2005:328 (December 12, 2006) (Approving the application of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases.)

334

Cross-Border Insolvency Protocols

CB. B-C

Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Sendo International Limited between the commercial Court of Nanterre, France (Mr. Justice Jerome Mandrillon) and the Chancery Division of the High Court of Justice, London (June 1, 2006.) Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Smurfit-Stone Container Canada Inc. between Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Toronto (Madam Justice Sarah E. Pepall), Case No. 097966-00CL (March 12, 2009) and United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware (Hon. Brendan L. Shannon), Case No. 09-10235 (BLS), (March 12, 2009) substantially incorporating the principles of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Solv-Ex Canada Limited and Re Solv-Ex Corporation between Alberta Court of Queen’s Bench (Mr. Justice G.R. Forsyth), Case No. 9701-10022, (January 28, 1998) and United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of New Mexico (Hon. Mark McFeely), Case No. 11-97-14362-MA, (January 28, 1998). Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Systech Retail Systems Corporation between the Ontario Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice J.D. Ground), Court File No. 03-CL-4836, (January 20, 2003) and the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Eastern District of North Carolina, Raleigh Division (Hon. A. Thomas Small), Case No. 03-00142-5-ATS, (January 30, 2003) including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-toCourt Communications in Cross-Border Cases. Cross-Border Liquidation Protocol in Re Tee-Comm Electronics Inc. between Ontario Court of Justice and United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware (Hon. Peter J. Walsh), Case No. 97-1100 (PJW), (July 3, 1997).

(C) Cross-Border Insolvency Orders and Protocols providing for Courtto-Court Communications Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol and Order in Re AbitibiBowater Inc. between the Superior Court of the Province of Quebec (Hon. Clement Gascon), Case No. 500-11-036133-094 (July 28, 2009), including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases and the United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware (Hon. Kevin J. Carey), Case No. 09-11296 (KJC) (July 7, 2009), including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Courtto-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re AgriBio Tech Inc. between Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice J.M. Farley), Case No. 31-OR-371448, (June 16, 2000) and United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Nevada (Hon. Linda B. Riegle), Case No. 500-10534 LBR, (June 28, 2000) providing for Court-to-Court Communications. Orders Adopting the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases with Certain Modifications in Re Androscoggin Energy LLC, United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Maine (Hon. Louis H. Kornreich), Case No. 0412221-LHK, (January 12, 2005), and Ontario Superior Court of Justice (Mr. Justice J.M. Farley), Court File No. 04-CL-5643 January 6, 2005). Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol and Order in Re Barzel Industries Canada Inc. between Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice Geoffrey B. Morawetz), Case No. 09CL-8363 (September 15, 2009), including approval and adoption of the American Law 335

CB. C

Cross-Border Insolvency Protocols

Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases and United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware (Hon. Christopher S. Sontchi), Case No. 09-13204 (CSS) (September 17, 2009), including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol and Order in Re Bernard L. Madoff Investment Securities LLC issued by the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York (Hon. Burton R. Lifland), Adv. Pro. No. 08-1789 (June 9, 2009), including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol and Order in Re Calpine Corporation between the United States Bankruptcy for the Southern District of New York (Hon. Burton R. Lifland), Case No. 05-60200 (April 9, 2007) and Court of Queens Bench of Alberta (Madam Justice B.E.C. Romaine), Case No. 0501-17864 (April 7, 2007) including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol and Order in Re Eddie Bauer Holdings, Inc., et al. between the Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice Geoffrey B. Morawetz), Case No. 09-8240-CL (June 25, 2009), including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases and the United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware (Hon. Mary F. Walrath), Case No. 09-12099 (June 24, 2009), including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol and Order in Re Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc., et al. issued by the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York (Hon. James M. Peck), Case No. 08-13555 (June 17, 2009), including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Masonite International Inc. between Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice Colin L. Campbell), Case No. 09-8075-00CL (March 16, 2009) and United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware (Hon. Peter J. Walsh), Case No. 09-10844 (PJW), (April 14, 2009) substantially incorporating the principles of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Matlack Inc. between Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice J.M. Farley), Case No. 01-CL-4109, (April 19, 2001) and United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware (Hon. Mary F. Walrath), Case No. 0101114 (MFW), (May 24, 2001) including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Nortel Networks Corporation between Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice Geoffrey B. Morawetz), Case No. 09-CL-7950 (January 14, 2009) and United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware (Hon. Kevin Gross), Case No. 09-10138 (KG), (January 15, 2009) including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in CrossBorder Cases.

