Human Development Report 2003 : Tamil Nadu - UNDP

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Tamil Nadu Human Development Report

Government of Tamil Nadu in association with

Social Science Press Delhi 2003

Published by The Government of Tamil Nadu in association with Esha Béteille Social Science Press 69 Jor Bagh, New Delhi 110003 E-mail: [email protected]

Distributed by D.K. Publishers and Distributors (P.) Ltd. 1 Ansari Road, Darya Ganj, New Delhi 110002 E-mail: [email protected]

© The Government of Tamil Nadu

ISBN 81 87358 14 9

Front and back cover picture Courtesy Government of Tamil Nadu

Cover design Neelima Rao

Social Science Press logo design Arpan Mukhopadhyay

Set in Giovanni Book Typeset by Eleven Art, Delhi-110035 Printed by Ravindra Printing Press 1590 Madrasa Road Kashmiri Gate Delhi 110006

Contents

List of Boxes

v

List of Figures

vi

List of Tables

vii

List of Appendix Tables Foreword

ix

xi

Acknowledgements

xiii

Message by M.S. Swaminathan, Vice Chairman, State Planning Commission Message by Kamaluddin Ahmed, Member, Planning Commission

xv

xvii

Message by Brenda Gael McSweeney, UN Resident Coordinator and UNDP Resident Representative Introduction

xxi

CHAPTERS 1—Tamil Nadu—A Profile

1

2—Status of Human Development in Tamil Nadu 3—Employment, Income and Poverty 4—Demography, Health and Nutrition 5—Literacy and Education 6—Gender

93

67

19 39

13

xix

iv



CONTENTS

7—Social Security

113

8—The Road Ahead: Tamil Nadu in the New Millennium Appendix Tables

139

Technical Notes

184

Statistical Gaps

197

Abbreviations References

200 203

131

List of Boxes

1.1—Education in Early Years of Madras Presidency 2.1—State of Human Development 13 3.1—Child Labour Declines in Tamil Nadu 3.2—District-level Income Categories 31

10

23

4.1—Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) Project 4.2—Empowering Female Field Functionaries 46

45

4.3—DANIDA Tamil Nadu Area Health Care Project (TNAHCP) 4.4—The Noon Meal Programme 56 4.5—Women’s Empowerment through Self Help Groups

48

57

4.6—Towards a Health Management Information System (HMIS)—A Tamil Nadu Initiative 5.1—History of Elementary Education in Tamil Nadu

70

5.2—Incentives for Enrolment 72 5.3—Quality Improvement in Primary Education: District Primary Education

74

Programme (DPEP) 5.4—Teachers in Elementary Education 79 5.5—Elementary Education: Areas of Concern and Initiatives Required 5.6—Education and Panchayati Raj 87 5.7—Information Technology Initiatives in Education 5.8—Women in Tertiary Education 89 5.9—External Assistance for Elementary Education

80

88 91

6.1—Socio-cultural Ethos and Efforts to Change it: A Historical Road Map 6.2—Time Use Studies 95 6.3—Tamil Nadu Women’s Development Project (Mahalir Thiuttam) 6.4—Wife Battering in Chennai 6.5—Breaking the Glass Ceiling?

100 109

7.1—OAP Schemes: Year of Introduction and Eligibility

118

97

94

62

List of Figures

1.1—Total Fertility Rate (Major States) 9 1.2—Infant Mortality Rate (Major States) 10 1.3—Educational Level (Major States)

11

3.1—Total Employment and Employment in Organized Sector, 1999–2000 4.1—CBR and CDR for Tamil Nadu and India, 1971–7 4.2—Total Fertility Rate 43 4.3—IMR for Tamil Nadu By Place of Residence

28

40

47

4.4—Trend in Nutritional Status of Rural Tamil Nadu Children (0–36 Months) 4.5—District-wise Access to Water Supply 59 5.1—Literacy Rate, India vs Tamil Nadu 5.2—Literacy Rate and Male/Female Ratio

51

68 68

5.3—Mean Per cent of Achievement of Class I Students 5.4—Mean Per cent of Achievement of Class IV Students

74 75

5.5—Percentage Rural Habitation with Higher Secondary School (HSS) at Desired Distance 5.6—Growth of Arts and Science Colleges in Tamil Nadu, 1991 and 2000 5.7—Growth of Engineering Colleges and Polytechnics, 1991–2000 90 6.1—Percentage Ever Married, Southern States 6.2—Employment in State Government 105 6.3—Employment in Central Government

106

99

89

85

List of Tables

1.1—Basic Demographic Indicators

5

1.2—Sectoral Distribution of State Domestic Product 6 1.3—Annual Growth Rate at 1980–1 Prices, Tamil Nadu and India

7

2.1—Top and Bottom Five Districts in Human Development Indicators 2.2—District-wise HDI and GDI Values, 1999 16

15

2.3—Top and Bottom Five districts in Gender Development Indicators 2.4—Comparison of Districts 17 2.5—Comparison between District GDP and District HDI 3.1—Total Workers and Non-workers in Tamil Nadu 3.2—Tamil Nadu WPR and Number of Workers

17

18

20

20

3.3—Growth of Employment by Sex 21 3.4—Age-specific Worker Population Ratio, 1993–4 and 1999–2000

22

3.5—Industrial Classification of Workers in 1981 and 1991 Censuses 3.6—Industrial Classification of Workers 24

23

3.7—Composition of Workers by Major Sectors, 1997–8 and 1999–2000 3.8—Sectoral Distribution of Workers by Sex 25

25

3.9—Sectoral Share of NSDP, Employment and per Worker Output, 1993–4 3.10—Distribution of Workers (Usual Status) into Various Categories 3.11—Per capita Income and Literacy 32 3.12—Per capita Income and Longevity (LEB) 3.13—Trends in Poverty Levels in Tamil Nadu

32 33

3.14—Tamil Nadu—Region-wise Estimates of Poverty

34

3.15—Districts according to Level of Poverty 35 3.16—Poverty levels among SC and ST Households, 1993–4 3.17—Share of Consumption Expenditure 3.18—Gini Index 37

26

26

35

36

3.19—Per Capita Income and Poverty in Districts, 1993–4

38

4.1—In-migrants of Last Residence with Duration of Residence 0–9 Years, 1991

41

viii



LIST OF TABLES

4.2—Rural, Urban Sex Ratios in Southern States and India, 1981, 1991 and 2001

41

4.3—Life Expectancy at Birth, 1997 42 4.4—Percentage Prevalence of Malnutrition among Children aged 1–4 years in Selected States 4.5—Nutritional Grades in Districts (Upper and Lower Categories) 52 4.6—Prevalence of Nutritional Deficiency Signs among Pre-school Children 4.7—Access to Safe Drinking Water by Households (in %) 5.1—Sex-wise Enrolment at Elementary Stage 5.2—Gross Attendance Ratio

54

58

70

72

5.3—DPEP—Completion Rate, Drop out Rate and Percentage Repeaters 5.4—Basic Infrastructure, Select States 76

73

5.5—Pupil–Teacher Ratio 76 5.6—State-wise Enrolment in Classes IX and X as Percentage of Enrolment in Class I 5.7—Female Literacy, Poverty, Enrolment and Gender gap 6.1—Number of Electors in Tamil Nadu 6.2—Voter Turnout

50

82

83

101

102

6.3—District-wise Voting Percentages 102 6.4—Membership in Lok Sabha and Cabinet

103

6.5—Members in Tamil Nadu Assembly and Cabinet 104 6.6—Representation in Rural and Urban Local Bodies in Tamil Nadu, 1996

104

6.7—Persons Contested and Elected in Assembly Elections by Sex 1984–96 6.8—Trend in Female Employment in Central/ State/Local Bodies 106

105

7.1—Demographic Profile of the Aged in Tamil Nadu, 1961–91 116 7.2—Dependency Ratio, Ageing Index and Familial Dependency ratio for Tamil Nadu 7.3—Literacy Rate for 60+

117

117

7.4—Persons Aged 60+ by Sex and Residence in Tamil Nadu 118 7.5—OAP Beneficiaries and Coverage Ratios for Elderly 60+ Population

119

7.6—Correlation Between Elderly Population, Aged WPR, Poverty and OAP Coverage Ratio 7.7—Correlation Between Male Elderly Population, Male Aged WPR and OAP Coverage

120 123

Ratio in Selected Districts. 7.8—Correlation Between Female Elderly Population, Female Aged WPR and OAP Coverage Ratio in Selected Districts.

123

7.9—Expenditure on OAP Pension Schemes for Elderly 60+ Population in Tamil Nadu 7.10—Prevalence Rate (per one lakh persons) of any Physical Disability among Persons aged 60 years and above by Sex. 7.11—Number of Old Age Homes and Day Care Centres under funding from GOI

128

126 127

List of Appendix Tables

A1—Index and Indicators A1.1—Human Development Indicators A1.2—Human Development Index

141 142

A1.3—Gender Related Development Index: Income Index A1.4—Gender vs Human Development Ranks 143

142

A2—Economy Profile A2.1—Inter-State Economy Profile Major States

144

A3—Demographic Profile A3.1—Inter-State Demographic Profile—Major States A3.2—Demograghic Profile—Tamil Nadu 147 A3.3—Tamil Nadu—Sex ratio 147 A3.4—Tamil Nadu—Population of SCs and STs

146

148

A3.5—Tamil Nadu—Work Participation Rates by Residence

A4—Health Profile A4.1—Health Profile—Tamil Nadu by Residence A4.2—Health Profile—Tamil Nadu by Gender A4.3—Inter-State Health Profile 153

151 152

A5—Education Profile A5.1—Education Profile—Major States A5.2—Literacy rate 155

154

A5.3—Gross Enrolment Rate and Drop out Rate 156 A5.4—Pupil–Teacher Ratio and Access to Schooling 157 A5.5—Availability of Ancillary Facilities in Schools

158

149

x



LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES

A6—Domestic Product Profile A6.1—Gross District Domestic Product (at Current and Constant (1993–4) Prices) A6.2—Per capita Income at Current and Constant Prices 161 A6.3—Share of District Domestic Product to State Domestic Product

160

162

A6.4—Estimates of Gross District Domestic Products at Current Prices 163 A6.5—Sectorwise Growth of Gross District Domestic Product at Constant (1993–4) Prices

164

A6.6—Estimates of Poverty in Tamil Nadu, 1993–4 165 A6.7—District Domestic Product Series—Per capita Income, Growth Rate and Sectoral Contribution

166

A7—Housing Profile A7.1—District-wise Housing Units by Number of Rooms per Housing Unit—Rural A7.2—District-wise Housing Units by Number of Rooms per Housing Unit—Urban

167 168

A8—Drinking Water, Electricity and Sanitation Profile A8.1—Safe Drinking Water and Electricity (Total, Rural and Urban)

169

A8.2—Percentage of Households with Access to Toilets and Safe Drinking Water and Electricity A8.3—Percentage of Households with Access to Electricity and Toilets and all 3 Facilities

170

171

A9—Deprivation Profile A9.1—Percentage of Households having none of the 3 facilities and those without Access to Toilets

172

A10—Gender Disparities Profile A10.1—Female Population and Sex ratio

173

A10.2—Female Literacy, 1991 174 A10.3—Enrolment of Girls in Primary School and Married Women per 1000 persons

175

A10.4—Victims of Molestation and Rape 1991, 1996 177 A10.5—Married Males and Females (1981, 1991), Percentage of Married Females of ages 15–19

178

and Percentage of Widows in Female Population

A11—Ageing Profile 1991 A11.1—Elderly Population in Thousands and as Percentage of Total Populaton and Elderly Sex Ratio A11.2—Proportion of Elderly by Residence and Sex 180 A11.3—Dependency Ratio, and Aged Work Participation Rate

181

A11.4—Old Age Pension Schemes in Tamil Nadu, OAP, DALP, DPHP, DWP and DDWP

182

179

Chapter

 1

Foreword

I have pleasure in introducing the Human Development Report for Tamil Nadu. This is the first Report of its kind for the State. The economic development of a State and higher Gross State Domestic Product does not necessarily reflect the actual well being of its people. Development objectives are being defined not just in terms of increase in Gross Domestic Product or per capita income but more broadly in terms of enhancement of human well being. The concept of Human Development Indices has, therefore, been advocated to measure the improvement and status of well-being of the people. As the name suggests, the concept of human development focusses on the actual well-being of the people in terms of indicators like attainment of education health, life expectancy, income, access to safe drinking water, sanitation facilities etc. The UNDP has been publishing the Human Development Report since 1990. The Union Planning Commission has released the National Human Development Report 2001 recently. The State Planning Commission took the initiative of preparing a similar report for Tamil Nadu. The preparation has been done as a totally in-house exercise in the State Planning Commission in consultation with experts and academicians. One of the main objectives has been to measure the development district-wise, thus throwing light on the areas needing improvement. In addition to Human Development Index, Gender Development Index also has been computed, bringing out the basic capabilities such as life-expectancy, literacy, income, etc. and the gender inequalities which need to be attended to in order to bring about an egalitarian society. Tamil Nadu has a rich cultural and historical heritage. Even though the State is not endowed with rich natural resources, the State is excelling on all fronts with a well-established infrastructure, both physical and social. The report summarizes the overall development of the State. The Tamil Nadu Human Development Report will serve as an important tool in planning for growth, social justice and equity in the State. This report would help in reassessing the investment strategy and areas for future attention and, if the challenges identified in the Report are tackled, the dream of making Tamil Nadu the number one State in India will be realized.

J. JAYALALITHAA CHIEF MINISTER OF TAMIL NADU

Acknowledgements

The preparation of the Tamil Nadu Human Development Report has been an initiative of the Government of Tamil Nadu supported by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Union Planning Commission. The State Planning Commission took up the assignment as a totally in-house exercise. A Core Committee undertook this task, with the then Member Secretary, State Planning Commission Thiru L.N. Vijayaraghavan, I.A.S., as the Chairman, the Full Time Member of the State Planning Commission, Thiru K.V. Palanidurai, Tmt. Thangam Sankaranarayanan, I.A.S., then Secretary to Government, Planning and Development Department, Tmt. Anandi Ravichandran, I.E.S., then Adviser (IPT), State Planning Commission, Dr C. Chandramohan, I.E.S., then Director of Evaluation and Applied Research, Thiru R. Bhaskaran, I.A.S., then Director of Economics and Statistics and Dr (Tmt) Anuradha Khati Rajivan, I.A.S., Tmt. Girija Vaidyanathan, I.A.S., Tmt. Sheela Rani Chunkath, I.A.S., Thiru K. Rajaraman, I.A.S., as Members. The preparation of the TNHDR has been possible owing to the untiring efforts of this team who collected and furnished a lot of data and information and ensured that it was woven into an integrated report.

Principal Contributors for the Chapters of HDR Chapter 1: Tamil Nadu—A Profile

L.N. Vijayaraghavan, I.A.S. Thangam Sankaranarayanan, I.A.S.

Chapter 2: Status of Human Development in Tamil Nadu Chapter 3: Employment, Income and Poverty

L.N. Vijayaraghavan, I.A.S. K.V. Palanidurai Dr C. Chandramohan, I.E.S

Chapter 4: Demography, Health and Nutrition

Sheila Rani Chunkath, I.A.S. Dr Anuradha Khati Rajivan, I.A.S.

Chapter 5: Literacy and Education

Anandi Ravichandran, I.E.S. L.N. Vijayaraghavan, I.A.S.

Chapter 6: Gender

Girija Vaidyanathan, I.A.S. K. Rajaraman, I.A.S., L.N. Vijayaraghavan, I.A.S.

Chapter 7: Social Security Chapter 8: Road Ahead: Tamil Nadu in the New Millenium

Dr Anuradha Khati Rajivan, I.A.S. L.N. Vijayaraghavan, I.A.S. P.V. Rajaraman, I.A.S. L.N. Vijayaraghavan, I.A.S.

xiv



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The exercise was fully supported by the Union Planning Commission, Dr Rohini Nayyar, Adviser, Rural Development, Planning Commission and Mr B.N. Nanda, Director, Rural Development, Planning Commission, took a keen interest and guided the State Planning Commission in the effort. Dr A.C. Kulshereshtha and Dr N.J. Kurien, Adviser (Resources) provided inputs for the chapters relating to income and employment respectively. Dr Brenda Gael McSweeney, Resident Representative, UNDP India Country Office provided consistent support to the endeavour. Dr R. Sudarshan now with the UNDPs Centre for Governance at Oslo was a prime mover behind the conceptualization and early design of the Report. Dr K. Seeta Prabhu and Dr Suraj Kumar from the Human Development Resource Centre (HDRC) provided critical inputs for the preparation of the Report with the help of their team—Aparna Pande, Elena Borsatti, Meenakshi Kathel and Trishna Satpathy. Extensive discussions were held with the officials and the departments concerned of the Government of Tamil Nadu. A workshop was organized apart from several intellectual discussions for the preparation of the Report. The names of others who made a contribution to the Report, are listed below in alphabetical order: Dr Almas Ali, Dr Anjana Mangalagiri, Professor S. Anandalakshmy, Dr S. Ananthalakshmi, Dr V.B. Athreya, Mrs Devaki Jain, Dr P.R. Gopinathan Nair, Dr Kamala Krishnasamy, Mr K.P. Kannan, Ms Manabi Majumdar, Dr Mina Swaminathan, Mr K. Nagaraj, Dr Padmini Swaminathan, Thiru. Paul Diamond, Dr S. Rajagopal, Mr P.S. Rana, Professor V.M. Rao, Dr Renuka Viswanathan, Ms Revathi Narayanan, Mr Sandeep Dikshit, Dr Santappa, Tmt. E.V. Shanta, Dr V. Shanthi Ghosh, Dr A. Sivakumar, Dr Solomon Benjamin, Mr V. Srinivasan, Professor S. Subramanian, Ms Sunitha Rangaswami, Dr M.H. Suryanarayana, Mr S.S. Suryanarayanan, Dr Swarna S. Vepa, Dr A. Vaidyanathan, Dr Vinod Vyasulu, Dr Vinodhini Reddy, Mr Yash P. Aggarwal. The Directorate of Economics and Statistics provided the extensive data base and undertook the formidable task of pooling expenditure data of the Central and State samples from the National Sample Survey in order to calculate the district level poverty and income estimates. Thiru R. Bhaskaran, Thiru. Palani and Tmt. Ananthalakshmi deserve a special mention in this regard. The Census Commissioner, Dr C. Chandramouli, made available the Census data, including the provisional results of Census, 2001. Ms Ranjini Murthy helped the Core Committee in scripting the chapter, Gender, Thiru. R. Bhakthavatsalu provided the methodology to calculate the district-wise age specific projections from the 1991 Census for calculating the gross enrolment ratio and Dr V. Soundararajan made valuable comments in the chapter, Employment, Income and Poverty. Last, but not the least, all the officers and staff of the State Planning Commission contributed their might in making this effort fruitful.

Message The real growth of a State is reflected through the well-being of the people. The traditional indicator of economy, GSDP, does not reveal the actual state of human well-being in the State. Any indicator reflecting the development not only illustrates the present situation but also creates an environment to frame future policies. Thus the concept of human development focusses on the people who from the society and human development must be the major objective of planning. Through a 15-point programme launched by the Honourable Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, the State is focussing its attention on the sustained human security and well-being. Over the past decades, we have made enormous efforts to augment growth in the fields of education, health, poverty alleviation, employment generation, nutrition, etc. Now, it is time to assess whether our investments foster sustainable economic as well as societal growth giving equal opportunities to people from all works of life. The emphasis of the Tamil Nadu Human Development Report is on development in the spheres of education, employment and health and longevity, gender equity, and access to basic needs. These issues are discussed in detail in this report. It is equally important that while analysing the present status of development, appropriate parameters should be identified to enable the Government to evolve specific schemes to promote gender and social equity based development. This report aims at increasing transparency and depth in the presentation of district level, rural– urban and gender-wise information, strengthening information on human development and also gender development, which will in turn enhance its utility to policy makers, researchers and all interested in the development of the State and its people. Nobel Laureate Dr Amartya Sen and the late Dr Mahabub ul Haq deserve our gratitude for their vision in arousing global consciousness on the need to focus on human development. The support and guidance of UNDP in the preparation of this report is gratefully acknowledged. I also thank the Planning Commission, Government of India for their assistance. Finally, I congratulate the officers of the State Planning Commission and other departmental officers whose sincere and dedicate efforts helped greatly in bringing out the Report.

M S Swaminathan Vice Chairman, State Planning Commission Government of Tamil Nadu, Chennai

‚ŒSÿ ÿÙ¡ŸÊ •ÊÿÙª ÿÙ¡ŸÊ ÷flŸ Ÿß¸ ÁŒÀ‹Ë-vvÆÆÆv

KAMALUDDIN AHMED

MEMBER PLANNING COMMISSION YOJANA BHAVAN NEW DELHI-110001

Message

Date 29th July 2002.

I congratulate the State Government of Tamil Nadu on the preparation of its first State Human Development Report, with the support of the Planning Commission and the UNDP. There is a growing acceptability of the human development framework set out by the UNDP over the last decade, which inter alia recognize that income is but one dimension of the quality of life. There is no direct correspondence between measures of economic development and those of social development. Adequate provision of social services could ensure relatively better living conditions for the people. Moreover, they would create conditions that support better opportunities in the future. The Tamil Nadu Human Development Report has put these issues within its own development perspective, bringing out the levels of attainment in respect of specific human development indicators. It is recognized that there are considerable inter-district differences in levels of achievement with respect to income, education and health indices. The HDI, which is a composite index also reflects these differences. Therefore, as a follow up to the conclusions emanating from the Report appropriate polices and programmes need to be devised and targeted to districts/blocks, which are lagging behind in respect of human development and income levels. Resources must also be allocated in a way that more backward areas receive funds. Better performance would also require greater community participation, better governance and decentralized development. I am confident that the State Government of Tamil Nadu would take appropriate steps to reduce intra-State disparities and achieve more equitable development in the State.

(KAMALUDDIN AHMED)

United Nations Development Programme

Message I would like to express appreciation of the Tamil Nadu Human Development Report, which shows the status, achievements and challenges, as also the way forward for achieving women’s empowerment, and strategies for development of the social sectors in the State. Tamil Nadu is the sixth State in India to bring out its State HDR, as a document of the people and blueprint for future action. The Report highlights the issues of poverty eradication, employment generation, HIV/AIDS and social security. Further, it stresses the role of government, civil society and media in the process of development. I am very pleased that the analysis presented in the Report has emphasized decentralization and gender equity—also key themes of India’s UN Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF)—as a means for attaining human development objectives. I compliment the Government of Tamil Nadu for its sensitivity and commitment to the cause of human development, and express confidence that the Report will be an important instrument for integrating growth with human development, and mainstreaming gender and poverty issues into district planning.

Brenda Gael McSweeney UNDP Resident Representative UN Resident Coordinator

Introduction

‘Human Development is defined as the process of enlarging people’s range of choices. The most critical of these wide ranging choices are to live a long and healthy life, to be educated and to have access to resources needed for a decent standard of living. Additional choices include political freedom, guaranteed human rights and personal self-respect.’ (United Nations Development Programme, UNDP, 1990) The concept of human development is much broader than the conventional theories of economic development. It goes beyond economic growth models, human resource development and other welfare approaches. Human development brings together the production and distribution of commodities and the expansion and use of human capabilities. It is a paradigm which is equally applicable to developing as well as industrial countries. Human development has four components: productivity, equity, sustainability and empowerment. Further, this concept emphasizes gender equality; as long as women are excluded from the development process, development will remain weak and lopsided. Sustainable human development implies engendering the development paradigm. In 2000, the UN General Assembly had set eight goals for development, known as Millennium Development Goals, to be achieved by 2015; they are: eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, promote gender equality and empower women, reduce child mortality, combat human immuno deficiency virus (HIV), Acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), malaria and other diseases, ensure environmental sustainability and develop global partnership for development. Most of these goals have quantifiable, monitorable targets to measure progress against standards set by the international community. The concept of human development has been used as a very powerful advocacy too, to argue in favour of propoor growth. It has highlighted the fact that it is not merely the quantum of growth but its distribution, which is important. To compare levels of development across countries, Human Development Reports (HDRs) have proposed simple composite indices such as Human Development Index (HDI), Gender Development Index (GDI), Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) and Human Poverty Index (HPI) to reflect the status of human development, gender development, empowerment of women and human poverty, respectively. The parameters of HDI are life expectancy at birth (LEB), adult literacy rate and the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (PPP US $). The parameters for GDI are the same as those for HDI but it adjusts the achievement to reflect the achievements between men and women. The GEM captures gender inequalities in female and male percentage shares of parliamentary seats, their shares of position as legislators, senior officials and management and also percentage shares of professional and technical positions and estimated earned income (PPP US $). And finally, the parameters for HPI are probability at birth of not surviving to age 60, percentage of adults (aged 16–65) lacking functional

xxii



INTRODUCTION

literacy skills, percentage of people living below the income poverty line and rate of long term employment (12 months or more). The Planning Commission (Government of India) has calculated HDI, HPI and Gender Equality Index (GEI) for the Indian States. The parameters for HDI are consumption expenditure (per capita per month), literacy rate for seven years and more, intensity of formal education (estimated), life expectancy at age one and infant mortality rate (IMR). The parameters for HPI are proportion of people living below the poverty line, proportion of population not receiving medical attention at birth, proportion of population living in kutcha houses and of people without access to basic amenities. The GEI is expressed as a proportion of attainment level of females to that of males and instead of per capita monthly expenditure, economic attainments for males and females are captured by taking the respective worker population ratios. The State Level Human Development Reports (SHDRs) are expected to galvanize greater resources for human development priority sectors in the States, and to help improve data systems and reporting practice at the State, district and community levels. So far, twenty-two States are in different stages of preparing SHDRs. These reports can act as powerful tools to initiate widespread dialogue on developmental alternatives for States. They can also be used to support additional funding for the development programmes of States in collaboration with other international donors. So far, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Sikkim, Rajasthan and Maharashtra have released their SHDRs. Tamil Nadu is the sixth State in the Indian Union and the second South Indian State to prepare an SHDR. The Tamil Nadu SHDR is important as it provides insights into the process of development in a State characterized by heavy industrialization, urbanization, better growth rates (marginally ahead of fifteen major States) and poverty levels which are below national average. It is a relatively middle income State (fifth among major States) and boasts of impressive attainments in human development indicators. Further, its gender sensitive policies are also appreciable. In short, Tamil Nadu is a model of a middle income State that has tried to enhance the level of human development through the formulation and implementation of programmes that address the needs of the poor, vulnerable and marginal population of the State. The report not only identifies problem areas, it also assesses the successes of Tamil Nadu, especially in the areas of women’s empowerment and social development. Based upon a candid appreciation of the ground reality, the document highlights the future thrust areas for the government and civil society in the State. This is Tamil Nadu’s first HDR. While this report examines the HDI in Tamil Nadu, it goes beyond the HDI in order to investigate, in greater detail, the overall human development situation in the State. In other words, the report recognizes that the HDI too is ‘limiting’ in the sense that other dimensions of human development such as shelter, social security and decision making etc. which are also important for increasing overall well-being are not necessarily captured by the HDI. The factors specific to Tamil Nadu’s human development achievements are detailed in this report. The report not only serves as a summary of the human development scenario in Tamil Nadu, but also seeks explanations as to why the State has fared well in certain areas but not in others. Factors contributing to human development are disaggregated and analysed at the district level with a view to understanding the regional disparities and the reasons behind them. The report also highlights the policy interventions that are required to correct such imbalances. There is no doubt that in the years to come, the Tamil Nadu HDR will become an important tool in planning for growth, social justice and equity in the State.

TAMIL NADU—A PROFILE



1

Chapter

 1

Tamil Nadu—A Profile

Tamil Nadu, the southern-most State of India, nestles in the Indian peninsula between the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Indian Ocean in the south and the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea on the west. In the north and west, the State adjoins Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala. Tamil Nadu shows rich variety and diversity in its geography and climate with coastal plains co-existing with tropical rain forests, river valleys and hill stations. The eastern extremity of the State is Point Calimere situated at 80˚20’ E longtitude while the western tip is the Mudumalai Sanctuary at 71˚15’ E longtitude. The northern and southern extremities are defined by Pulicat Lake (13˚35’ N latitude) and Cape Comorin in Kanyakumari (8˚5’ N latitude). Traditionally, the State has been divided into five physiographic divisions viz., Kurinji (mountainous area), Mullai (forest), Palai (arid zone), Marudham (fertile region) and Neidhal (coastal area). Apart from the Western Ghats that separate Tamil Nadu from Kerala, the State also has another mountainous chain, the Eastern Ghats that comprise mainly low rocky hills. The main river is the 760 km long Cauvery, which flows along the entire breadth of Tamil Nadu. Other major rivers are the Palar, Pennar, Vaigai and Tamiraparani. This chapter presents an overview of the physical, historical, cultural and economic facets of the State and places it in an appropriate context in relation to human development. A detailed analysis of the various issues is taken up in the chapters that follow.

History Tamil Nadu has a very ancient history which goes back some 6000 years. The State represents Dravidian culture in India which preceded Aryan culture in the country by almost a thousand years. Historians have held that the architects of the Indus Valley Civilization of the fourth century BC were Dravidians and that at a time, anterior to the Aryans, they were spread all over India. With the coming of the Aryans into North India, the Dravidians appear to have been pushed into the south, where they remained confined to Tamil Nadu, with the other southern States such as Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Kerala forming repositories of Dravidian culture. The Tamil country was not subjugated by any external power over any long period of time or over large areas, and was not subjected to the hegemony of Hindu or Muslim kingdoms of North India. The rise of Muslim power in India in the 14th century AD had its impact on the South, however, by and large the region remained unaffected by the political upheavals in North and Central India. The Tamil area, for the most part, has maintained a certain political integrity, while at the same time has not insulated itself from the rest of South India. Tamil Nadu was subject to the rule of four great kingdoms: Cholas, Cheras, Pandyas and Pallavas. The Cholas

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TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

established their supremacy between

AD

100 and 200 and continued their dominance over the Cheras in the

southwest and the Pandyas in the southeast till the 5th century AD. Karikala Chola, who ruled during this period, is credited with the building of large irrigation tanks, based on harnessing the Cauvery through a system of barrages and tanks. The Pallavas came to the fore in the 6th century AD and their domain extended to a considerable part of present day Tamil Nadu. The Pandyas, who re-emerged during this period, held sway in the southeastern part of the State. The Pallava period extended till the 9th century AD and marked a fusion of Aryan elements with Dravidian culture. This period is known for the establishment of a land revenue system and the emergence of an agrarian economy. The Cholas re-emerged in the 9th century

AD,

defeating the Pallavas, and consolidated their empire over the

next four centuries. The Chola period witnessed maritime expeditions to neighbouring Sri Lanka and South East Asian countries and forging of trade and cultural links with these countries. Historians refer to the existence of an elaborate bureaucracy during this period with some autonomy for village level political units. The decline of the Cholas saw a brief period of Muslim rule till the rise of the Vijayanagar rulers, who ruled the Tamil territories through Telugu warrior chiefs or Nayaks and through local Tamil chieftains. Dominant landed groups emerged and the rights of share cropping peasants—which was a feature of Chola rule—suffered erosion. With the decline of the Vijayanagar Empire, the Tamil territories were parcelled out among several petty kings such as the Nayaks of Madurai and Thanjavur who declared themselves independent. This was a period of political, economic and social instability which enabled the British to take full advantage. With the arrival of the East India Company at Madras in 1639, a new chapter was opened in the history of South India and very soon, most of South India came under the hegemony of the British. During the next two centuries, the East India Company gradually extended its influence and obtained possession of the entire area from Cape Comorin to the Northern circars, the Danish station of Tranquebar, the French settlements at Pondicherry and the territories of the five native States1 all of which together came to be called Madras Presidency with its capital city at Madras. The area of the then Madras Presidency was 141,705 sq. miles. With India attaining independence in 1947, the Madras Presidency continued in its original form comprising Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and parts of Kerala. However, the agitation for a separate Andhra State compelled the Government of India to bifurcate the Madras Presidency into Andhra with Telugu speaking areas and Madras with Tamil speaking areas. The old capital, Madras, was retained by the new Madras State. Under the State Reorganization Act of 1956, Madras lost Malabar district and Kasargod taluk, to the newly formed State of Kerala while Madras gained four taluks of Trivandrum district and Shencottah taluk of Quilon district of Kerala. The four taluks gained were constituted as Kanniyakumari district in the new Madras State. The new Mysore (Karnataka) absorbed some parts of the old South Kanara district (excluding Kasargod taluk) and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district in 1960. Four hundred and five sq. miles of Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh was transferred to Madras in exchange for 326 sq. miles from Chengalpattu and Salem districts. The Madras State thus constituted has today an area of 130,000 km and is the fourth largest State in the country. It was renamed as ‘Tamil Nadu’ on 14 January 1967. In the initial years, following the reorganization, Madras State had 13 districts which rose to 14 by 1971. In the 1980s and 1990s, in keeping with the government policy of reducing the size of districts in order to accelerate development, many of the larger districts such as Ramanathapuram, Tirunelveli and Madurai were split into smaller districts. Several other districts were also bifurcated. With the recently formed Ariyalur district (carved out of the old Tiruchirappalli district) in January 2001, the total number of districts in Tamil Nadu stands at 30. The population of Tamil Nadu as per the 2001 Census is 62.11 million, constituting 6.05 per cent of the total 1Travancore,

Cochin, Pudukkottai, Banganepalli and Sandur.

TAMIL NADU—A PROFILE



3

population of India. Wherever feasible, data for 29 districts have been generated and this formed the basis of analysis in the present report.2 Wherever dependable current data are not available for all 29 districts, census data covering the erstwhile 21 districts have been relied upon.

Tamil Language The official language spoken in the State is Tamil, which is one of the oldest languages of India. It has undergone several panoramic changes with significant contributions made by poets, scholars and rulers over several centuries. ‘Tholkappiam’, dating back to the 5th century BC, is a standing monument testifying to the antiquity of the Tamil language. The earliest literature, viz. Sangam poetry, originated in Madurai and reached its zenith in the 2nd century. Poetry and literature flourished for almost three centuries during the Sangam age. Sangam literature is remarkable for its high literary quality and sophistication. The best known work of this age is ‘Thirukkural’ (couplets providing philosophy and guidelines for a righteous living), written by Saint Thiruvalluvar, which is relevant even today. ‘Silapathikaram’ (written by Elango Adikal, son of a Chera King in the 2nd or 3rd century AD) and ‘Manimegalai’ are two major classics. Other great poets of this age were the Nayanmars and the Alwars. Kambar, who composed a Tamil version of Ramayana, lived during this time. The then rulers nurtured the Tamil language, fostering its growth and development. Tamil is the medium of instruction in educational institutions and is widely used in the conduct of government business in the State. However, it is worth noting that people in Tamil Nadu have also learnt other languages by osmosis and acculturation.

Art, Architecture and Culture The dynasties which ruled ancient Tamil Nadu have left behind a rich heritage of art, architecture and culture. Prominent among them are the Cholas who built the Grand Anicut across the Cauvery river in the 2nd century AD, a work that is even today considered an engineering marvel. Poompuhar, a port of the Chola empire, built over 2000 years ago points to bustling trade links with South East Asian kingdoms. The Pallavas, who ruled between the 6th and 8th century AD with Kancheepuram as their headquarters, gave expression to art and architecture through their magnificent temples and temple carvings. The Pandyas of Madurai and the later Cholas also left behind impressive monuments, particularly temples with intricate Gopuras and carvings. The temples were not only places of worship but also served as centres of learning. Subsequent inroads from the North by the Vijayanagar kings further enriched the architectural scene. Tamil Nadu also has a rich cultural heritage in other areas. Dance forms such as Bharathanatyam and various forms of music including Carnatic music have flourished here for centuries. Handicrafts include intricately carved designs in wood, stone and metal. The exquisitely carved bronze and Tanjore plates deserve special mention here. Modern day social reformers and freedom fighters such as Subramanya Bharathi, V.V. Subramania Iyer, V.O. Chidambaram Pillai and Periyar E.V. Ramasamy Naicker also left their indelible mark on the cultural fabric of Tamil Nadu.

Population Trends According to the 2001 Census, the State’s population is approximately 62 million as opposed to 55.9 million in 1991. The sex ratio works out to 986 in 2001 as compared to 974 in 1991 and 977 in 1981 (Table 1.1). The decadal (1991–2001) growth rate is 11.19 per cent. The density of population in Tamil Nadu, a true indicator of population distribution, is 478 persons per sq. km in 2001, as against 429 in 1991 and 372 in 1981. Tamil Nadu is today the 2No

data are available for Ariyalur district.



TAMIL NADU—A PROFILE

5

most urbanized State in the country with 42 per cent of its population living in urban areas.3 Tamil Nadu’s slum population was estimated in 1993–4 to be 3.13 million which is 16.5 per cent of the total urban population of the State. More than 30 per cent of Chennai’s population lives in slums and 50 per cent of these are in dense slum areas. TABLE 1.1—BASIC DEMOGRAPHIC INDICATORS S.no. Indicators

1971

1981

1991

1997

2001 (Provisional)

1.

Population (Million)

41.2

48.2

55.9

60.0

2.

Decennial growth (%)

22.3

17.5

15.4

7.5

62.1 11.2

3.

Density of population per sq. km

317.0

372.0

429.0

462.0

478.0

4.

Urban population (%)

5.

Sex ratio

6.

Percentage of 0–14 years old

30.3

33.0

34.2

36.8

43.9

978.0

977.0

974.0

975.0

986.0

37.8

35.0

30.9

30.3

NA

Note: NA—Not Available. Source: Registrar General of India, Census Documents 1971, 1981,1991, 2001 (Provisional).

Table 1.1 shows that children below the age of 15 constituted 30.3 per cent of the population in 1997. It also shows that the dependency load in the State is high which may adversely affect capital formation of the economy. The scheduled castes (SCs) constitute a higher percentage of the population in Tamil Nadu (19.18 per cent in 1991 as against 18.3 per cent in 1981) compared to that for the country as a whole (16.3 per cent in 1991 and 15.7 per cent in 1991). However, Tamil Nadu has a much lower percentage of scheduled tribes (STs)—1 per cent in 1991 as against the all-India average of 8 per cent.

Economy Agriculture Agriculture has been the mainstay of the State economy since independence with more than 65 per cent of the population depending on this sector for a living. There are strong links between agriculture and economic growth. Agriculture spurs demand for inputs such as fertilizers, pesticides and machinery, and on the supply side it provides raw material for agro-based industries such as cotton textiles, sugar and vegetable oils. With increase in incomes, the increase in expenditure of rural households results in a higher demand for consumer goods including clothing, sugar and edible oils. However, in the process of development, the share of agriculture in the net State domestic product (NSDP) gradually declines due to higher productivity and production in the non-agricultural sectors. In Tamil Nadu, the contribution of agriculture (inclusive of crop, livestock, fisheries and forestry) to NSDP has been declining over the last few decades (Table 1.2). Whereas agriculture accounted for 53.27 per cent of NSDP in 1950–1, it accounts for only 16.65 per cent in 2001–02. On the other hand, the share of the secondary and tertiary sectors has increased from 13.72 per cent and 33 per cent, respectively in 1950–1 to 34.04 per cent and 49.31 per cent in 2001– 02 (Table 1.2). There was a decline in the primary sector at the national level from 49 per cent to 27.5 per cent during the same period. 3In

1991, the urban population in Tamil Nadu constituted 34.15 per cent of the total population and Tamil Nadu was the third most

urbanized State after Maharashtra and Gujarat. The large increase in the urban population is mostly due to re-classification of rural areas as urban areas.

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TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

TABLE 1.2—SECTORAL DISTRIBUTION OF NET STATE DOMESTIC PRODUCT Year

Primary

Secondary

Tertiary

Total

1950–51 1960–61 1970–71 1980–81 1990–91 2001–02*

53.27 51.98 39.86 24.85 22.20 16.65

13.72 17.98 26.12 34.49 34.53 34.04

33.01 30.42 34.02 40.66 43.27 49.31

100 100 100 100 100 100

Note: *at 1993–94 prices. Sources: 1. GoTN (Government of Tamil Nadu), 8th Plan Document. 2. Department of Economics and Statistics.

The relatively greater decline in the State is to be ascribed to the lack of sustained growth in agriculture. The growth of the agriculture sector in the 1990s was 3.95 per cent as against 5.3 per cent in the 1980s. On the other hand, the annual growth rates in the manufacturing and tertiary sectors improved from 4.52 per cent and 6.72 per cent in the 1980s to 5.35 per cent and 7.12 per cent in the 1990s. Some important features and possible long-term constraints of Tamil Nadu’s agriculture are: (a) its dependence on the spatial and temporal distribution of the monsoon, (b) the fact that 95 per cent of surface water and 70 per cent of ground water has already been exploited, and (c) the growing pressure on land. Although the net sown area as a percentage of total geographical area is more or less the same as the all-India average, the irrigation intensity and cropping intensity are higher in the State. The shortage of water resources results, on an average, in about 12 to 16 per cent of the gross cropped area remaining fallow every year. The scope for bringing additional area under irrigation has become not only limited but also prohibitive in terms of cost. Promotion of appropriate technology and development strategies in dryland and rainfed areas would result in multiple benefits: ensuring food security; increasing income of small and marginal farmers; enhancing viability of farming and restoring ecological balance. In order to accelerate wastelands development, a Wasteland Development Programme was launched during 1999–2000. The aim is to convert wastelands into farming lands through a package of practices yielding adequate returns, particularly to small and marginal farmers. Efficient water harvesting and conservation methods and suitable technology and irrigation packages based on a watershed approach should alter the cereal-based farming system and increase the productivity of land. While efforts are being made to improve productivity, including evolving drought resistant varieties of pulses and coarse cereals (grown predominantly in these areas), diversification has become a necessity as the production of these foodgrains alone cannot support economic development. Diversification in agriculture ought to be achieved across sub-sectors as well as within each subsector such as horticulture, fisheries, livestock and dairy development.