336

Cross-Border Insolvency Protocols

CB. C

Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Pioneer Companies between the Quebec Superior Court, (Re PCI Chemicals Canada Inc.,) (Madam Justice Danielle Mayrand), Case No. 500005-066677-012, (August 1, 2001) and United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of Texas, (Re Pioneer Companies Inc.) (Hon. Letitia Z. Clark) Case No. 01-38259, (August 1, 2001): providing for Court-to-Court communications consistent with The American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Pope & Talbot Ltd. between the British Columbia Supreme Court, Vancouver (Chief Justice Donald I. Brenner), Case No. SO77839, (December 14, 2007) and the United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware, (Hon. Christopher Sontchi), Case No. 07-11738 including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Progressive Moulded Products Ltd. between the Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice Geoffrey B. Morawetz), Case No. CV08-7590-00CL, (June 24, 2008) and the United States Bankruptcy Court, including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in PSINet Inc. et al. between Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice J.M. Farley), Case No. 01-CL-4155, (July 10, 2001) and United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York (Hon. Robert E. Gerber), Case No. 01-13213, (July 10, 2001) including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Quebecor World Inc. between the Superior Court for the Province of Quebec (Mr. Justice Robert Mongeon), Case No. 500-11-032338-085 (January 21, 2008) and the United States Bankruptcy Court, Southern District of New York (Hon. James Peck), Case No. 08-10152, (April 17, 2008), including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. Court Opinion in Re Refco Capital Markets (Supreme Court of Bermuda) (Mr. Justice Ian R. Kawaley) Case No. 2005:328 (December 12, 2006), approving the application of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases. Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol and Order in Re SemCanada Crude Company et al. between the Queen's Bench of Alberta for the Judicial District of Calgary (Justice B.E.C. Romaine), Action No. 0801-08510 (May 22, 2009), including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases and the United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware (Hon. Brendan L. Shannon), Case No. 08-11525 (BLS), (September 24, 2009). Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Smurfit-Stone Container Canada Inc. between Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Toronto (Madam Justice Sarah E. Pepall), Case No. 097966-00CL (March 12, 2009) and United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware (Hon. Brendan L. Shannon), Case No. 09-10235 (BLS), (March 12, 2009) substantially incorporating the principles of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-to-Court Communications in Cross-Border Cases.

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Cross-Border Insolvency Protocols

Cross-Border Insolvency Protocol in Re Systech Retail Systems Corporation between the Ontario Court of Justice, Toronto (Mr. Justice J.D. Ground), Court File No. 03-CL-4836, (January 20, 2003) and the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Eastern District of North Carolina, Raleigh Division (Hon. A. Thomas Small), Case No. 03-00142-5-ATS, (January 30, 2003) including approval and adoption of the American Law Institute Guidelines for Court-toCourt Communications in Cross-Border Cases.

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The Cassels Brock Restructuring & Insolvency Group offers decades of collective experience and advises on all aspects of reorganizations and restructurings, creditors’ remedies and commercial litigation. We have a highly-regarded profile in international markets and frequently represent internationally-based clients in Canadian and cross-border restructurings and insolvencies. Our numerous domestic relationships with leading insolvency professionals and lenders involve us in a wide range of matters. We have represented domestic and international financial institutions and investors, commercial and financial organizations, creditors’ committees, receivers, trustees, debtors and acquirers in reorganizations and insolvencies in Canada and around the world. Joseph J. Bellissimo John Birch William Burden Jonathan Fleisher Deborah S. Grieve Bruce Leonard Alison R. Manzer Marc Mercier David Ward Larry Ellis Eleonore Morris Alex Tarantino

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