Industry Tamil Nadu is among the most industrialized States in India today. The State ranks next to Maharashtra in terms of the contribution of the manufacturing sector to NSDP. The major industries are automobiles, cotton, textiles, rubber, food products, machinery, transport equipment and leather and leather goods. During the 1980s, the average growth of the industrial sector was 4.52 per cent while during the 1990s the average growth rate increased to 5.35 per cent. However, the industrial growth rate fluctuated significantly from year to year registering growth rates as high as 16 per cent in 1983–4 and as low as -7.4 per cent in 1991–2. Growth rates should become sustained in the future given current policy initiatives. The Government of Tamil Nadu has followed and is following a very liberal and pragmatic industrial policy

TAMIL NADU—A PROFILE



7

which has created a conducive industrial climate in the State. The success achieved so far is also due to the fact that the State Government has been focussing on strengthening its industrial and social infrastructure in terms of power generation, communication networks and development of minor ports. Evidence already exists that things are looking up for Tamil Nadu. The State is rapidly attracting a large number of foreign and domestic investors to locate their production facilities in Tamil Nadu. According to a report by the Centre for Monitoring the Indian Economy (CMIE), Tamil Nadu stands third in terms of foreign direct investment (FDI) approval. The FDI approval was of the order of 2351 billion in August 2002. This is 8.32 per cent of the total FDI in the country. More than 50 per cent of the investment is for the development of infrastructural facilities of which more than 50 per cent is for power generation. Tamil Nadu was also rated by CMIE as the second best State in the country in terms of the quality of infrastructural facilities. Tamil Nadu also has been at the forefront in attracting foreign investment into the local information technology (IT) industry. In 1998, the State announced an industry friendly IT Policy, and set up an IT task force to monitor its implementation. The software exports have zoomed from almost nothing to over US $ 1 billion in 2001–02. The Chief Minister announced the new IT Policy, 2002 on 19 September 2002, designed to establish the State as the ‘Destination of Choice’ for information technology (IT) investments and to develop the State as a global centre for business process outsourcing (BPO). Besides promoting e-governance and IT applications in Government and introducing electronic delivery of services (EDS), the digital divide will be bridged by accelerating internet penetration in rural areas, setting up of kiosks and online libraries and a bilingual internet portal with links to State Government Departments and Services.

Growth, Income and Poverty The all-round development of the State over the last five decades can be seen from the increased contribution from the industries (secondary) and services (tertiary) sectors to the real income of the State’s economy. Tamil Nadu’s performance during the different Plan periods compared to the performance of the country as a whole (at constant prices) shows that the rate of growth of the State’s economy has been marginally higher than that of the country during the First and Fourth Plans, Fifth to Seventh Plans and in the first three years of the Ninth Plan, and marginally lower than that of the country during the Second, Third and Eighth Plan periods (Table 1.3). Tamil Nadu’s NSDP growth rate was 6.3 per cent per annum during the 1990s, ahead of the NSDP growth rate of 5.99 per cent of the 15 major States in the country. TABLE 1.3—ANNUAL GROWTH RATE AT 1980–1 PRICES, TAMIL NADU AND INDIA (Percentage) Plan Period First Plan Second Plan Third Plan Fourth Plan Fifth Plan Sixth Plan Seventh Plan Eighth Plan Ninth Plan

Tamil Nadu 4.45 2.90 1.58 3.40 7.00 6.01 4.94 5.97 5.46*

India 3.6 4.0 2.2 3.3 5.2 5.2 5.8 6.8 5.34*

Note: *at 1993–4 prices, DOES. Sources: 1. TN at Fifty—A Statistical Compendium, Department of Economics and Statistics (DOES). 2. TN Ninth Plan Document. 3. Government of India (GOI), Five Year Plan documents VI, VII, VII, IX & X.

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TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

An attempt by the Department of Economics and Statistics (DOES) to work out the growth rate of domestic product at the district level for the period 1993–4 to 1996–7 showed wide variations, from 4.38 per cent in Thanjavur to 10.66 per cent in Madurai with only three districts (Kancheepuram, Erode and Madurai) registering a growth rate of over 10 per cent.

Per Capita Income Tamil Nadu’s per capita income was below the national average during the 1980s but crossed the all-India average marginally in 1991–2. Ever since the early 1990s this higher per capita income has been maintained. Tamil Nadu ranks fourth among major States in terms of per capita income. Tamil Nadu’s per capita income (at current prices) was Rs 19,889 in 2000–01. Maharashtra, Punjab and Haryana are the three States which have per capita income higher than Tamil Nadu. Among the southern States, Tamil Nadu’s per capita income was higher than that of Kerala (Rs 19,463), Karnataka (Rs 18,041) and Andhra Pradesh (Rs 16,373).

Poverty Levels The estimates of poverty made by the Union Planning Commission in 1999–2000 show that 21.12 per cent of the State’s population lives below the poverty line, this is less than the all-India average of 26.10 per cent.4 The percentage of population below the poverty line in Tamil Nadu in 1973–4 was 56.51 per cent indicating a decline by 35.39 percentage points during this time period. Moreover, in 1973–4, the population below the poverty line was higher than the all-India average of 54.93 per cent and Tamil Nadu was sixth among major States in terms of below the poverty line population. If the above indicators are disaggregated and analysed on a micro level, it becomes obvious that sharp differences between rural and urban areas as as well as among various geographical regions will emerge. While micro-level data are available for several indicators such as health and literacy levels, other indicators have not been analysed at the micro-level. Further, there does not appear to be any direct correlation between some of the social economic indices. For example, Kanniyakumari with a high literacy level and low birth rates on par with Kerala, shows an exceptionally high figure of 48 per cent of people below the poverty line. In fact seven districts (Vellore, Tiruvannamalai, Cuddalore, Salem, Dindigul, Thoothukudi and Kanniyakumari) have higher poverty levels as compared to the State average (31.66 per cent as per NSS data for 1993–4).

Social Sector Health Comparison of some major health indicators of Tamil Nadu with All India figures shows that the State has made impressive strides. Tamil Nadu has shown, over the last two decades, faster reduction in population growth rate as compared to all other States except Kerala. The annual population growth rate during 1981–91 was 2.14 per cent for All India, while it was 1.43 per cent for Tamil Nadu, second only to Kerala (1.34 per cent). For health indicators such as life expectancy, total fertility rate (TFR) etc. there are often two data sets, at the national and State levels. Both of these have been presented here, when deemed useful, to give comparative figures. Life expectancy at birth indicates the quality of health care in the State. The vital events survey (VES) for the reference year 1997, conducted by the Tamil Nadu Danish International Development Assistance (DANIDA) Health Care 4There

have been doubts raised over the recall methodology adopted by the 55th Round of NSS. There are some who feel that the head

count ratios have been underestimated because of this methodology.

TAMIL NADU—A PROFILE



9

Project (TNHCP), revealed that LEB, which was 41.09 years for males in 1959–60, rose to 64.91 years in 1997 and for females from 38.24 years to 68.85 years during the same period. The sample registration system (SRS) estimates for the year 1997–2001 ranked Tamil Nadu’s LEB (65.2 for males and 67.6 for females) next only to Kerala, Maharashtra and Punjab. The crude birth rate (CBR) for the State declined from 31.4 in 1971 to 19.3 in 2000 (SRS), and was second only to Kerala (18.2). The crude death rate (CDR) declined from 14.4 in 1971 to 7.9 in 2000 (SRS) and the State ranks eighth in the country in this respect. FIG. 1.1—TOTAL FERTILITY RATE (MAJOR STATES) 4 3.5

Total Fertility Rate

3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5

Tamil Nadu

Kerala

Karnataka

Andhra Pradesh

Maharashtra

Gujarat

Assam

West Bengal

Orissa

Bihar

Uttar Pradesh

Madhya Pradesh

Rajasthan

Punjab

Haryana

India

0

States Source: National Family Health Survey-2 (1998–9)

The TFR for Tamil Nadu has shown a sharp decline from 3.9 in 1971 to 2.0 in 1997 (SRS). The VES for 1997 also indicates a TFR of 2.0. However the recent National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2) 1998–9 data show Tamil Nadu’s TFR to be 2.48 (Figure 1.1), next only to Kerala (2.0). Significantly, NFHS-2 shows an increase in TFR for Kerala also from 1.8 in 1997 (SRS) to 2.0 in 1998–9. With respect to IMR, the State has made rapid progress. The IMR has been reduced from 113 in 1971 to 48.2 in 1998–9 (Figure 1.2). The NFHS-2 survey shows that the State stands fifth among major States in IMR with Kerala maintaining the lead (16.3) and Maharashtra (43.7) replacing Punjab as the State with the second lowest IMR. However, perinatal mortality decline has not been very significant, from 55.2 in 1971 to 43.4 in 1997 (as per SRS), while the corresponding figures for Kerala and India in 1997 were 17.5 and 43.2, respectively. The State’s policy of ‘Health for All by the Year 2000’—which had as its objectives immunization against infectious diseases and control of endemic diseases, provision of maternal and child care, and provision of drugs (to mention but a few)—had a positive impact (but was not solely responsible) for the creditable achievements in the health sector. The NFHS-2 survey reveals that in antenatal care, Tamil Nadu is a close second to Kerala in providing all the six summary indicators of antenatal care. In post-natal care, NFHS-2 survey results show that

10



TAMIL NADU HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT

FIG. 1.2—INFANT MORTALITY RATE (MAJOR STATES) 90 80

Infant Mortality

70 60 50 40 30 20

Tamil Nadu

Kerala

Karnataka

Andhra Pradesh

Maharashtra

Gujarat

Assam

West Bengal

Orissa

Bihar

Madhya Pradesh

Punjab

Rajasthan

Haryana

India

0

Uttar Pradesh

10

States Source: National Family Health Survey-2 (1998–9)

Tamil Nadu, with 53 per cent of non-institutional deliveries with a post-partum check-up within two months of birth and 10 per cent within two days, tops the list of States with respect to both post-natal care indicators. The State also ranks third in delivery care indicators, as surveyed by NFHS-2. These achievements are quite creditable and partly due to the government’s policy of adopting the primary health care approach to provide free, curative and preventive health services to large sections of the population. However, some areas of concern still remain such as infant and maternal morbidity and mortality, and control of communicable and noncommunicable diseases.

Literacy and Education Tamil Nadu’s human development achievements have been largely a result of its strong educational heritage. Even in the early years, when the State was Madras Presidency, education was actively pursued and promoted (see Box 1.1). The results of this are evident in the post-independence period as well.

Box 1.1—Education in Early Years of Madras Presidency Government enquiry into the State of education in Madras Presidency, initiated by Sir Thomas Munro in 1822, showed that there was approximately one school per thousand population and that the number of boys taught was one-fourth of the total school age population. It also showed that the instruction imparted in these indigeneous institutions was of little practical value tending to burden the memory rather than to train the intellect. A board was, therefore, appointed to organize a system of public instruction, and an annual grant of Rs 50,000 was sanctioned for the establishment of schools. In 1826, 14 collectorate and 81 taluk schools, with a central school at Madras, were opened. In 1836, this scheme

TAMIL NADU—A PROFILE



11

was pronounced a failure and the schools were abolished as inefficient. In 1840, a University Board was constituted by Lord Ellenborough’s Government to organize and establish a central school and a few provincial schools. In 1841, the central school was converted into a high school; in 1853, a college department was added to it and later it developed into the Presidency College. In 1854, the Court of Directors issued its memorable dispatch regarding education. Thereupon the Department of Education, with the Directorate of Public Instruction and its inspecting staff was organized; the so-called Madras University was re-modelled and designated the Presidency College; a normal school was established; zilla or district schools were opened; and the grant-in-aid system was introduced. While in 1853 there were 460 educational institutions with 14,900 pupils, by 1904 this number had risen to 26,771 with 784,000 pupils. Source: Madras Gazetter (M. Francis).

The literacy rate of the State has been increasing progressively over the years. As per the 2001 Census, the literacy rate stands at 73.47 per cent, next only to Kerala and Maharashtra and far higher than the all-India level of 65.38 per cent. The State Government in its endeavour for ‘Universalization of Primary Education’ has invested considerably in education infrastructure, especially in rural areas. The combined gross enrolment rate in the State for the year 1998–9 was 83.15 per cent. At the primary level, the gross enrolment of boys is 106.37 per cent and that of girls 104.01 per cent. The results of the NFHS-2 (1998–9) show that the median number of years of schooling for Tamil Nadu is 6.4 years as against the all-India figure of 5.5 years, which is a close third to Kerala (8.1) and Maharashtra (7.1) (Figure 1.3).

FIG. 1.3—EDUCATIONAL LEVEL (MAJOR STATES)

Median number of years of schooling

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

States Source: National Family Health Survey-2 (1998–99)

Tamil Nadu

Kerala

Karnataka

Andhra Pradesh

Maharashtra

Gujarat

Assam

West Bengal

Orissa

Bihar

Uttar Pradesh

Madhya Pradesh

Rajasthan

Punjab

Haryana

0

India

1

12



TAMIL NADU HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT

Tamil Nadu is the first State in the country to provide computer education in all government higher secondary and high schools. Over 100,000 students have benefitted from this innovative scheme. The State is also a pioneer in providing multi-skilled training through vocational education to improve the quality of secondary education. In the field of higher education, self-financing institutions, polytechnics, industrial training institutes and arts and science colleges have been encouraged so that the State’s burden in providing higher education is considerably reduced.

STATUS OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN TAMIL NADU



13

Chapter

 2

Status of Human Development in Tamil Nadu

As mentioned at the outset of this report, the UNDP’s HDI serves as a broad-based benchmark of human development if not as a comprehensive indicator of the overall state of human development (Box 2.1). It would, after all, be of interest to know how the quality of life as measured by the three indicators of the HDI, namely longevity of life, education and command over resources (income) been enhanced in Tamil Nadu and its districts due to developmental activities. Human development indicators (HDI and GDI) will, moreover, help the State to integrate human development concerns into its development strategy. Also, one of the main considerations for adopting the UNDP methodology to construct the HDI is to facilitate comparison of human development in Tamil Nadu with other States in India, and other developing and developed countries. Similarly, the GDI will help examine Tamil Nadu’s achievements in terms of gender equality in a comparative framework. This chapter is, therefore, a background to the wider discussion on human development that follows.

Human Development Index Box 2.1—State of Human Development The HDI value ranges from 0 to 1 and the value for a country shows the distance that it has to travel to reach the maximum possible value of 1—or its shortfall—and also allows inter-country comparisons. Of the 174 countries, for which the HDI was constructed this year, 46 are in the high human development category (with an HDI value equal to or more than 0.800), 93 in the medium human development category (0.500–0.790) and 35 in the low human development category (less than 0.500). Source: UNDP, 2000.

Human Development Index—Tamil Nadu in the South Asian and Indian Context Tamil Nadu’s HDI (2001) was 0.657 as compared to 0.571 for India as a whole.1 The global HDI ranks were 116 and 132, respectively. Tamil Nadu is also placed well in the South Asian context. It fares better than countries 1The

following data were used to construct Tamil Nadu’s HDI: district-wise income estimates (new series at 1993–4 prices) for the year

1998–9, estimated by DOES; LEB for the year 1997 calculated by the VES conducted by DANIDA Health Project; literacy rates for 2001; and combined gross enrolment ratios for 1998–9.

14



TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

such as Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh with HDI values of 0.508, 0.463, 0.454 and 0.440 respectively and global HDI ranks of 138, 144, 145 and 150. Only the Maldives and Sri Lanka with HDI values of 0.716 and 0.721, respectively fared better. Their HDI ranks in the world were 93 and 90. Tamil Nadu’s good performance (medium human development rank) and its placement well above the allIndia average can be better understood if the HDI is disaggregated. The State’s per capita income is above the national average and it occupies fifth place in the ranking of 15 major States in India. Tamil Nadu has the second lowest fertility rate next only to Kerala. Life expectancy at birth for males and females was 64.85 and 65.20, respectively. The literacy rate has been increasing over the years and reached the level of 73.47 per cent in 2001, next only to Kerala and Maharashtra. The National HDR prepared by the Planning Commission, Government of India, places Tamil Nadu at the third position with an HDI value of 0.531 among 15 major States.2 Specific data, on each of the indicators such as LEB, literacy and income suggest, however, that while Tamil Nadu is placed well above the all-India average, it still lags behind some States. For example, Kerala is well ahead of Tamil Nadu in literacy and LEB while Maharashtra is ahead in LEB and income. Therefore, Tamil Nadu’s focus in the next decade should be to reach the levels attained by Kerala in health and educational attainment, while aiming at increasing the levels of SDP to those of Punjab or Maharashtra in order to reduce poverty and inequality.

Human Development Index—Inter-district Variations An HDI has been constructed for 29 districts in the State using the UNDP methodology. As indicated above, the HDI for the State is 0.657 (Table 2.2). This value varies from 0.757 to 0.584 at the district level. Chennai district takes the top position while Dharmapuri is placed at the bottom. The high per capita income of Chennai has considerably influenced its HDI value. Chennai’s literacy rate and life expectancy are also fairly high. However, this district cannot be a representative district for Tamil Nadu because of its urban character. The gap between the HDI value of Chennai, the first ranked district and Kanniyakumari, the second ranked district is substantial (0.045). In the case of other districts, the gap in achievement is not very wide. Eleven districts have an HDI value above the State HDI value. An attempt has also been made to present an overview of the status of human development in the districts with respect to each of the indicators separately. The best performing five districts and the least performing five districts have also been identified (see Table 2.1). Chennai is the only district, which figures among the top five districts in the State in all the human development indicators considered for computing the indices. Next comes Kanniyakumari in literacy, enrolment ratio and longevity, followed by Thoothukudi in literacy and enrolment ratio, Coimbatore in per capita income and longevity, the Nilgiris in literacy and longevity and Kancheepuram in per capita income and longevity. Dharmapuri ranks the lowest in literacy rate, gross enrolment ratio (GER) and longevity and Villupuram in per capita income. A closer examination of the level of achievement in the three indicators of human development reveals some insights into their inter-relationship. The importance of income for achieving higher standards of living is well known. Income gives people the ability to buy goods and services, that is as income increases it widens the range of consumption options. Nonetheless, high literacy and health can be achieved even with low per capita income. Kanniyakumari is a typical example of this category. Similarly, the reverse is also true. For example, even though per capita income is relatively high in Salem and Perambalur districts, their performance in literacy and health is relatively low. 2The

parameters used by the NHDR for calculating the HDI are longevity, education and command over resources. The HDI rank for Tamil

Nadu was seventh in 1981, it moved up to third rank in 1991 and 2001.

STATUS OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN TAMIL NADU



15

TABLE 2.1—TOP AND BOTTOM FIVE DISTRICTS IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS Indicators Per capita Income

Literacy Rate

Combined Gross Enrolment Ratio

Life Expectancy at Birth

Top 5

Bottom 5

Kancheepuram

Thanjavur

Chennai

Tiruvarur

Coimbatore

Sivagangai

Madurai

T.V. Malai

Thoothukudi

Villupuram

Kanniyakumari

Perambalur

Chennai

Erode

Thoothukudi

Salem

Trichy

Villupuram

Madurai

Dharmapuri

Chennai

Virudhunagar

Thoothukudi

Kancheepuram

Madurai

Pudukottai

Kanniyakumari

Villupuram

Theni

Dharmapuri

Chennai

Thanjavur

Kanniyakumari

Theni

Coimbatore

Madurai

Kancheepuram

Perambalur

Nilgiris

Dharmapuri

Similar phenomena are observed at the State level also. The per capita income of States like Maharashtra and Punjab is fairly high, but these States have not made significant progress in the social sector—literacy and health— whereas Kerala with a relatively low per capita income has made rapid strides in human development. The point to note is, therefore, that: enhancing income levels of the people is no doubt necessary but it must be ensured that the increased income is used by the people for improving their literacy and health status. Accessibility and affordability of education and health services for the people is crucial for States to improve their level of human development.

Gender Development Index Gender Development Index—Inter-district Variations The GDI is a summary measure which has been found to be useful in comparing stages of gender development. It is also useful to compare GDIs and HDIs to assess the extent of gender equality. The GDI (2001) for Tamil Nadu is 0.654 as against the all-India value of 0.560 (HDR 2002).3 This shows that Tamil Nadu’s achievement in gender equality is better than that in the country as a whole. Gender Development Index values for the districts in Tamil Nadu vary from 0.766 to 0.582 (Table 2.2). Once again, Chennai fares the best and Dharmapuri (and Villupuram) the worst. The other districts which fare well are Kanniyakumari, Thoothukudi, Kancheepuram and Coimbatore—the same districts which fare well with regard to the HDI. Table 2.3 gives the top and bottom five rankings of districts for the various components of GDI for 1991. 3India’s

GDI, like its HDI, has not been recalculated using the literacy rates for 2001. In that sense, it is not strictly comparable with Tamil

Nadu’s GDI for 2001.

16



TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

Chennai district ranks first in women’s per capita income, combined GER and LEB and second in literacy rate. Women’s position was the lowest in Dharmapuri district in terms of literacy rate, enrolment ratio and LEB. Villupuram district is also one among the lowest five in per capita income, literacy rate and enrolment ratio. TABLE 2.2—DISTRICT-WISE HDI AND GDI VALUES, 2001 District

HDI value

GDI value

Chennai

0.757

0.766

Kancheepuram

0.712

0.710

Thiruvallur

0.654

0.651

Cuddalore

0.644

0.643

Villupuram

0.587

0.582

Vellore

0.658

0.655

Tiruvannamalai

0.612

0.608

Salem

0.626

0.625

Namakkal

0.636

0.631

Dharmapuri

0.584

0.582

Erode

0.658

0.656

Coimbatore

0.699

0.697

Nilgiris

0.685

0.686

Tiruchirapalli

0.671

0.671

Karur

0.647

0.641

Perambalur

0.596

0.592

Thanjavur

0.630

0.629

Nagapattinam

0.654

0.652

Tiruvarur

0.637

0.633

Pudukkottai

0.618

0.615

Madurai

0.661

0.661

Theni

0.628

0.628

Dindigul

0.641

0.638

Ramanathapuram

0.629

0.626

Virudhunagar

0.651

0.649

Sivagangai

0.640

0.635

Tirunelveli

0.658

0.656

Thoothukudi

0.703

0.703

Kanniyakumari

0.711

0.708

STATE

0.657

0.654

INDIA

0.571

0.553

Links between HDI and GDI It is interesting to note that there is not much divergence between human development values and gender development values at the State or district levels. If the GDI rank is less than the HDI rank in a district, it shows that women in the district suffer lower achievement than men. If the GDI and HDI ranks are the same in a district, it is indicative of gender equality in human development. Table 2.2 gives the HDI and GDI values for 2001 for all the districts in the State. As the table illustrates, there is little variation between the HDI and GDI.

STATUS OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN TAMIL NADU



17

TABLE 2.3—TOP AND BOTTOM FIVE DISTRICTS IN GENDER DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS Indicators

Top 5

Bottom 5

Female

Female

Per capita Income

Chennai Kancheepuram Coimbatore Madurai Thoothukudi

Thanjavur Thiruvarur Sivaganga T.V. Malai Villupuram

Literacy Rate

Kanniyakumari Chennai Thoothukudi Nilgiris Trichy

Salem Villupuram Perambalur T.V. Malai Dharmapuri

Combined Gross Enrolment Ratio

Chennai Madurai Kanniyakumari Thoothukudi Vellore

Thiruvallur Salem Villupuram Kancheepuram Dharmapuri

Life Expectancy at birth

Chennai Kanniyakumari Nilgiris Kancheepuram Erode

Dindigul Theni Madurai Perambalur Dharmapuri

Classification of Districts For the purpose of convenient and meaningful analysis, the HDI and GDI values of the districts have been divided into three categories, that is high, medium and low. To explain further, if A and D denote the highest and lowest values of the indices, then B and C were obtained as arithmetic mean values of the indices for the districts falling respectively above and below the arithmetic mean of the values of the Districts X. The three categories, thus arrived at, are constituted by the districts falling between (1) A and B, (2) B and C and (3) C and D. This procedure for dividing districts into three categories has been followed for HDI and GDI values. Thus, all the districts were divided into three point scale viz., high (H), medium (M) and low (L) according to the levels of human/gender developmen. The same districts fare well in terms of both HDI and GDI. The high faring districts include Chennai, Kanniyakumari, Thoothukudi, Kancheepuram, Coimbatore and the Nilgiris. The low faring districts include Pudukkottai, Tiruvannamalai (T.V. Malai), Villupuram and Dharmapuri. All the other districts, that is 19 in number, are classified as medium. Some of these are Thiruvallur, Cuddalore, Trichy, Madurai, Tirunelveli, Erode, Vellore, Theni, Salem, Thanjavur, Dindugul and Namakkal. TABLE 2.4—COMPARISON OF DISTRICTS Districts GDI rank less than HDI rank

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Cuddalore(-1) Vellore (-1) Perambalur (-1) Madurai (-1) Theni (-1)

GDI rank equal to HDI rank

1. Chennai 2. Kancheepuram (Contd...)

18



TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

(Table 2.4 Contd.) Districts

GDI rank greater than HDI rank

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

Thiruvallur Villupuram T.V. Malai Dharmapuri Coimbatore Nilgiris Trichy Karur Thanjavur Nagapattinam Pudukottai Ramnad Virudhunagar Thoothukudi Kanniyakumari

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Salem (1) Namakkal (1) Erode (1) Thiruvarur (1) Dindigul (1) Sivagangai (1) Tirunelveli (1)

Note: The figures in brackets indicate GDI rank minus HDI rank.

Thus, this chapter concludes by reiterating that the underlying premise behind the concept of human development is that higher income is not an end in itself. What is important is what use a country or a State can put this increased income to, so as to improve the overall condition of its people. It can be seen from Table 2.5 that 14 districts have an HDI rank higher than the per capita GDP rank, implying that in these districts higher income has been converted into human development very effectively. Fifteen districts have an HDI rank lower than per capita GDP and in these districts the income generated has not been utilized fully for enhancing human development. TABLE 2.5—COMPARISON BETWEEN DISTRICT GDP AND DISTRICT HDI Districts with HDI rank lower than GDP per capita rank 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Dharmapuri Erode Coimbatore Perambalur Pudukkottai Madurai Dindigul Kancheepuram Vellore Salem Namakkal Virudhunagar Karur Theni Ramanathapuram

Districts with HDI rank higher than GDP per capita rank 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Chennai Thiruvallur Cuddalore Villupuram T.V.Malai Nilgiris Trichy Thanjavur Nagapattinam Tiruvarur Sivagangai Tirunelveli Thoothukudi Kanniyakumari

EMPLOYMENT, INCOME AND POVERTY



19

Chapter

 3

Employment, Income and Poverty

The proportion of the population engaged in productive work, the quality of employment and the renumeration received by the working population are important determinants of human development. A lack of adequate opportunity for gainful employment results in lowering of income levels which in turn pushes people into poverty. Thus, there is a close relationship between employment, income and poverty. Moreover, economic development is invariably associated with structural changes in GDP (income) and employment. A characteristic feature of a developing economy is a declining trend in the share of the primary sector in GDP. In the process of diversification of the economy, one would expect a shift in the share of workers from the primary sector to the secondary and tertiary sectors. An analysis of the trends in the sectoral shares in income and employment in Tamil Nadu shows that though there has been a decline in the share of the primary sector in income, this has not been accompanied by a significant shift in the share of employment. Consequently, a very sizeable section of the labour force (nearly 50 per cent) continues to depend on the primary sector. The average income of persons depending on the agricultural sector is considerably less than that of those working in the secondary and tertiary sectors. The prevalence of poverty in rural areas is widespread mainly due to the low productivity of workers in the agricultural sector and the seasonal nature of employment. In order to understand better the linkages between employment, income and poverty, this chapter undertakes a detailed analysis of the employment situation and structural changes which have taken place over time in the State.

Employment Size of the Workforce and Work Participation Rates The working population in Tamil Nadu was 27.8 million in 2001, an increase of approximately 3.6 million from the 24.2 million in 1991. As can be seen from Table 3.1, however, the work participation rate (WPR), that is the proportion of workers to the total population, has actually declined during the period 1961–2001 from 45.7 to 44.8 per cent. Having said that, there has been an upward trend between 1981 and 2001, from 41.7 per cent to 44.8 per cent. Nonetheless, what is worrisome about the 2001 Census results is that the number of marginal workers has gone up from 1.4 million in 1991 to 4.1 million in 2001. This suggests that the increase in WPR during this time

20



TAMIL NADU HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT

TABLE 3.1—TOTAL WORKERS AND NON-WORKERS IN TAMIL NADU (million) Category Workers (i) Main (ii) Marginal

1961

%

1981

%

1991

%

2001

%

15.4

45.7

20.2

41.7

24.2

43.3

27.8

44.76





19.0

39.2

22.8

40.8

23.6

38.00





1.2

2.5

1.4

2.5

Non-workers

18.3

54.3

28.3

58.4

31.7

56.7

34.2

4.12

55.06

6.63

Population

33.7

100.0

48.5

100.0

55.9

100.0

62.11

100.00

Sources: Census 1961, 1981, 1991 and 2001.

period is largely accounted for by an increase in marginal workers as opposed to main workers. The number of main workers has only risen from 22.8 million to 23.7 million, by less than a million. The WPR for 2001 was 58.96 per cent for men and 31.32 per cent for women. In 2001, Tamil Nadu had the highest WPR for men, 58.05 per cent (Table 3.2). The All-India figure was 51.93 per cent. The WPR for women at 31.32 per cent, was also substantially higher than that for many States and All India (25.68 per cent). TABLE 3.2—TAMIL NADU WPR AND NUMBER OF WORKERS Rural/ Urban

Rural Male Female Persons Urban Male Female Persons Total Male Female Persons

WPR (%)

Workers (million)

1981

1991

2001

1981

1991

2001

59.24 33.55 46.48

58.28 38.50 48.49

59.38 41.33 50.39

9.67 5.41 15.08

10.82 7.01 17.83

10.40 7.18 17.58

51.25 11.97 32.05

52.78 13.10 33.34

56.37 18.42 37.59

4.18 .93 5.11

5.14 1.22 6.36

7.76 2.48 10.24

56.58 26.52 41.73

56.39 29.89 43.31

58.06 31.32 44.78

13.85 6.34 20.19

15.96 8.24 24.19

18.16 9.66 27.82

Sources: Census, 1981, 1991, 2001 (Provisional Population Tables).

To compare the longer term picture in terms of growth of employment, National Sample Survey (NSS) data have been disaggregated into two periods. The aggregate growth of employment has stayed more or less the same, namely 1.71 and 1.74 per cent between the periods 1972–3 to 1983 and 1983 to 1993–4 (Table 3.3). What can also be seen is that employment for males has increased at an annual rate of 1.36 per cent and 1.87 per cent, respectively between these two periods. In the case of females, employment grew faster in the first period, namely at 2.36 per cent, as compared to 1.45 per cent in the latter period. However, preliminary analysis of NSS 55th round data for 1999–2000 suggests that the annual growth rate has dropped to 0.24 per cent, well below the anticipated growth rate of 2.0 per cent. This is a worrying trend, which will have to be addressed. As Table 3.2 also illustrates, WPRs were higher in rural areas than in urban areas. Tamil Nadu ‘s rural WPR increased from 46.48 per cent in 1981 to 50.39 per cent in 2001, whereas urban WPR increased from 37.59



EMPLOYMENT, INCOME AND POVERTY

21

per cent to 33.34 per cent. However, the urban WPR accelerated at a faster rate compared to the rural WPR during this period. One salient point is that the female WPRs, in both rural and urban areas, increased at a faster rate than male WPRs. As a result of the faster growth of female WPRs, female workers as a percentage of total workers in the State increased from 31.4 per cent in 1981 to 34.7 per cent in 2991. TABLE 3.3—GROWTH OF EMPLOYMENT BY SEX Total Employment

Growth Rate

NSS Rounds

Male

Female

Total (in million)

Male (%)

Female (%)

Total (%)

1972–73

12.61

7.68

20.28







1977–78

13.48

8.92

22.40

1.34

3.05

2.00

1983

14.43

9.60

24.03

1.37

1.68

1.42

1987–88

15.74

10.14

25.87

1.75

0.90

1.49

1993–94

17.37

11.19

28.56

1.65

1.66

1.66

1999–2000

18.26

10.73

28.98

0.83

(–) 0.70

0.24

1.36

2.36

1.71

1.87

1.45

1.74

1972–73/1983

Compound Growth Rate per Annum

1983/1993–94 Source: Sarvekshana, Various issues.

Spatial Distribution of Workers In Tamil Nadu, as per the 2001 Census, Namakkal had the highest WPR (56.28 per cent). The districts of Chennai (34.19 per cent) and Kanniyakumari (32.68 per cent) had the lowest WPR mainly because of low female WPRs of 12.09 per and 12.23 per cent, respectively. As many as 13 districts had higher WPRs than the State’s average of 44.78 per cent. The WPR for males was above 60 per cent in Erode (66.80 per cent), Coimbatore (64.01 per cent), Karur (63.33 per cent) and Salem (60.84 per cent) districts. It was below the State average (58.06 per cent) in Kanniyakumari (53.39 per cent), Thoothukudi (56.33 per cent) and Chennai (55.19 per cent). The female WPR was highest in Namakkal (88.71 per cent), followed by The Nilgiris (55.28 per cent), Perambalur (52.19 per cent), Erode (44.76 per cent), Karur (42.95 per cent) and Aniyalur (41.21 per cent). The female WPR was below the State average (31.32 per cent) the lowest being in Chennai (12.09 per cent) and Kanniyakumari (12.23 per cent).

Distribution of Workers by Age The NSSO gives details with regard to age-specific worker population ratio (WPR). Worker population ratio is defined as the total number of persons employed as a percentage to the population.1 The WPR‘s, in both rural and urban areas, in respect of all age groups are significantly higher in Tamil Nadu than those at the national level, in view of relatively higher WPR‘s for females in the State. The WPR‘s for both rural and urban areas steadily increase with older age groups, starting with the age group 20–4 and peaking with the age group 40–4. Thereafter, 1WPR

‘as defined by the NSSO and WPR as defined by the census are essentially the same thing, that is the number of workers to total

population. In general, WPR’s, which are based on a sample, are slightly higher than WPRs. We have generally made use of census WPRs to capture the overall situation in terms of number and percentage of workers, but have made use of WPR’ for a more detailed age-specific analysis.



22

TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

the WPR‘s decline. The estimated number of workers in the older age group of 60 and above in Tamil Nadu is about two million, accounting for about 6.9 per cent of the total workforce. The corresponding proportion for All India is 7.4 per cent (Table 3.4). TABLE 3.4—AGE-SPECIFIC WORKER POPULATION RATIO, 1993–94 AND 1999–2000 Tamil Nadu Age Group

1993–94 Rural

5–9

All India

21

1999–2000

Urban 5

Rural 4

1993–94

Urban

Rural

1

13

1999–2000

Urban 5

Rural 7

Urban 3

10–14

183

88

86

47

140

56

93

43

15–19

579

330

451

297

481

236

411

218

20–24

706

516

653

467

651

436

618

420

25–29

799

592

751

600

732

571

713

543

30–34

888

712

837

625

782

632

758

599

35–39

867

668

833

705

807

651

784

637

40–44

893

715

841

724

798

685

791

664

45–49

872

675

833

698

789

678

780

645

50–54

812

715

815

616

763

636

741

633

55–59

752

564

751

537

702

550

688

517

60–64

649

412

460

258

619

371

430

241

65 and above

396

244

375

212

All

539

402

444

347

417

337

513

393

Source: NSS 50th Round Results, Sarvekshana.

Between 1993–4 and 1999–2000, child labour has come down from 1.02 million to 0.45 million—a significant decline of 56 per cent.2 While the number of rural child workers declined from 0.81 million to 0.34 million, the decline in urban areas was from 0.21 million to 0.11 million (Box 3.1). An interesting feature is the reversal of the trends hitherto observed with regard to sex composition of child labour. Female child workers accounted for about 55 per cent of the total child workers in 1987–8 and 1993–4. During 1999–2000, however, male child workers (56.3 per cent) outnumbered female child workers (43.7 per cent). Child workers, like all other workers, can be classified either as principal or subsidiary. Female child workers accounted for 5.1 per cent (5.73 lakhs) and 4.2 per cent (1.96 lakhs) of the total female workers in 1993–4 and 1999–2000 respectively. Subsidiary status female workers accounted for only 11.3 per cent (65,000) in 1993– 4 and 16.3 per cent (32,000) in 1999–2000 of the total female child workers (principal and subsidiary). It follows that the decline in child labour is mainly due to a decline of principal status workers. The State’s efforts in reducing and ultimately eliminating child labour through various social sector programmes (nutrition, noonmeal schemes, free supply of uniforms and books, free bus passes, girl child development schemes, marriage assistance and other incentive schemes for increasing school enrolment), appear to have been successful. The accelerated growth of per capita income and relatively better standard of living has made it possible for some of the households to withdraw younger/older age group earners and occasional workers (mostly women) from the labour market. 2This

decrease should be interpreted with caution.

EMPLOYMENT, INCOME AND POVERTY



23

Box 3.1—Child Labour Declines in Tamil Nadu Employment of children under a specified age in business is prohibited by law as it deprives them of educational opportunities at the right time and stunts their productive capacity to a greater degree. The Indian Constitution provides, under Article 24, that no child below the age of 14 years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment. It also specifies, under Article 39, that the tender age of children is not abused and that they are not forced by economic necessity to enter vocations unsuited to their age or strength, and are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. The incidence of child labour is the highest in the unorganized, informal and unregulated sectors. Higher incidence of child labour is also observed in home-based activities (beedi-rolling), apprentices in traditional crafts and in certain factory employment (match work). While elimination of child labour is the ultimate goal, the most urgent need is to prevent exploitation in terms of wages, duration of work and working conditions. As per the 1991 Census, child labour accounted for 2.39 per cent of the total work force. Unlike the national picture, female child workers (3.64 per cent) outnumber the male child workers (1.7 per cent) in Tamil Nadu. The most recent evidence, however, suggests a great fall in the employment of child labour. ESTIMATED CHILD LABOUR IN TAMIL NADU 1987–88 (43rd NSS)

Area

Rural Urban Tamil Nadu

(million)

1993–94 (50th NSS)

1999–2000 (55th NSS)

Girl

Boy

Child

Girl

Boy

Child

Girl

Boy

Child

0.59 0.13 0.72

0.45 0.14 0.59

1.04 0.26 1.30

0.48 0.09 0.57

0.34 0.11 0.45

0.81 0.21 1.02

0.16 0.04 0.20

0.18 0.07 0.25

0.34 0.11 0.45

Industrial Classification of Workforce A broad analysis of census data shows a declining share of cultivators, a significant increase in agricultural labourers and a declining share of household industry workers (Table 3.5) upto 1991 Census. While the proportion of cultivators declined from 42.0 per cent in 1961 to 23.4 per cent in 1991, that of agricultural labourers recorded an increase from 18.4 per cent to 31.1 per cent for the corresponding period. In absolute terms, also similar trend was seen. However, 2001 Census show that while share of cultivators decline (18.4 per cent from 25.0 per cent) that of agricultural labourers and workers in household industries moved up moderately. There is a steady increase in the share of other industries, indicating that village industries and crafts are not in a position to accommodate surplus labour from agriculture (Table 3.5). TABLE 3.5—INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION OF WORKERS IN 1981 AND 1991 CENSUSES (MAIN AND MARGINAL WORKERS) COMBINED (in millions) Industrial category

1961

Percentage Share

Cultivators

6.46

Agricultural labourers

2.83

Household industry and manufacturing etc. Other workers Total workers Source: Census Documents.

1981 Percentage Share

1991 Percentage Share

2001

Percetange Share

42.0

5.82

28.8

6.04

25.0

5.11

18.4

18.4

6.77

33.5

8.76

36.2

8.67

31.1

2.06

13.4

0.97

4.8

0.87

3.6

1.46

5.3

4.03 15.37

26.2 100.0

6.64 20.20

32.9 100.0

8.53 24.19

35.2 100.0

12.57 27.81

45.2 100.0



24

TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

The indications are, however, that there has been growth in the manufacturing and service sectors. The estimated number of ‘other’ workers increased from 4.03 million in 1961 to 12.57 million in 2001. Consequently, the proportion of ‘other’ workers to total workers went up from 26.2 per cent to 45.2 per cent. Most of these other workers would have been either manufacturing or service sector employees in occupations such as construction, manufacturing, trade and transport, hotels and financial and community services. TABLE 3.6—INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION OF WORKERS Employment (millions) Sectors 1. Agriculture 2. Mining

Growth Rate

1987–88

1993–94

1999–2000

1987–88 to 1993–94

1993–4/1999–2000

13.79

15.34

14.44

1.79

(–) 1.00

0.11

0.10

0.14

0.00

3.60

3. Manufacturing

4.94

5.05

5.30

0.37

0.80

4. Electricity

0.09

0.11

0.10

3.40

(–) 1.19

5. Construction

0.92

1.08

1.45

2.87

4.90

6. Trade, hotels, transport

3.20

3.57

4.67

1.79

4.65

7. Services

2.85

3.32

2.88

2.63

(–) 2.41

25.90

28.56

28.98

1.66

0.24

All

Source: NSS 43rd, 50th and 55th Rounds.

A more detailed industrial classification based on NSS data is given in Table 3.6. It is seen that the number of workers engaged in agriculture increased from 13.79 million in 1987–8 to 15.34 million in 1993–4, but then declined to 14.44 million in 1999–2000.3 Agriculture, however, still accounts for close to 50 per cent of the total employment. Next to agriculture, the manufacturing industry accounts for 18.3 per cent (5.3 million) of total employment. The third largest provider of employment is trade, hotels and transport which accounts for about 16 per cent (4.67 million) of total employment. Financial and community services together employs 2.88 million. Trend analyses show a deceleration in the growth of employment in the agricultural sector in the recent period (Table 3.6). This is on account of the decline in the number of female subsidiary workers and child labour. There is some acceleration in growth of employment in the manufacturing sector. Construction industries show a robust accelerated annual growth rate of 4.9 per cent between 1993–4 and 1999–2000 as against 2.87 per cent between 1987–8 and 1993–4. The trade sector also shows a similar trend.

Sectoral Composition of Workers In sectoral terms, the primary sector is the major sector in terms of employment. Though the proportion of main workers in this sector decreased from more than 60 per cent in 1961 to approximately 50 per cent in 1999–2000, it is still by far the biggest contributor to employment. The secondary sector accounted for 23.6 per cent of total employment in 1999–2000 while the tertiary sector accounted for 26.1 per cent (Table 3.7). It is likely that the scenario will change in favour of the secondary and tertiary sectors in the future. The growth of employment in the primary sector has decelerated in both rural and urban areas; on the other hand, the growth of secondary sector employment has accelerated in both rural and urban areas, though the acceleration in rural areas has been higher (2.5 per cent per annum) as compared to urban areas (0.60 per cent per annum) 3Census

similar.

and NSS numbers do not match exactly so in that sense they are not strictly comparable. However, by and large the trends are

EMPLOYMENT, INCOME AND POVERTY



25

(see Table 3.7). Tertiary sector employment actually declined between 1993–4 and 1999–2000 in rural areas while in urban areas it increased at an annual rate of 3.1 per cent (Table 3.7). TABLE 3.7—COMPOSITION OF WORKERS BY MAJOR SECTORS, 1987–88 AND 1999–2000 (in million) Primary A Rural

13.0

% Share Urban

70.9 0.9

% Share All

11.5 13.9

% Share

53.7

Secondary

Tertiary

B

C

A

B

C

A

14.4 (1.70) 70.7 1.0 (2.66) 12.3 15.4 (1.77) 54.1

13.7 (–0.8) 68.4 0.8 (–3.2) 9.3 14.5 (–0.96) 50.3

2.9

3.1 (1.42) 15.3 3.1 (0.31) 38.1 6.2 (0.82) 21.8

3.6 (2.5) 18.1 3.2 (0.6) 36.2 6.8 (1.6) 23.6

2.4

15.7 3.0 40.7 5.9 23.0

13.4 3.6 47.8 6.0 23.3

B

Total C

2.9 2.7 (2.4) (–0.8) 14.0 13.5 4.0 4.8 (1.93) (3.1) 49.6 54.5 6.9 7.5 (2.22) (1.6) 24.1 26.1

A 18.3 100.0 7.5 100.0 25.8 100.0

B

C

20.4 20.1 (1.75) (–0.26) 100.0 100.0 8.1 8.8 (1.37) (1.46) 100.0 100.0 28.5 28.9 (1.66) (0.24) 100.0 100.0

Note: Figures in brackets indicate growth rate (%) per annum. Source: Sarvekshana, NSS. A-1987–88; B-1993–94; C-1999–2000.

Gender-wise analysis is also in order here. The share of male workers in primary sector employment has been steadily declining. It declined from 57.4 per cent in 1977–8 to 42.9 per cent in 1999–2000 (Table 3.8). The corresponding ratios for females were 73.2 per cent and 62.8 per cent, respectively. A significant development in recent years is the increase in the share of tertiary sector employment for females, from 13.7 per cent in 1993–4 to 16.5 per cent in 1999–2000. The loss of share in primary sector employment for females has been more or less equally gained by the secondary and tertiary sectors. However, in the case of males, the secondary sector accounted for a relatively higher share in the recent period. If one examines the situation from the late 1970s onwards, it can be seen that the share of male employment in the tertiary sector has increased steadily from 22.9 per cent in 1977–8 to 31.4 per cent in 1999–2000. TABLE 3.8—SECTORAL DISTRIBUTION OF WORKERS BY SEX (percentage) NSS

1977–78 1983 1987–88 1993–94 1999–2000

Primary

Secondary

Tertiary

Total

M

F

M

F

M

F

M

F

57.4 49.2 46.1 45.5 42.9

73.2 70.4 65.8 67.3 62.8

19.7 23.1 24.6 23.6 25.7

16.2 16.4 20.4 19.0 20.7

22.9 27.6 29.3 30.8 31.4

10.6 13.1 13.8 13.7 16.5

100 100 100 100 100

100 100 100 100 100

Source: NSS 32nd, 38th, 43rd and 50th Rounds.

Sector-wise Output Even though agriculture continues to account for the bulk of employment, this is not reflected in the income originating from the sectors. The agriculture income declined from 24.82 per cent in 1993–4 to 18.16 per cent in 1999–2000, whereas the share of income from secondary and tertiary sectors improved from 33.72 per cent to 34.12 per cent and 41.46 per cent to 47.72 per cent, respectively. In per capita terms, this means that the

26



TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

average output per worker in the primary sector increased only marginally compared to other sectors where significant increase were noticed (Table 3.9). TABLE 3.9—SECTORAL SHARE OF NSDP, EMPLOYMENT AND PER WORKER OUTPUT (At 1993–94 Prices) GSDP (Rs Million) Sector Primary Secondary Tertiary Total

1993–94 142,646.6 193,809.3 238,364.2 574,820.1

Employment (in million)

% share 1999–2000

% share

1993–94

% share

1999–2000

24.82 33.72 41.46 100.00

18.16 34.12 47.72 100.0

15.4 6.2 6.9 28.5

54.1 21.8 24.1 100.0

14.5 6.8 7.5 28.9

155,072.6 291,323.8 407,515.3 853,911.7

Per worker output (Rs) % share

1993–94

1999–2000

50.3 23.6 26.1 100.0

9263 31.260 345,546 20,169

10,695 42,842 543,335 29,547

The low per capita output in the primary sector has wider implications in terms of distribution of income and consumption. As employment in the secondary and tertiary sectors is concentrated in the urban areas, high differentials in per worker output would create an acute rural/urban dichotomy in the State. Remedial measures are, therefore, necessary for increasing the per worker output in the agricultural sector, both in physical and monetary terms. Diversification of agriculture with adequate emphasis on high value crops and allied activities aimed at increasing the physical productivity per unit of capital would greatly mitigate the problem. The government has already implemented the Tamil Nadu Agriculture Development Project which is a multi-sector development project aimed at improving rainfed agriculture and initiating a more decentralized appoach to decision making.

Employment Structure It is worthwhile to look at the employment scenario in terms of certain structural characteristics such as casualization of employment, wages and earnings and organized and unorganized sectors. Table 3.10 shows that the percentage of wage labour has increased from 51.4 per cent in 1977–8 to 63.9 per cent in 1999–2000. Wage labour is particularly high amongst female workers (76.7 per cent) and amongst rural workers (81.4 per cent). Having said that, female wage labour has actually decreased from 87.7 per cent in 1977–8 to 76.7 per cent in 1999–2000. Moreover, the percentage of male casual labour also remains high, it has in fact increased from 51.8 per cent in 1977–8 to 60.1 per cent in 1999–2000. The share of casual employment to total employment increased from 32.9 per cent in 1977–8 to 42.7 per cent in 1993–4 and has remained at about that level (42.2 per cent) up to 1999–2000. The disaggregated scenario between 1993–4 and 1999–2000 suggests that while male casual employment increased from 6.78 million to 7.15 million, female casual employment decreased from 5.41 to 5.07 million. The decline in respect of urban females was steeper, namely –5.95 per cent as opposed to –0.44 per cent for rural females (Table 3.10). Casual labour as a proportion of wage labour amongst agricultural labourer households is as high as 90 per cent. The proportion of casual labour to rural wage labour in general is as high as 81.4 per cent (1999–2000). TABLE 3.10—DISTRIBUTION OF WORKERS (USUAL STATUS) INTO VARIOUS CATEGORIES 1977–78

1983

1987–88

1993–94

1999–2000

1. Self-employed

48.6

43.3

42.8

40.0

36.1

2. Regular/Salaried

18.5

17.2

19.9

17.3

21.7 (Contd...)

EMPLOYMENT, INCOME AND POVERTY



27

(Table 3.10 Contd.) 1977–78

1983

1987–88

1993–94

1999–2000

3. Casual

32.9

39.5

37.3

42.7

42.2

4. Wage Labour (2+3)

51.4

56.7

57.2

60.0

63.9

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

5. Total Workers

6. Proportion of casual to total wage labour (a) Male

51.8

59.8

57.4

64.0

60.1

(b) Female

87.7

85.9

78.4

82.5

76.7

(c) Rural

75.1

82.6

80.4

84.1

81.4

(d) Urban

35.7

40.5

32.6

41.5

32.5

64.0

69.7

65.2

71.1

66.0

7. All

Source: Sarvekshana, Various issues.

The rising incidence of casualization is related to the nature of agrarian transformation taking place in the State. The modernization of agriculture appears to have reduced the demand for labour in crop husbandry. A host of other factors—such as the eviction of tenants, immiseration of petty landowners, declining payments in kind, declining area under coarse cereals, expansion of public distribution system (PDS) network and consequent decline in dependence on landlords for food security—have all contributed to the structural change and qualitative transformation of the workforce in rural areas. One of the consequences of casualization is the high degree of inter-sectoral mobility of labour. A vast majority of the brick-kiln workers, quarry workers and construction workers are basically agricultural labourers and petty landowners. Casualization also brings with it a lack of job security, frequent change of work place, increasing exposure to exploitative, informal, contractual arrangements, intermittent work, poor working conditions and consequently a high level of income instability. The other component of wage employment is salaried employment. Between 1993–4 and 1999–2000 such employment increased from 4.94 million to 6.29 million. While employment for males in regular salaried employment increased at an annual compound growth rate of 3.78 per cent between 1977–8 and 1999–2000, employment for females in the same category increased at a rate of 5.09 per cent. The increase in regular salaried employment has been faster in urban areas (4.28 per cent) than in rural areas (3.78 per cent). It is also evident from Table 3.10 that the proportion of self-employed workers has declined from 48.6 per cent in 1977–8 to 36.1 per cent in 1999–2000.

Wages and Earnings Given the high percentage of wage labourers in Tamil Nadu, wage earnings are of considerable importance. There has been a significant increase in the wages of agricultural labourers in recent years. According to the ‘Rural Labour Enquiry Report on Wages and Earnings’, the increase in average daily earnings in agricultural occupations for men, women and children belonging to rural households was the highest in Tamil Nadu as compared to other southern States as well as All India. The average daily earnings of men have increased by 156 per cent in nominal terms, while those of women and children by 144 and 125 per cent, respectively. Wages in real terms also increased between 1993–4 and 1997–8 for agricultural labourers. The index of real wages for ploughmen increased by 26.8 per cent, that for male and female transplanters and weeders by 19.3 per cent and 23.4 per cent, respectively and that for male and female reapers and harvesters by 15.2 per cent and

28



TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

8.9 per cent, respectively. Apart from increases in money wages, the extensive PDS network in the State has not only insulated the poor from price increases but has also contributed significantly in holding the price line in general. The average daily earnings for men in non-agricultural occupations were even higher in absolute terms as compared to those in agriculture and witnessed an overall growth of 183 per cent between 1987–8 and 1993–4. However, the average daily earnings for women increased by only 131 per cent, that is at a slower rate than for agriculture. As there was not much difference between the average daily earnings of women and children, it can be inferred that, other things remaining the same, women were not getting adult wages in non-agricultural occupations.

Organized Sector Employment Another important structural indicator of employment is the extent of organized sector employment. The total organized sector employment of 2.52 million accounted for 8.7 per cent of total workers (28.98 million) in 1999– 2000. In the organized sector, the share of women has increased from 2.97 lakhs (16 per cent of total organized sector employment) in 1979–80 to 7.54 lakhs (30 per cent) in 1999–2000. Women in public and private sector employment accounted for 4.26 lakhs and 29.9 lakhs, respectively. The overall scenario suggests the following. First, the indication is that the absorptive capacity of the organized sector has improved somewhat. While the average annual growth rate in organized employment was 1.3 per cent in the Seventh Plan period, it was 2.4 per cent in the Eighth Plan period, with private sector employment registering the fastest growth. Second, despite this growth, the organized sector accounts for only a small percentage of total employment, that is, 8.7 per cent (Figure 3.1).

8.7

%

FIGURE 3.1—TOTAL EMPLOYMENT AND EMPLOYMENT IN ORGANIZED SECTOR, 1999–2000

30%

37%

91.3%

63%

70%

Unorganized

Private

Male

Organized

Public

Female

Public Sector Employment The structure of the organized sector indicates the dominance of the public sector. This sector accounts for 63 per cent of organized sector employment. Within the public sector, State employees, quasi-government employees, central government employees and local body employees account for 39 per cent, 35 per cent, 15 per cent and 11 per cent of the total, respectively. A more disaggregated picture highlights other important points. Among the various constituents of the public sector, growth of employment has been most significant within the State government. State government employment increased from 3.75 lakhs in 1979–80 to 6.32 lakhs in 1999–2000. On the other hand, central government employment has actually decreased. Among the various industry-groups providing employment in the public sector, community and social services accounted for the major share (60.3 per cent) in 1999–2000 followed by transport and communication (19.2 per cent). The manufacturing sector which accounted for 9.0 per cent of public sector employment during 1979–80 now accounts for only 6.6 per cent (1999–2000). The overall scenario, however, is one of growth. In the last two decades, public sector employment has

EMPLOYMENT, INCOME AND POVERTY



29

grown at an annual compound growth rate of 1.42 per cent. Female public sector employment has been growing even faster, namely at a rate of 5.5 per cent.

Private Sector Employment (Organized) Total organized private sector employment in Tamil Nadu accounted for 9.27 lakhs jobs in 1999–2000. This is signficantly higher than that of previous decades, largely due to the increase in overall growth rates. Whereas growth of employment in the private sector was only 0.65 per cent in the 1980s, it increased to 2.76 per cent in the nineties. In the last two decades, employment for men increased by only 0.80 per cent per annum, while that for women increased at a rate of 3.95 per cent per annum. Consequently, the share of women’s employment in the private sector has increased from 22.8 per cent in 1979–80 to 35.4 per cent in 1999–2000. Almost two-thirds (64.7 per cent) of the organized private sector employment is concentrated in the manufacturing industry. The next major contributor is community and social sevices, accounting for 20.8 per cent. Other tertiary sector employment such as trade, hotels and restaurants, transport and communication and financial services which experienced a negative growth during the eighties started to grow quite quickly in the nineties.

Unemployment Usual status unemployment refers to relatively long-term unemployment, that is chronic unemployment. It is, in other words, a good indicator of the numbers who are in search of regular employment. Daily status unemployment is, however, considered to be a more inclusive and more useful indicator of the actual magnitude of unemployment. As per recent NSS data (1999–2000), the unemployment rate for the State as a whole in terms of usual principal status4 is 2.4 per cent, corresponding to 710,000 unemployed people. The percentage of unemployed is 2.0 per cent in rural areas and 4.0 per cent in urban areas corresponding to 344,000 and 367,000 unemployed people, respectively. The unemployment rate for males is higher than that for females in the rural areas. However, in urban areas the female unemployment rate is higher. These estimates, as mentioned above, do not actually reflect the true unemployment situation in the State. Most importantly, they do not capture the existence of disguised unemployment and underemployment. Employment Exchange data show about 4.3 million applicants in the live registers, of which one-third are women applicants. This figure should be understood in a situation where ‘registration’ at the employment exchange is purely voluntary. The other side of the coin is that not all registered persons are necessarily unemployed. However, there is no denying that educated unemployment is on the increase in the State. Among job seekers, 70 per cent have tenth standard qualifications at least. The net addition to the fast growing labour force combined with the backlog of unemployed/underemployed persons pose a great challenge to development planning in general and manpower planning in particular. With the polytechnics turning out about 30,000 technically qualified persons annually and engineering colleges around 22,000 persons per annum, the growth of technical manpower has been extremely rapid. Furthermore, these numbers do not include the 300,000 or so people who emerge each year with a collegiate education. While the supplementary wage employment programmes and other infrastructure development programmes could mitigate the problems of uneducated and less educated unemployed persons, educated manpower needs to be properly utilized by matching jobs with qualifications and expectations. 4NSS

data make the distinction between usual principal status and usual principal and subsidiary status unemployment. Usual principal

status unemployment refers to all those who are not engaged in economic activity for at least half the year, that is, it does not consider subsidiary employment of a lesser time period.

30



TAMIL NADU HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT

Policy Initiatives for the Future A number of critical points emerge from the analysis in terms of the existing employment scenario and the requirements for the future. This section summarizes the important findings and suggests possible policy interventions. •



Given the limited capacity of agriculture to absorb additional labour, more so in water scarce Tamil Nadu, it is desirable to promote a strategy which encourages agricultural labour to be absorbed in other sectors and to consequently raise labour productivity in the farm sector as well. With a rapidly expanding technically qualified workforce, greater emphasis should be placed on self-employment ventures in both agriculture and allied activities, particularly horticulture and food processing, as well as in small-scale industries and other non-farm occupations which focus on producing items of mass consumption.



Self-employment will have to be promoted given the fact that salaried wage employment has been shrinking. Recent trends in industrial employment indicate continued domination of traditional activities such as cotton textile and textile products, food products, leather products, etc. Other industries such as the manufacture



of paper and paper products, electrical machinery and IT hardware have also generated significant employment. Institutional arrangements for financing self-employment ventures need to be promoted, and the existing regionwise status of non-performing assets of lending institutions studied carefully to diagnose the problem and adopt appropriate measures that would include imparting of skills and training (especially in marketing). In the rural areas, institutional arrangements that promote home-based work linked with marketing offer a good scope.



Continual manpower development has to be emphasized to train the expanding workforce so as to be abreast of emerging demands in the market.



Undesirable practices of child labour and bonded labour need to be stopped. Additionally, all workers will have to be brought under either the state-assisted or insurance-based social security umbrella.

Income Per Capita Income The per capita income of Tamil Nadu was Rs 15,929 at current prices in 1996–7 as compared to an all-India per capita income of Rs 11,554. This was a reversal of the situation in the 1980s when Tamil Nadu’s per capita income was below the all-India average. Tamil Nadu occupies fifth place out of the 15 major States in terms of per capita income. Maharashtra had the highest per capita income, Rs 19,098; followed by Punjab, Haryana and Gujarat which had per capita incomes of over Rs 15,000. Tamil Nadu, however, had a per capita income higher than the other southern states. Tamil Nadu’s recent better performance in terms of per capita income has been due to an annual growth rate of 6.3 per cent between 1990–1 and 1996–7, higher than the growth rate of the other 14 major States.5 A disaggregated growth rate for the period 1993–4 to 1996–7 illustrates that the tertiary sector grew the fastest at 13.11 per cent annually. The secondary sector grew by 8.78 per cent while the primary sector registered a – 0.46 per cent growth rate.

District-wise Per Capita Income An analysis of district-wise estimates of per capita income reveal wide divergences. Kancheepuram has the highest per capita income and Villupuram the lowest. The per capita income (at current prices) in 1996–7 was Rs 23,075 5The

15 States (Tamil Nadu included) are classified as non-special category States by the Union Planning Commission and together

account for 96 per cent of total income generated in the country.

EMPLOYMENT, INCOME AND POVERTY



31

in Kancheepuram, almost three times that of Villupuram. Other districts with high per capita income were Chennai, Coimbatore, Madurai, Salem and Erode (See Table A6.4 for district-wise sectoral contribution, Table A6.2 for per capita income and Table A6.5 for percentage growth rate of gross district domestic product). The State average was Rs 13,985. In general, the urbanized districts such as Chennai and Coimbatore have high per capita incomes. Equally, important, the manufacturing and tertiary sectors contribute a high percentage to total income while the primary sector’s contribution in these districts is insignificant. Other districts such as Tiruchirapalli, Madurai and Virudhunagar have high levels of trading and business activities, leading to higher per capita incomes. Per capita income levels can be classified into different ranges: above Rs 20,000, between Rs 14,000 and Rs 20,000, between Rs 10,000 and Rs 14,000 and below Rs 10,000. As can be seen from Box 3.2, only Kancheepuram and Chennai had per capita incomes of more than Rs 20,000 in 1996–7. Six districts, however, had per capita incomes below Rs 10,000, namely Thanjavur, Cuddalore, Tiruvarur, Sivagangai, Tiruvannamalai and Villupuram. The most surprising (or interesting) case is that of Thanjavur, the granary of the State—which illustrates once again that agriculture does not contribute much to overall income levels.

Box 3.2—District-level Income Categories Per Capita Income Range(1996–97)

No. of Districts

Names of Districts

Above Rs 20,000

2

Kancheepuram, Chennai

Rs 14,000 to Rs 20,000

8

Coimbatore, Madurai, Salem, Erode, Tiruchy, Thoothukudi, Thiruvallur, Virudhunagar

Rs 10,000 to Rs 14,000

13

Nilgiris,Vellore, Tirunelveli, Nagapattinam, Namakkal, Theni, Dindigul, Karur, Perambalur Dharmapuri, Pudukkottai, Ramanathapuram, Kanniyakumari

Below Rs 10,000.

6

Thanjavur, Cuddalore, Tiruvarur, Sivagangai, Tiruvannamalai, Villupuram.

In terms of contribution to overall NSDP, Chennai district contributes the maximum (1996–7), namely 11.38 per cent and Coimbatore contributes the next largest share of 9.07 per cent. These two districts together account for approximately one-fifth of NSDP in Tamil Nadu. Nine districts—Theni, Nagapattinam, Pudukkottai, Perambalur, Ramanathapuram, Tiruvarur, Karur, Sivagangai and Nilgiris together contribute about one-fifth as well.

Per Capita Income, Health and Education Districts with high per capita income would generally be expected to have better education and health standards. A close examination of data, however, reveals that this relationship does not necessarily hold true in Tamil Nadu. While Chennai with a high per capita income does have a high level of literacy (above 80 per cent), districts such as Salem and Erode which have relatively high income levels have quite low literacy levels (below 70 per cent). Moreover, a district such as Kanniyakumari, with a relatively low per capita income, has a literacy rate of over 80 per cent (Table 3.11). In the case of school enrolment, the scenario is similar. Four districts with relatively high income levels, namely Kancheepuram, Thiruvallur, Salem and Erode have low enrolment rates. Having said this, there are districts such as Dharmapuri which have low income levels as well as low literacy rates.

32



TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

TABLE 3.11—PER CAPITA INCOME AND LITERACY Per Capita Income 1996–97 (Current Prices)

Literacy rate 2001 Census->

Above 80

(per cent)

70–80

60–70

Above Rs 20,000

Chennai

Kancheepuram

Rs 15,000–2,0000

Thoothukudi

Madurai Tiruvallur Coimbatore

Rs 12,000–15,000

Udhagamandalam Vellore, Tiruchy Nagapattinam Virudhunagar Tirunelveli

Namakkal

Rs 10,000–12,000

Kanniyakumari

Pudukkottai, Theni Cuddalore Ramanathapuram

Karur Perambalur Dindigul

Thanjavur Tiruvarur Sivagangai

Villupuram T.V. Malai

Rs 8000–10,000

50–60

Salem, Erode

Dharmapuri

Source: Directorate of Evalution and Applied Research.

On the health side, as mentioned above, the story is the same. In a district like Chennai, a positive relationship between income and health holds as also in districts like Dharmapuri, where low income levels translate into low LEB (Table 3.12). Perambalur, Theni, Villupuram, Thanjavur and Tiruvarur also have low per capita income and low LEB (60 to 63 per cent). On the other hand, Kanniyakumari again performs well on the health front despite its low income level, more in line with Kerala. TABLE 3.12—PER CAPITA INCOME AND LONGEVITY (LEB) Per capita Income (Rs)

LEB Years >

Above Rs 20,000

72–75 Chennai

69–72

66–69

63–66

60–63

Madurai

Kancheepuram

Rs 15,000–20,000

Erode Coimbatore

Thiruvallur Thoothukudi

Salem

Rs 12,000–15,000

The Nilgiris

Namakkal Trichy Nagapattinam Virudhunagar

Tirunelveli Vellore

Karur

Pudukkottai Dindigul Ramanathapuram

Cuddalore T.V. Malai Sivagangai

Villupuram Thanjavur Tiruvarur

Rs 10,000–12,000

Kanniyakumari

Rs 8000–10,000

Dharmapuri Perambalur Theni

Note: Per capita income 1996–7 at current prices, LEB 1997–8. Source: Directorate of Evaluation and Applied Research.

Poverty and Inequality Poverty is another critical issue which requires attention. Poverty, according to official definitions is the inability of an individual to secure a normative minimum level of living. Thus, those living below the poverty line are not

EMPLOYMENT, INCOME AND POVERTY



33

able to secure such a level of living. The poverty lines recommended by the Task Force on Projection of Minimum Needs and Essential Consumption Demand, viz. monthly per capita total expenditure of Rs 49.09 and Rs 56.64 (at 1973–4 prices) for rural and urban areas, respectively at the all-India level are still the base line from which poverty estimates are made. However, as recommended by the Expert Group on Estimation of Proportion of Number of Poor constituted by the Planning Commission, Government of India (1993), State-level poverty lines have been adopted. Thus, while Rs 205.84 per capita and Rs 281.35 per capita (at 1993–4 prices) were adopted as the rural and urban poverty lines at the all-India level, the Planning Commission has stipulated that the rural poverty line in Tamil Nadu be Rs 196.53 per capita per month and the urban Rs 296.63 per capita per month. Based on this poverty line, moreover, the head count ratios, that is those living below the poverty line, have also been calculated for 1999–2000.

Trends in Poverty—India and Tamil Nadu According to the 55th round of NSS, 26.10 per cent (or 260 million) of India’s population still lives below the poverty line. While this is no doubt a significant number, in both percentage and absolute terms, the number of people living below the poverty line has declined significantly over the last few decades. Whereas in 1973–4, 54.88 per cent of people were living below the poverty line, this figure has come down to 26.10 per cent.6 In terms of numbers, this implies that the number of people living below the poverty line has decreased from 321 million to 260 million. Out of these 260 million, 193 million live in rural areas and 67 million in urban areas. There are wide divergences in the head count ratios in the country. In 1999–2000, Orissa had the dubious distinction of having the highest percentage of people below the poverty line, 47.15 per cent. The national average was 26.10 per cent. A little over 50 per cent of the total poor (133 million) are concentrated in just four States of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. Among the major States, Assam, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal have poverty ratios higher than the all-India average. Two States, Haryana and Punjab, have less than 10 per cent of the population below the poverty line. Punjab, with a head count ratio of only 6.16 per cent, has the lowest level of poverty. There has, however, been an overall declining trend in the head count ratio between 1993–4 and 1999–2000. This trend has no doubt differed significantly from State to State. Haryana recorded the highest reduction in poverty level, from 25.35 per cent per cent in 1993–4 to 8.74 per cent in 1999–2000—a reduction of 16.61 percentage points. The decline was the lowest in Orissa, a mere 1.41 percentage points.7 TABLE 3.13—TRENDS IN POVERTY LEVELS IN TAMIL NADU YEAR

Population BPL (percentage)

1973–74 1977–78 1983 1987–88 1993–84 1999–2000

No. Persons BPL (millions)

Rural

Urban

Combined

Rural

Urban

Combined

57.43 57.68 53.99 45.80 32.48 20.55

49.40 48.69 46.96 38.64 39.77 22.11

56.94 54.79 51.16 43.39 35.03 21.12

17.26 18.25 18.25 16.18 12.17 8.05

6.69 7.30 7.85 6.93 8.04 5.00

23.95 25.95 26.10 23.11 20.21 13.05

Note: BPL—Below Poverty Line. Source: Planning Commission, Government of India. 6There

is considerable controversy surrounding the recall methodology adopted in the 55th round of NSS. There are many who argue that

the drop in head count ratio (numbers below the poverty line) between 1993–4 and 1999–2000 is actually exaggerated. 7Again, the decline in poverty levels between 1993–4 and 1999–2000 needs to be interpreted with some caution because of the change in recall methodology adopted by the NSSO.

34



TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

While poverty levels remained relatively static in the 1970s and 1980s and well above the 50 per cent level, as mentioned above, there has been a dramatic decrease in poverty levels since that time. Whereas in 1987–8, the poverty level was 45.80 per cent, it declined to 32.48 per cent in 1993–4 and further to 21.12 per cent in 1999–2000. The estimated number of people living below the poverty line in Tamil Nadu in 1999–2000 was 13.05 million (8.05 million in rural areas and 5 million in urban areas). Whereas poverty rates declined from 32.38 per cent to 20.55 per cent in rural areas, the decline in urban areas was from 39.77 to 22.11 per cent. Thus, the levels of poverty are almost equal in rural and urban areas.

Incidence of Poverty—Region and District-wise As there are no region and district-wise data available yet for the 55th round, data from the 50th round (1993–4) have been utilized. A report entitled ‘Counting the Poor—Where are the Poor in India brought’ out by the Department of Statistics, Government of India in 1998 provides some useful insights into the prevalence of poverty among different regions in Tamil Nadu (Table 3.14). As the data utilized are only up to 1993–4, it must be noted that the districts included are those which existed at that time (22 only) and consequently are different from the 29 districts utilized in much of the report.8 TABLE 3.14—TAMIL NADU—REGION-WISE ESTIMATES OF POVERTY

Chennai Coastal Madurai Coimbatore Tamil Nadu All India

Region 1987–88

Per cent below Poverty Line 1993–94

58.17 37.09 50.27 28.78 42.90 39.60

44.23 21.09 37.35 22.50 34.42 33.38

Decline in Poverty Levels in % Points 13.94 16.00 12.92 6.28 8.48 6.22

Note: All regions show rural and urban combined. Source: Department of Economics and Statistics.

Tamil Nadu has been divided into four regions: (1) Chennai (Chennai, Kancheepuram, North Arcot, Tiruvannamalai, South Arcot, Villupuram); (2) Coastal (Tiruchirapalli, Thanjavur, Nagapattinam, Pudukkottai); (3) Madurai (Madurai, Dindigul, Virudhunagar, Tirunelveli, Kanniyakumari, Thoothukudi, Ramanathapuram, Sivagangai); and (4) Coimbatore (Coimbatore, Erode, Nilgiris, Salem, Dharmapuri). According to the above mentioned study, 30.44 per cent of the State’s total population lived below the poverty line in 1993–4. The regionwise poverty estimates show that poverty levels have been especially high in the Chennai and Madurai regions and below the State average in the Coastal and Coimbatore regions. While the percentage of people living below the poverty line was the highest in Chennai at 44.23 per cent, it was only 21.09 per cent in the Coastal region. In all the regions, however, there was a significant drop in the number of people below the poverty level between 1987–8 and 1993–4, the most significant drop being seen in the coastal region. It must be noted that while NSS data were also the basis for calculating district-wise poverty ratios, the State sample was clubbed with the central sample in order to get better results.9 According to these estimates, 8While the analysis applies to only 22 districts, it is not strictly comparable with the data presented in the rest of the HDR. Also, it is slightly dated. Having said that, it gives a broad indication of the region and district-wise poverty and the inequality situation in the State. 9By

clubbing the central and State samples, the results have changed slightly in terms of the percentage of people below the poverty

line. The numbers given in this section pertaining to poverty in 1993–4 are, therefore, not strictly comparable with those in the previous section which used the Planning Commission estimates directly.



EMPLOYMENT, INCOME AND POVERTY

35

31.66 per cent of the population was below the poverty line in 1993–4 (Table A6.6). The incidence of poverty was relatively higher in urban areas (38.63 per cent) than in rural areas (28.93 per cent). The incidence of poverty in 1993–4 was the highest in South Arcot district, where approximately half of the population was living below the poverty line. Other districts with high levels of poverty were Kanniyakumar (48.59 per cent), Thoothukudi (47.02 per cent), Dindigul (46.28 per cent and Tirunelveli (44.10 per cent). Erode had the lowest percentage of people living below the poverty line, 18.32 per cent. Overall, the six districts of South Arcot, Tiruchirapalli, Kancheepuram, Salem, Dharmapuri and Coimbatore together accounted for approximately 50 per cent of the population below the poverty level. The districts were also grouped into three broad categories, namely high poverty districts (more than 40 per cent of the population living below poverty line), moderately poor districts (30 to 40 per cent living below poverty line) and low level poverty districts (below 30 per cent).10 As seen from Table 3.15, six districts were considered to be high poverty level districts in 1993–4, five were moderate districts and eleven low poverty districts. What is noticeable is that Chennai which is a high per capita income district nonetheless had a moderate level of poverty. Moreover, Dharmapuri, a low per income district, is classified as a low poverty district.11 Another puzzling case is that of Thoothukudi which had high per capita income as well as a high poverty level. TABLE 3.15—DISTRICTS ACCORDING TO LEVEL OF POVERTY Poverty Ratio Range

No. of Districts

Names of Districts

High poverty (above 40%)

6

Cuddalore, Tiruvannamalai, Dindigul, Thoothukudi, Kanniyakumari and Tirunelveli

Moderate poverty (30–40%)

5

Chennai, Vellore, Salem, Thanjavur and Madurai

Low poverty (below 30%)

11

Kancheepuram, Dharmapuri, Nilgiris, Tiruchy, Pudukkottai, Sivagangai, Coimbatore, Virudhunagar, Ramanathapuram, Nagapattinam and Erode.

Poverty Levels in Social Groups Evidence also exists that the incidence of poverty among the SC and ST population is much higher than the State average for all communities. According to a study by Ray (2000), 48.50 per cent of rural SC and ST households and 56.30 per cent of urban households lived below the poverty line compared to 33.38 per cent of total rural households below poverty line and 34.80 per cent of total urban households respectively in 1993–4.12 Poverty levels in female-headed households, in both rural and urban areas, were also higher than the poverty levels in all households (Table 3.16). TABLE 3.16—POVERTY LEVELS AMONG SC AND ST HOUSEHOLDS, 1993–94 State

Per Capita Total Expenditure in Rupees

Poverty Percentage

All HH

SC, ST HH

FH HH

All HH

SC, ST HH

FH HH

Tamil Nadu-R

309.22

252.61

302.87

33.38

48.50

36.80

Tamil Nadu-U

483.76

371.45

380.07

34.80

56.30

46.59 (Contd...)

10The

category ‘low’ poverty districts does not suggest that poverty levels in the 20 per cent range are absolutely low, but that they are

just relatively low. 11How

Dharmapuri was considered a low poverty level district needs further analysis.

12Unlike

the previous analysis which relates to individuals below the poverty line, these numbers pertain to households.

36



TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

(Table 3.16 Contd.) State

Per Capita Total Expenditure in Rupees

Poverty Percentage

All HH

SC, ST HH

FH HH

All HH

SC, ST HH

FH HH

All India-R

308.27

272.35

326.66

All India-U

513.92

433.43

502.61

34.40

44.70

32.64

24.30

32.40

28.45

Note: All HH-ll Households, SC, ST HH-SC and ST Households and FH HH-Female Headed Households, R-rural, U-urban. Source: Ranjan Ray, ‘Poverty Household Size and Child Welfare in India’, Economic and Political Weekly, 23 September 2000.

Inequality in Consumption As can be seen from Table 3.17, there is considerable inequality in terms of consumption as well. Whereas the poorest 10 per cent of the population account for a mere 3.5 and 4.0 per cent, respectively of total urban and rural consumption expenditure (1993–4), the top 10 per cent account for 26 and 24 per cent of consumption expenditure, respectively. It is also noticeable that consumption inequalities are greater in urban areas. TABLE 3.17—SHARE OF CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE Population share Population (%)

Expenditure share

Cumulative % of population

Rural

Cumulative % of Expenditure

4.0

Urban

Cumulative % of Expenditure

Bottom

10%

3.5

Next

10%

20

6.0

10

5.0

8.5

Next

10%

30

6.5

16.5

5.5

14.0

Next

10%

40

7.5

24.0

7.0

21.0

Next

10%

50

8.0

32.0

7.0

28.0

Next

10%

60

8.0

40.0

9.0

37.0

Next

10%

70

10.5

50.5

10.0

47.0

Next

10%

80

11.5

62.0

11.5

58.5

Next

10%

90

14.0

76.0

15.5

74.0

Next

10%

100

24.0

100.0

26.0

100.0

An index widely used to assess the inequality in consumption (as well as in income) is the Gini Index. It measures the extent to which the distribution of consumption expenditure among individuals and households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. The Gini Index ranges from 0–100 with zero suggesting perfect equality and 100 perfect inequality. The NSS data on consumption expenditure have once again been used. The Gini Index for Tamil Nadu as a whole in 1993–4 was 28.3 (27.0 for rural areas and 31.7 for urban areas). This urban–rural differential can be explained if one compares the cumulative consumption of different income categories ( Table 3.17). In urban areas, the bottom 30 per cent of the population accounted for 14 per cent of expenditure, while in rural areas, the bottom 30 per cent of the population accounted for 16.5 per cent of expenditure. Moreover, the top 10 per cent of the population in the urban areas accounted for 26 per cent of the expenditure as opposed to 24 per cent in rural areas. Interestingly, Dharmapuri district has the distinction of having the least inequality in the State while Chennai has the highest (Table 3.18) Other districts with relatively higher inequality scenarios are

EMPLOYMENT, INCOME AND POVERTY



37

Tiruvannamalai, Coimbatore, Kancheepuram and Thanjavur. Other better performers include North Arcot, South Arcot, Virudhunagar, Sivagangai and Madurai. TABLE 3.18—GINI INDEX GINI INDEX S.no.

Districts

Rural

1. Chennai

Urban

Total

33.3

33.30

2. Kancheepuram

29.7

30.5

30.22

3. North Arcot

30.5

21.9

24.36

4. Dharmapuri

24.7

22.6

22.78

5. Tiruvannamalai

22.7

33.1

32.17

6. South Arcot

29.3

22.8

23.73

7. Salem

33.2

28.0

29.32

8. Erode

25.9

24.6

24.75

9. Nilgiris

28.6

21.8

24.22

10. Coimbatore

32.5

30.4

31.25

11. Dingidul

33.5

25.3

26.83

12. Tiruchy

30.0

24.2

24.89

13. Thanjavur

36.3

26.8

30.26

14. Pudukkottai

28.7

26.1

26.47

15. Sivagangai

29.5

21.2

23.33

16. Madurai

26.0

22.5

23.92

17. Virudhunagar

30.1

19.7

23.12

18. Ramanathapuram

26.5

24.1

24.60

19. Thoothukudi

25.2

25.5

25.39

20. Tirunelveli

32.4

25.4

28.44

21. Kanniyakumari

28.1

26.4

26.64

22. Nagapattinam

30.0

22.4

24.07

27.0

31.7

28.32

STATE

The relationship between income, poverty and inequality, therefore, seems quite complicated. While Chennai fares well in terms of income, it has quite high levels of poverty as well as inequality (Table 3.19). On the other hand, Dharmapuri which fares poorly not only in income terms but also in terms of education and health indicators, fares better in terms of poverty and inequality. Why this is so is difficult to say. One possible explanation is that Dharmapuri fares better in terms of inequality and poverty because most people have low levels of income, but nonetheless are marginally above the poverty line. On the hand, understanding why Chennai has high other inequality levels is easier. While there are many who earn high salaries in Chennai, there are as many who continue to live on the margin. The other noteworthy point is that districts such as Salem fare quite well in terms of income, inequality and poverty but not well at all in terms of social indicators.

38



TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

TABLE 3.19—PER CAPITA INCOME AND POVERTY IN DISTRICTS, 1993–94 Poverty ratio % Æ Per capita Income in Rs Ø Above 10,000

Above 50%

45–50%

40–45%

35–40%

Thoothukudi

Chennai

9001–10000 8001–9000

25–30%

Tirunelveli

North Arcot

Erode The Nilgiris and Trichy

Thanjavur South Arcot Kanniyakumari

5001–6000

Below 25%

Coimbatore Kancheepuram

Salem, Madurai Virudhunagar Dindigul

7001–8000 6001–7000

30–35%

Dharmapuri

Nagapatinam

Pudukkottai, Ramanathapuram Sivagangai Tiruvannamalai

Future Policy Imperatives Tamil Nadu has made significant strides in terms of poverty reduction and it has also achieved a lot in terms of the social sector. Besides the budgetary reasons for this (the State has spent more over time), the achievements are also due to the following factors: the implementation of poverty alleviation schemes aimed at income generation and employment creation, the noon meal scheme covering school children and old age pensioners and the implementation of other nutrition programmes such as the Integrated Child Development Services Scheme (ICDS) aimed specifically at improving women and children’s nutritional status. Having said this, the fact that many people continue to live below the poverty line and that there are glaring shortcomings in terms of specific social sector indicators, there is need for concern. While many of the interventions necessary in the social sector have been highlighted in other chapters, a number of points specifically in terms of employment and income are highlighted below. •

Poverty reduction strategies in Tamil Nadu should lay emphasis on urban areas. While at the national level the incidence of poverty is more in rural areas, in Tamil Nadu the reverse is true.



More emphasis should be placed on employment generating schemes. Unemployment rates are quite high in Tamil Nadu, especially in terms of daily unemployment. In the past, povety alleviation schemes have focussed more on asset creation—as a result not enough emphasis has been placed on employment generation.



Specific attention is required for inter-district variations. Clearly, the problems that districts face in terms of income, poverty and inequality are signficantly different and warrant district-specific interventions.



Given the structural changes taking place in the economy, employment creation will have to focus increasingly on non-farm employment, in the manufacturing and service sectors.

DEMOGRAPHY, HEALTH AND NUTRITION



39

Chapter

 4

Demography, Health and Nutrition

In the HDI, life expectancy is the indicator which is meant to capture the overall health status of the population. However, health is much more than just life expectancy, it includes questions of fertility, morbidity, mortality and nutrition. The other important point is that health status is rarely the outcome of government policies and programmes alone. In fact, it is often the outcome in spite of government programmes. This chapter documents the demographic, health and nutrition status of Tamil Nadu. It analyses the trends and changes in health and nutritional indicators in the State, the effectiveness of government policies and programmes and the role that social norms and culture play in influencing health outcomes.

Demographic Trends and Health Indicators Population and Demographic Transition An analysis of the decennial growth of population in the State from 1901 to 2001 shows that total population grew over three times during this period. This is much less than the four-fold growth at the all-India level. Tamil Nadu’s population in 2001 was 62.1 million as per the provisional figures of the 2001 Census. The growth of population in India and Tamil Nadu after 1951 has been much sharper than that before 1951. From the perspective of disease control and nutrition, this can be construed as a positive development. Birth rates declined significantly in the 1970s and even more so in the 1980s. Since then, both birth and death rates have been declining in such a way as to result in a slow but secular decline in the natural rate of growth. That this occured even before sustained and widespread increases in economic growth took place and, in spite of sharp inequalities in standards of living, is noteworthy. Both morbidity and mortality are important indicators of health status. Data on morbidity patterns are scarce and are not easily reducible to simple and striking indicators. The discussion of basic indicators of the health status of Tamil Nadu’s population comprises the following variables: birth and death rates, IMR, fertility rate, proportion of institutional deliveries and sterilizations.

Crude Birth and Death Rates Between 1971 and 2000, the State’s Crude Birth Rate (CBR) declined from 31.4 to 19.3, a decline of nearly 39 per cent, while for India as a whole CBR declined from 36.9 to 25.8, a decline of only 30 per cent (Figure 4.1).

40



TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

FIG. 4.1—CBR AND CDR FOR TAMIL NADU AND INDIA, 1971–2000 45

Tamil Nadu CBR India CBR

’000 population

35

Tamil Nadu CDR India CDR 25

15

5 1971

1981

1991

2000

Year Source: Sample Registration System.

Among the major States only Kerala experienced a faster decline of 42.0 per cent. The decline in CBR has been especially rapid since 1984. Data from the VES 1999, for the reference year 2000 show that the decline in birth rate has been taking place uniformly across all districts. In fact, district CBRs varied within a band of 16.3 to 21.3, with only Dharmapuri outside this band at 26.1. A second period of decline in birth rates for Tamil Nadu is observed after the mid-1980s. This rapid decline in fertility brought the birth rate in Tamil Nadu to a level almost as low as that for Kerala by the mid-1990s (Tamil Nadu 20.3; Kerala 18.0) and only a couple of points away from stabilization levels. The decline in fertility was greater among the less educated and SCs, as compared to the more educated and other category people. In recent years, however, there has been a levelling-off of the birth and death rates in Tamil Nadu, and consequently the natural growth rate of population in the State. This is particularly true after 1993. The all-India trend, however, has continued to show a decline. The decline in death rates, while not as impressive as the decline in birth rates, has nevertheless been significant. From 14.4 in 1971, the Crude Death Rate (CDR) came down to 7.9 in 2000 as per the SRS, the corresponding figures for India being 14.9 and 8.5. Rural–urban differences have been as expected, with rural birth and death rates exceeding the urban rates, but the gap between rural and urban rates has been declining sharply from the 1980s. Thus, even in the presence of significant rural–urban differences in settlement as well as other socio-economic indicators, a trend towards homogenization is observed particularly for birth rates. This phenomenon is called the ‘homogenization of the demographic regime’—as differences between urban and rural mortality and fertility decline very sharply. In Kerala also, there is hardly any rural–urban gap in demographic behaviour. There, however, it is largely due to the fact that there is a strong rural–urban continuum in the settlement structure. This homogenization is not observed at the all-India level. The SRS figures for Tamil Nadu and India show that for Tamil Nadu the rural birth rate stood at 21 as compared to 19 for urban (a gap of 2); the rural death rate stood at 8.8, compared to 6.6 for urban (a gap of 2.2). Against this, the all-India rural–urban differences were sharper. Regarding birth rate, the rural–urban gap was as high as 7.3, while that for the death rate was 3.2.

DEMOGRAPHY, HEALTH AND NUTRITION



41

TABLE 4.1—IN-MIGRANTS OF LAST RESIDENCE WITH DURATION OF RESIDENCE 0–9 YEARS, 1991 S. no. Districts

1 2 3 4 5 6

Chennai Chengalpattu Coimbatore Ramanathapuram Kanniyakumari Sivagangai

Total (in million) Persons

Males

Females

0.49 0.32 0.20 0.02 0.02 0.03

0.33 0.15 0.10 0.01 0.01 0.01

0.16 0.17 0.10 0.01 0.01 0.02

Source: Census of Tamil Nadu, TN State Disrict Profile 1991.

Migration Apart from birth and death rates, migration is another variable that impacts population levels. In the census, migration is studied as a movement from the place of last residence or from place of birth. Migration can be rural–rural, rural–urban, urban–rural or urban–urban, each having either intra-state, inter-state and/or international components. Both for Tamil Nadu and India, intra-state migrants account for the highest share of all migrants, followed by inter-state, with international migrants being the lowest. The share of female migrants is more than that of male migrants, both for Tamil Nadu and All India. Among intra-state migrants, rural to rural migration accounts for the largest share, followed by rural to urban, then urban to urban and finally urban to rural. Data show higher female migrants on account of the families having moved or due to marriage. In respect of males, much of the migration is either due to the family having moved or for employment. Table 4.1 shows migration levels in selected districts. It may be surmised that the most desired destinations are those with better expected opportunities for livelihood, education and marriage. These are also likely to be places of urban stress, requiring State intervention. Rural–urban migration is known to result in shelter and environmental problems and associated problems such as worsening slum conditions, urban crowding and unsanitary living conditions.

Sex Ratio Tamil Nadu’s sex ratio has improved from 974 to 986 between 1991 and 2001 (Table 4.2). There has been an improvement in the sex ratio in some of the districts prone to female infanticide. Salem’s sex ratio improved from 925 to 929, Dindigul 976 to 986, Madurai 964 to 978 and Theni 964 to 979. However, Dharmapuri has defied any positive change (Table 4.2). TABLE 4.2—RURAL, URBAN SEX RATIOS IN SOUTHERN STATES AND INDIA, 1981, 1991 AND 2001 India/States

1981

1991

2001

India – Total

934

927

933

– Rural – Urban

952 879

939 894

NA NA

Andhra Pradesh – Total

975

972

978

– Rural – Urban

984 948

977 959

NA NA (Contd...)

42



TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

(Table 4.2 Contd.) India/States

1981

1991

2001

Karnataka – Total

963

960

964

– Rural – Urban

978 926

973 930

NA NA

Kerala – Total

1032

1036

947

– Rural – Urban

1034 1021

1037 1034

NA NA

Tamil Nadu – Total

977

974

1058

– Rural – Urban

987 956

981 960

NA NA

Note: NA-not available. Source: Census of India, 1991, 2001 (provisional).

Moreover, though the State’s sex ratio has improved in the last decade and is much higher than the all-India figure of 933, the adverse female–male sex ratio is still of concern. Among the major States, however, only Kerala’s sex ratio has consistently been above 1000. Comparing rural–urban sex ratios for 1981, 1991 and 2001 data (Table 4.2), it can be seen that rural sex ratios in India are higher than urban ones. This has also been the case in the southern states. Trends, however, show a decline in rural areas and an increase in urban areas for Tamil Nadu and India. In Kerala, there is an increase for both urban and rural areas.

Juvenile Sex Ratio While the overall sex ratio has increased in Tamil Nadu between 1991 and 2001, the juvenile sex ratio has decreased from 948 to 939. Salem has the lowest juvenile sex ratio of 826. Other districts with very low juvenile sex ratios are Dharmapuri (878), Theni (893) and Namakkal (896). This trend of declining sex ratio has been attributed to a number of factors: missing women through undercounting, the lower status of women contributing to their being considered dispensable, higher mortality during childhood because of less care and nutrition, higher mortality during childbirth, female infanticide and recent technological developments that aid sex-selective abortions.

Life Expectancy at Birth According to the SRS, LEB for Tamil Nadu for 1996–2001 was 65.2 years for males and 67.6 for females. The corresponding figures for India were 62.4 and 63.4, respectively. Only Kerala, Punjab and Maharashtra were ahead of Tamil Nadu in this regard. District estimates show that LEB varies from a low of 61.83 years in Dharmapuri to a high of 74.21 years in Chennai. Apart from Chennai, LEB exceeds 70 years in only Kanniyakumari district. Most districts report LEB close to the State average of 66.74 years (Table 4.3). TABLE 4.3—LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH, 1997 S.no District 1 1 2

Chennai Kanniyakumari Virudhunagar

Male

Female

Total

70.92 70.36 64.24

77.96 74.96 69.11

74.21 72.65 66.59 (Contd...)

DEMOGRAPHY, HEALTH AND NUTRITION



43

(Table 4.3 Contd.) S.no District

Male

Female

Total

3 4 5 6 8 9

Nagapattinam Pudukkottai Salem Ramanathapuram Thanjavur Madurai

64.46 64.36 65.12 63.19 61.98 61.06

68.45 66.75 65.36 67.24 66.88 63.24

66.36 65.53 65.24 65.18 64.38 62.15

10

Dharmapuri

61.66

62.05

61.83

State

64.91

68.85

66.74

Source: Vital Events Survey 1998, DANIDA, TNHCP, Chennai.

As noted earlier, there are two data sets for many of the health indicators. The VES estimate of LEB for males for the State as a whole at 64.91 years is very close to the SRS estimate for 1996–2001 at 65.2, while the VES estimate for females at 68.85 is slightly higher than the SRS estimate of 67.6. In all districts, female LEB exceeds male LEB with the difference being the highest in Chennai district at 7.04 years. In 10 out of the 29 districts, female LEB exceeds 70 years. Male LEB exceeds 70 only in Chennai and Kanniyakumari. It is significant that unlike the biological norm in other countries, female life expectancies in India were by and large below male life expectancy. The 1991–6 average, however, was 60.6 for males and 61.7 for females, reversing the male–female gap. The Tamil Nadu figures over the same period start lower than the all-India figures with 41.09 years for males and 39.24 for females during 1951–61, but increase to more than the all-India averages by 1991–6 with figures of 62.85 for males and 63.05 for females.

Total Fertility Rate The Total Fertility Rate (TFR) for Tamil Nadu has shown a sharp decline from 3.9 in 1971 to 2.0 in 1997 as per the SRS. The corresponding figures for India are 5.2 and 3.3, and for Kerala 4.1 and 1.8. The VES for reference year 1997 confirms the estimate of 2.0 for the State’s TFR (Figure 4.2). District-level estimates of TFR show a clustering FIG. 4.2—TOTAL FERTILITY RATE Andhra Pradesh

6

Gujarat Kerala

5

Maharashtra Karnataka

4

Tamil Nadu India

3

2

1

1971

1981

1991

Year Source: Sample Registration System.

1997

44



TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

of most districts around the State average of 2.05. Only Dharmapuri, Salem and Perambalur report a TFR above 2.4, and of these, the first two are high female IMR districts where female infanticide (FI) is widely prevalent. It is also worth mentioning that the age-specific fertility rate (ASFR) for the young adult age group of 15–19 years has declined in Tamil Nadu from 70.7 in 1971 to 30.7 in 1997. The all-India figure for 1997 is 53.7. Punjab, Gujarat and Kerala have lower ASFR (15–19) (indicating higher age at marriage and first conception), the figures being 16.4, 25.4 and 26.0, respectively. There are a number of reasons for the rapid decline in TFR in Tamil Nadu: the strong political commitment of successive governments, the progressive influence of socio-cultural movements such as that initiated by Periyar, an improved transport and communication network promoting diffusion of the small family norm and a sustained and intensive information, education and communication (IEC) effort. Rising aspirations of the people vis-a-vis living standards in the face of modest economic growth, better health, opportunities for women to engage in occupations outside the home, as well as improved levels of literacy have also contributed to this process. It is a matter of concern, however, that IMR remains high while TFR and CBR have declined dramatically (see section on IMR).

Family Welfare Measures The remarkable decline in the State’s TFR and CBR, as mentioned above, have been due to a number of reasons. Birth control measures, mostly sterilization, is one reason that should not be discounted. The nature of sterilization has, however, changed. While laproscopic sterilizations were preferred during the mid-1980s, owing to some failures in this procedure, conventional tubectomy is now preferred among women. The average age of acceptance, which was 30 years in 1982–3, has come down to 26.4 years in 1998–9. Conventional contraceptives (CC) and oral pills have played, if at all, only a marginal role. Nonetheless, with the AIDS epidemic, CC usage has gone up. A break-up of sterilization indicates that 56.3 per cent of the sterilization acceptors in 1995–6 had two or less children. Of these acceptors with two or less children 46.1 per cent had at least one male child. Only 10.2 per cent of these acceptors had no male children. Strong preference for a son still exists in many districts of Tamil Nadu. The least preference for sons is exhibited in Erode and Coimbatore districts where 20 per cent and 18 per cent of the acceptors (with two or less children) have only female children. The strongest son preference is exhibited in the districts of Villupuram, Tiruvannamalai and Dharmapuri where the corresponding percentages are 3.7, 4.1, and 4.7, respectively. Sustaining and consolidating Tamil Nadu’s gains in population stabilization thus requires that attention be paid to the gender dimension of the population policy. Sterilization itself raises many ethical questions with regard to women’s ability to exercise their voice. There needs to be much greater involvement of the men in contraception, both temporary and permanent. Currently the number of vasectomies performed per year in the State is negligible and the use of condoms by males is confined largely to urban areas. The Reproductive and Child Health Project (RCHP) rapid survey in 12 districts of Tamil Nadu (1998) reports that only 15 per cent of males in the sample were using modern methods of contraception (see Box 4.1). According to NFHS-2, only 5 per cent of the men report using or having ever used condoms and a smaller 0.8 per cent report having undergone sterilization. An estimate of induced abortions in Tamil Nadu puts the figure at 447,000 for 1991 (assuming 25 abortions per 73 live births, of which 60 per cent are induced). During the early 1990s, the reported number of medical termination(s) of pregnancy (MTPs) performed in Tamil Nadu was around 45,000 per year. Allowing for some under-reporting of MTPs and overestimation of induced abortions, the data still suggest that a sizeable proportion of abortions go unrecorded and that safe abortion services remain inaccessible to a sizeable proportion of those who need them. Rural women are particularly vulnerable.

DEMOGRAPHY, HEALTH AND NUTRITION



45

Box 4.1—Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) Project The RCH project is a nationally co-ordinated project being implemented with loan assistance from the World Bank. In Tamil Nadu, the project has two components: • A sub-project, covering Madurai and Theni districts, of five years duration commencing 1997–8, with an overall outlay of Rs 231.4 million. • A State level component—the State Implementation Plan (SIP)—to cater to the infrastructure needs of all other districts, with an outlay of Rs 183 million, sanction for which is awaited. The general objectives of the project includes empowering the community to demand better health services and improving substantially the performance of the health care delivery system. The Madurai–Theni subproject seeks, in particular, to improve the health status of women, adolescents and children, and the quality of service provision. Specific goals include reduction of IMR and MMR as well as maternal and infant morbidity, improved MTP services and reduction in pregnancy wastage and elimination of female infanticide. The SIP focuses on promotion of institutional deliveries and effective provision of emergency and essential obstetric care at block PHCs through a paramedic oriented model. It will also supply drug kits to village health nurses (VHNs), and medicines and hospital equipment to PHCs and also undertake minor civil works in PHCs/HSCs/FRUs/district hospitals. Training in RCHP, awareness generation and mobility and communication skills training to female field health functionaries are also part of the project mandate. The project will also involve IEC efforts, utilizing in particular the Kalaipayanam (itinerant street theatre) strategy to mobilize and motivate the community around the issue of reproductive health.

Maternal Mortality Ratio Estimates for the year 1992–3 put Tamil Nadu’s maternal mortality ratio (MMR) at 376. More recent evidence suggests that the MMR in Tamil Nadu is substantially lower. Data from the VES of 1995, 1996, 1997 and 1998, involving a sample population of 4.5 million (confined to non-municipal areas) in 19951 and 9 million each in the other three years, suggest a fairly stable MMR for the State in the range of 150 to 200. An analysis of the causes of maternal death in Tamil Nadu brings out the fact that a large number of these are preventable. While there are well identified direct and indirect obstetric causes for maternal death, socioeconomic factors also play a crucial role—for instance, patriarchal attitudes, the enormous burden of hard toil and poor nutrition, the lacunae in transport and communication facilities, delay in accessing proper health facilities and the lack of and/or poor quality of essential and emergency obstetric services. Among the medical causes, haemorrhage, accounted for nearly 40 per cent of all maternal deaths in Tamil Nadu in 1996. Possible errors in the estimate notwithstanding, this highlights the importance of availability of blood in saving maternal lives. Other major causes include pregnancy-induced hypertension and eclampsia, rupturing of the uterus on account of obstructed labour, puerperal sepsis and septicemia. Important indirect obstetric causes include anaemia, heart disease, jaundice and malaria. As 40 per cent of all maternal deaths are due to haemorrhaging, a key to the reduction of MMR lies in reducing haemorrhaging. Availability of adequate quantities of blood in time, therefore, is crucial. In the context of increasing concern over possible transmission of the HIV/AIDS virus through blood transfusion, the Government of India has brought into force strict regulations concerning licencing of blood banks and procedures for blood transfusion. 1‘non-municipal’

areas include all rural areas and town panchayats, but exclude municipalities and municipal corporations.

46



TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

Anaemia, which is estimated to account for over 6 per cent of all maternal deaths directly, and which contributes indirectly in equal or greater measure, has to be tackled on a priority basis. The basic cause for anaemia is poor nutrition of the mother. Both poverty and intra-household gender inequality in the distribution of food play a role in this. Also relevant is the enormous burden of household and productive work borne by the mother in poor rural households. Data from NFHS-2, conducted in Tamil Nadu in 1999, suggest that 56.5 per cent of women in the State are anaemic and around 20 per cent moderately or severely so. Among pregnant and lactating women, anaemia is prevalent in 54 per cent of the cases, if 11 grams per decilitre is taken as the norm. In the urban areas of Chennai with 12 decilitres as the norm, the percentage was higher at 81 per cent. These figures, though comparatively lower when compared to other States, are still high enough to warrant corrective action. Women need to be healthier, nutritionally speaking, to improve their own physical conditions. This is also required in the interest of the next generation. The prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) is a cause for continuing concern. The aim should be to eliminate cases of low birth weight since it is costly to the sufferers and to society. For this, one may have to look at not only maternal malnutrition, but also to step back to focus on the growth patterns of adolescent girls. Instead of waiting for an undernourished and anaemic woman to get pregnant and then intervene, growth promotion among adolescent girls during their rapid growth spurt is likely to lead to healthier mothers in the future. Adolescents of small weight and height, combined with nutritional deficiencies such as anaemia, is a very important area of concern.

Institutional Deliveries The State has made significant progress in increasing the proportion of institutional deliveries. According to SRS data, Tamil Nadu, which was behind Kerala and Maharashtra in terms of percentage of institutional deliveries in 1971, stood way ahead of all States except Kerala in 1996. Thus, while 97 per cent of all deliveries in Kerala in 1996 were institutional deliveries, in Tamil Nadu, institutional deliveries comprised 65 per cent of the total deliveries. In 1998–9, the share of institutional deliveries to total deliveries in Tamil Nadu was around 80 per cent. Variations across districts are, however, seen. At one end, is the wholly urban district of Chennai with almost 100 per cent institutional deliveries, and at the other, is Tiruvannamalai with only 51 per cent institutional deliveries. Though a substantial number of primary health centres (PHCs) and health sub-centres (HSCs) are equipped to conduct normal deliveries, only about 8 to 10 per cent of all deliveries in Tamil Nadu take place in the 10,000 plus HSCs and PHCs in the State. This works out to less than one delivery per PHC or HSC per month. As for the share of ‘safe’ deliveries, defined as all institutional deliveries plus all domiciliary deliveries attended to by trained personnel, the SRS figure for the State as a whole rose significantly from 39.3 per cent in 1971 to 85.6 per cent in 1996. The proportion of ‘safe’ deliveries to the total shows much less variation across districts. As Box 4.2 illustrates, the TNHCP Phase-III has made significant strides in empowering the medical staff in the public health sector so as to improve the likelihood of ‘safe’ deliveries.

Box 4.2—Empowering Female Field Functionaries The DANIDA TNHCP Phase-III focuses on the districts of Dharmapuri, Thanjavur, Tiruvarur, Nagapattinam, Salem, Namakkal, Cuddalore and Villupuram besides dealing with training and IEC in the public health sector throughout the State. As part of its commitment to improving the delivery of the public primary health care

DEMOGRAPHY, HEALTH AND NUTRITION



47

services, and its focus on women’s empowerment, the project has taken the initiative to provide all female field health functionaries—VHNs, sector health nurses (SHNs) and community health nurses (CHNs) not only loans for purchase of mopeds, but also training in driving the vehicles. The project has allocated a sum of Rs 2.93 million towards mobility training for female field health functionaries to cover around 4000 nurses in all the project districts put together. Mobility training has been completed in all the project districts. The mobility training was provided in residential camps at which the functionaries were also trained in communication skills and in yoga. These camps served to empower the female field health functionaries and enhance their self-image and confidence. It may be noted that these were precisely the outcomes of the mobility training initiative first implemented in the project district of Dharmapuri in the first two months of 1999. An independent evaluation of the mobility training initiative in Dharmapuri has noted that the use of mopeds by female field health functionaries has risen sharply from a pre-training level of 23 per cent to a post training level of 98 per cent. This has resulted in considerably enhanced coverage of outreach services. The empowerment of the functionaries has led, along with other factors, to improved public primary health care service delivery.

Infant Mortality Rate Improvements in the above mentioned indicators such as MMR, institutional deliveries etc. have a positive impact on improving the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) which is the indicator actually used in the HDI index. The IMR is a sensitive indicator, not just of the state of health, nutrition and caring accessible to infants below one year of age, but also of the general well-being of society. While the IMR for Tamil Nadu and India were close in 1970, at 125 and 129 respectively, Tamil Nadu’s IMR has declined much more rapidly than India’s. Tamil Nadu’s IMR declined to less than 100 by 1980, while India’s declined only to 114. By the end of the 1980s, the IMR had reached 68 for Tamil Nadu (91 for India) and by 2000 it was estimated at 51 (68 for India). However, given the relatively advanced position of the State, socio-economically speaking, combined with a massive network of pre-schooler health and nutrition centres, Tamil Nadu could aim for a sharper reduction. An examination of the rural–urban differentials points to one area for improvement. As seen in Figure 4.3, FIG. 4.3—IMR FOR TAMIL NADU BY PLACE OF RESIDENCE 150

Rural Urban

per 1000 live births

130

Total

110

90

70

50

30

1970

1971 1980

1981 1990

1991 1992

Year Source: Sample Registration System.

1993 1994

1995 1996

48



TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

rural IMRs have been consistently higher than urban IMRs over the 28 year period from 1970 to 1997, indicating a much higher risk of infant death in rural areas. A disaggregation of the State’s IMR into its early neonatal, late neonatal and post-neonatal components is also instructive. SRS data for the period 1970–97 show that early neonatal deaths as a share of total infant deaths, increased from 26.3 per cent in 1970 to around 60 per cent by the mid-1990s. In comparison, when Kerala’s IMR in mid-1970s was about the same as Tamil Nadu’s at present, the share of early neonatal deaths in total infant deaths was only around 40 per cent. Data from the VES 1999 for reference year 1998 also confirm the high share of early neonatal deaths in total infant deaths in Tamil Nadu. In the case of high female IMR districts such as Dharmapuri and Salem, the share of early neonatal deaths to total infant deaths for female infants is much higher.

Box 4.3—DANIDA Tamil Nadu Area Health Care Project The Tamil Nadu Area Health Care Project (TNHCP), funded by the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA), has been in existence since 1981. During its first two phases from 1981 to 1996, the project covered the erstwhile South Arcot and Salem districts (now, Villupuram and Cuddalore, and Salem and Namakkal, respectively). In its third phase, the project districts are Dharmapuri, Thanjavur, Tiruvarur and Nagapattinam. The designated project period is from December 1996 to December 2001, and the approved outlay Rs 591 million. The overall project objective is to improve the health and family welfare status of the rural population, especially of the weaker sections, with a focus on women and children. The project seeks to empower women and mainstream gender concerns. To achieve its objectives, the project has sought to strengthen the physical infrastructure of the health sector, the knowledge and skills of health service providers, the management of health services and the medical supply system. It also seeks to improve awareness of both the community and the health service providers on issues pertaining to health and health service delivery.

Finally, it needs to be noted that perinatal mortality in the State has not come down significantly. This is because of persistently high early neonatal mortality rates, accompanied by a relatively modest decline in still-birth rates (SBRs). Thus, the perinatal mortality rate (PNMR) only declined from 55.2 in 1971 to 43.4 in 1997 as per the SRS. The corresponding figures for Kerala and India in 1997 were 17.5 and 43.2. The SBR for the State declined, according to SRS data, from 22.1 in 1971 (India: 17.5) to 11.7 in 1997 (India: 8.7, Kerala: 11.3). The major medical causes of infant deaths, as per the VES 1998, were birth asphyxia (17.7 per cent), low birth weight (14.6 per cent), acute respiratory infection (13 per cent) and prematurity (7.1 per cent). Most of these deaths typically take place in the neonatal, and especially early neonatal phase. The two key requirements for a significant reduction in IMR are antenatal care and high quality care of new borns. The former, by addressing issues of maternal nutrition and identification of high risk pregnancies, will help reduce infant death due to prematurity and low birth weight. The latter will help reduce infant death due to birth asphyxia and acute respiratory infection. Where Tamil Nadu fares well is immunization. Tamil Nadu has the best record for immunization among the major Indian States. Practically, all the 1.1 million infants born every year are covered. 1.2 million pregnant women are also immunized against tetanus every year. The quality of the immunization programme has improved considerably over the past 15 years with cold chain maintenance and potency of vaccine being ensured, leading to a substantial reduction in vaccine preventable deaths.

DEMOGRAPHY, HEALTH AND NUTRITION



49

Female Infanticide A significant proportion of female infant deaths in the neonatal period are due to female infanticide (FI). In the last three or four decades, there has been a rapid decline in the juvenile sex ratio (defined as the sex ratio in the age group 0–6) in some districts of the State. These are also the districts that show considerable female IMR, for example Salem. Female infanticide deaths account for 7 per cent of all infant deaths in the State, 14 per cent of all female infant deaths, and between one-third and two-thirds of all female infant deaths in Salem and Dharmapuri. Data indicate that the practice occurs in about one-third of the State’s 385 blocks, spread over the districts of Dharmapuri, Salem, Namakkal, Theni, Madurai, Karur, Dindigul, Erode and Vellore, with stray incidence in some other districts. The government has sought to address this issue through a combination of legal action and community mobilization and motivation. The DANIDA TNHCP initiative of kalaipayanams in Dharmapuri is a good example which has been followed up by involving elected local body leaders in a sustained campaign against FI (see Box 4.3).

Female Foeticide A closely related issue is that of female foeticide. With the emergence of technology that enables the identification of the sex of the foetus, the practice of female foeticide emerged in many parts of the country, especially Maharashtra, Punjab, Haryana and Delhi more than a decade ago. In recent years, it has also spread to Tamil Nadu. It is reported that female foeticide is being practiced in some districts in the name of ‘genetic counseling’. Available data on sex ratios at birth also indicate that the practice has acquired significant dimensions in some parts of the State. To deal with the issue, the Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques (Regulation and Prevention of Misuse) Act 1994, a national act was passed in 1994 forbidding sex determination tests. It came into force on 1 January 1996. Urgent action is needed to ensure both registration as well as strict compliance with the Act, and to mobilize and motivate the community against the practice of female foeticide. Both female foeticide and infanticide stem from and reflect the patriarchal nature of Tamil Nadu society and its strong son preference, with women consequently being given a low status. Thus, any strategy to tackle female foeticide and infanticide must also address the larger issue of weakening patriarchy and empowering women. It must take the nature of a social mobilization campaign, involving community participation.

Nutritional Status and its Relationship to Health In many developing countries, including India, nutrient absorption and utilization by the body is less efficiently carried out because of the presence of frequent infectious episodes like diarrhoea and upper and lower respiratory infections. Infection causes nutrition status to deteriorate; at the same time undernutrition decreases resistance to infection—a synergistic relationship. Thus, the term nutritional status is used to describe an outcome of several biomedical processes, interacting over time. Even when mortality is controlled, the nutritional status may not improve. Education and communication regarding the importance of nutrition can go a long way in bringing about long-term changes in attitudes and recognition by parents of the importance of nutrition for their children.

Nutrition Levels and Trends Anthropometric measurements, like weight and height, are always an outcome of both heredity and the environment in which children grow. Differences between socio-economic classes result in greater differences between the growth of children than differences due to ethnic factors across countries. Thus, the more deprived the

50



TAMIL NADU HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT

population (in terms of access to nutrients, infection loads, hygiene and even care and attention) the lower are the weight and height outcomes likely to be. A look at comparative international data shows that countries high on the human development scale show a lower percentage of underweight children under 5 years of age as compared with medium and low human development countries. During the period 1990–7, on an average, 30 per cent of the children under five years of age in the world as a whole were underweight—12 per cent in high human development countries, 19 per cent in medium human development countries (excluding China the figure increases to 23 per cent), and as high as 45 per cent in low human development countries (excluding India the figure decreases to 37 per cent). The figure for India was 53 per cent, with Pakistan (38 per cent) and Nepal (47 per cent) reporting lower percentages. There is also a direct correlation between levels of economic development and percentage of underweight children. Among all developing countries, the figure for the under five year old children stood at 30 per cent whereas for the least developed countries it was 39 per cent. The National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau data show high percentages of children in India below five as underweight, stunted and wasted.2 Child development programme data for rural children from the Tamil Nadu Integrated Nutrition Programme (TINP) show a high percentage of underweight3 children among participants during the 1980s and 1990s. It appears that half or more of the children assessed are far below the international standards adopted for assessment. The exact percentages vary depending on the classification systems and norms used. Hence, programme data are not directly comparable with external data. In Tamil Nadu, around 46.6 per cent of children below five years are underweight (Table 4.4).4 The percentages are higher in rural areas (52.1 per cent) as compared to urban areas (37.3 per cent) as per 1992–3 data. While this is better than the all-India situation of 53 per cent, States like Kerala, Haryana and even Rajasthan are doing better than Tamil Nadu. TABLE 4.4—PERCENTAGE PREVALENCE OF MALNUTRITION AMONG CHILDREN AGED 1–4 YEARS IN SELECTED STATES (percentage) State

AndhraPradesh Gujarat Karnataka Kerala Maharashtra Tamil Nadu

Underweight (Weight-for-age below 2SD of the Median)

Stunted (Height-for-age below 2SD of the Median)

Wasted (Weight-for-Height below 2SD of the median)

Rural

Urban

Total

Rural

Urban

Total

Rural

Urban

Total

52.1 45.8 NA 30.6 57.5 52.1

40.00 40.50 NA 22.90 45.50 37.30

49.10 44.10 54.30 28.50 52.60 46.60

NA 44.60 NA 29.60 50.80 NA

NA 41.60 NA 21.50 39.10 NA

NA 43.60 47.60 27.40 46.00 NA

NA 20.30 NA 11.50 21.50 NA

NA 16.10 NA 12.00 18.30 NA

NA 18.90 17.40 11.60 20.20 NA

Note: NA-not available. Source: International Institution for Population Sciences, 1995, NFHS, 1992–3.

Persistence of Undernutrition Undernutrition is a persisting phenomenon in Tamil Nadu and in India as a whole. Even the most favourable data show that on the basis of weight-for-age around half the children under five years continue to be underweight, showing the widespread prevalence of current malnutrition. This in itself is a cause for serious concern from 2SD

classification. classification based on the Harvard standards of weight-for-age. 4Weight-for-age below 2SD of median in 1992–3. 3IAP

DEMOGRAPHY, HEALTH AND NUTRITION



51

the point of view of human development. If this persists, batch after batch of children will display stunted growth (low height-for-age), ending up with lower than ‘normal’ adult heights. When data are analysed by caste, results show that children from SC households tend to be the worst-off among all communities, both for the 0–36 months age group as well as for the 36–60 months group. It is clear that the socio-economic status of the household has a direct effect on nutritional status. The education of both the father and the mother seem to have an effect on the child’s nutritional status as well. The effects are a little more pronounced for the 0–36 months age group as compared to the 36–60 years age group. The district-wise break-up of programme data in Tamil Nadu once again confirms the importance of the mother’s educational status. Kanniyakumari, with the highest female literacy in Tamil Nadu is also the district that ranks the highest in respect of normal and grade I children. It is also the district with the lowest percentage of children in grades III and IV.

Weight-for-Age Depending upon the classification system used (Gomez, standard deviation (SD) or the Indian Academy of Paediatrics (IAP)5 and the reference population weight standards adopted (the US-NCHS or Harvard) for defining the various degrees of undernutrition, the actual percentages of children classified as ‘normal’, ‘mild undernutrition’, ‘moderate undernutrition’ and ‘severe undernutrition’ vary. Although direct comparisons of results across different studies are, therefore, not possible; changes over time can be assessed. Whichever classification is used, the conclusion is that around half or more of children in the 1–5 years age group in India are underweight. Correspondingly, the share of children severely malnourished more than halved from 15 to 6.2 per cent. The rest of the children were mildly or moderately undernourished. The same trend is observed FIG. 4.4—TREND IN NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF RURAL TAMIL NADU CHILDREN (0–36 MONTHS) 60 50

Per cent

40 30 20

10

Normal

5Gomez

Grade I

Grade II

97

19 98 19 99 20 00

19

19 83 19 84 19 85 19 86 19 87 19 88 19 89 19 90 19 91 19 92 19 93 19 94 19 95 19 96

0

Grade III & IV

classification (4 grades): >=90 per cent of reference weight-for-age: Normal 75–90 per cent of reference weight-for-age: Grade I or mild malnutrition; 60–75 per cent of reference weight-for-age: Grade II or moderate malnutrition; <60 per cent of reference weight-for-age: Grade III or severe malnutrition. Indian Academy of Paediatrics (5 grades): >80 per cent of reference weight-for-age: Normal 71–80 per cent of reference weight-for-age: Grade I malnutrition 61–70 per cent of reference weight-for-age: Grade II malnutrition 51–60 per cent of reference weight-for-age: Grade III malnutrition <=50 per cent of reference weight-for-age: Grade IV malnutrition

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TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

in the Tamil Nadu figures, with the percentages of normal and mild malnutrition higher than the all-India figures and the percentages of severely malnourished lower. As per 17 years of programme data (TINP), the percentage of children in the nutritionally most vulnerable 6–36 months age group with normal weight-for-age6 increased steadily from just 18.6 per cent in 1983 to over 52 per cent in 1999. Simultaneously, the percentage of children showing moderate malnutrition (grade II) as well as severe malnutrition (grades III and IV) showed a systematic decline, the former from over 35.4 per cent to 9.8 per cent and the latter from 12.3 per cent to just 0.5 per cent. The percentage of mildly malnourished children (grade I) was around 33 per cent—43 per cent with a mild upward trend. This indicated that children in grades III and IV climbed up to grades II, I and normal, and those in grade II climbed to I and normal (Figure 4.4). Both NIN as well as internal programme sources confirm a common trend: an increase in the normal plus mildly malnourished categories and a decline in the severely malnourished, regardless of classification systems and standards. As part of the endline evaluation of TINP done by NIN, male–female comparisons are made for 1997. Here it is concluded that girls do no worse than boys so far as weight-for-age is concerned. In fact, the female percentages are slightly better than those for males. This is true, separately for the 0–36 months as well as for the 36–60 months age groups. The normal and grade I percentages for females are higher than those for males while simultaneously the grades III and IV percentages are lower, both under the IAP and Gomez classifications. At the national level also, recent data for 1–5 year olds pooled from nine States (Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Tamil Nadu) for 1996–7 also show that male and female undernutrition are comparable (NIN, 1997). No bias against females is observed in weight-for-age. A ranking of districts by nutritional grades has been attempted. Ranks were determined on the basis of monitoring data on participating children in the age group 6–36 months in 19 districts7 from 1996 to 1999 where TINP (now World Bank (WB)-ICDS-III) is in operation. Of the top five districts overall in the normal plus grade I category (Kanniyakumari, Coimbatore, Vellore, Thoothukudi and Erode), as many as four, are also at the top in respect of low percentages in grades III plus IV (Kanniyakumari, Erode, Coimbatore, Dindigul and Vellore), showing remarkable congruence of the top ranks. The congruence among the bottom ranks also exists but it is less remarkable (Table 4.5). TABLE 4.5—NUTRITIONAL GRADES IN DISTRICTS (UPPER AND LOWER CATEGORIES) Top 5 Districts Rank

District

Bottom 5 districts District

Rank

Normal + Grade I 1 2 3 4 5

Kanniyakumari Coimbatore Vellore Thoothukudi Erode

Cuddalore Nagapattinam Villupuram Ramanathapuram Tiruchirappalli

19 18 17 16 15 (Contd...)

Standard Deviation Classification: The number of SDs away from the median weight-for-age class captures the extent of the gap from normal. Less than or equal to 3SD of weight-for-age or height-for-age indicates severe undernutrition or stunting, respectively. A gap of 3SD– 2SD below median is relatively less severe, indicating moderate malnutrition; 2SD–1SD is mild; and 1SD to median, on either side, is taken as normal. 6IAP

classification based on Harvard standards.

7Comparable

data are not available for other districts and hence, regretfully, those districts had to be excluded from the comparison.

DEMOGRAPHY, HEALTH AND NUTRITION



53

(Table 4.5 Contd.) Top 5 Districts Rank

District

Bottom 5 districts District

Rank

Grades III + IV 1

Kanniyakumari

Virudhunagar

19

2

Erode

Nagapattinam

18

3

Coimbatore

Ramanathapuram

17

4

Dindigul

Tirunelveli

16

5

Vellore

Tiruvannamalai

15

Source: TINP Programme Data.

Kanniyakumari had the overall first rank for 1996–9. It is of interest that female literacy is the highest in this district. This brings into focus the importance of non-nutrition factors including overall human development and women’s empowerment as part of improving the nutrition status of the population. The overall worst district was Cuddalore. By and large, the ranking of districts did not change much over the period. Significant changes in ranks by more than 5 places in the normal plus grade I category occurred in the case of Tiruvannamalai (a decline from rank 7 to 14), Virudhunagar (decrease from rank 9 to 16), Sivagangai (an improvement from 13 to 8), Tirunelveli (a decline from 6 to 12) and Salem (an improvement from 12 to 6). In the grades III plus IV category, significant changes in ranks by more than 5 places were seen in Tirunelveli (a decline from 9 to 18), Salem (an improvement from 14 to 2), Dharmapuri (an improvement from 14 to 2) and Tiruchirapalli (an improvement from 11 to 6).

Height-for-Age Lower than normal heights for given ages captures the extent of ‘stunting’—a comparatively long-term indicator as compared with weight-for-age, capturing chronic undernutrition. The prevalence of stunting (below median– 2 SD) in the States (pooled) decreased from 78.6 per cent to 57.7 per cent during 1975–9 to 1996–7. Severe stunting (below median–3 SD) decreased from 53 per cent to 28.8 per cent during the same period. Simultaneously, there was an increase in the percentage normal (median–1 SD to median plus above median) from a low 6.8 in 1975–9 to 18.1 per cent. The reduction was mainly in the prevalence of severe stunting, the moderate remaining largely unchanged (NIN, 1999) (Table 4.5).

Weight-for-height This indicator captures ‘wasting’ (Table 4.5). It is age-independent, which is a merit when addressing populations where age estimation may be a problem. It also has the advantage of combining weight and height data. Nonetheless, the weight-for-height indicator has to be used cautiously. It cannot provide useful information when both weights and heights are low, as is most often the case in India, as that would lead to conclusions of normality when in fact there may be very severe undernutrition. Similarly, it is not very useful to capture the trend when both weights and heights move nearly proportionately in the same direction, as was the case in the period 1975–9 to 1996–7. The ratio did not change much during the period since both weights and heights recorded concomitant changes. The NIN data showed that over the period 1975–9 to 1996–7, mean heights and weights for different ages and sexes did not increase significantly in Tamil Nadu. The same was the case for Orissa, Gujarat (except for school aged children and adolescents), Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Karnataka. In respect of Kerala alone, there was

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an overall increase in heights (1–2 cm) and weights (2–3 kg) among males and females for all age groups. In Gujarat, both boys and girls of school going age and adolescents showed an increase. However, in all States, the values were significantly lower than the NCHS norms (NIN, 1999).

Low Birth Weights Low birth weight (LBW) is defined here as weight at birth less than 2500 grams. Birth weights are significant in as much as they set the pattern for future growth of a person. They are also positively associated with infant mortality, and prevalence of diseases like diarrhoea. Data from various States in India in 1990 show that Kerala figures were the lowest at 15.3 per cent (Thiruvananthapuram) and Gujarat the highest at 46.4 per cent (Vadodara) in terms of LBWs. For Tamil Nadu, while the average birth weight for the State stood at 2.63 in 1995, it increased to 2.75 in 1999 suggesting that there may have been a decline in the percentage of LBW cases (15.34 per cent in 1999) over time. The TINP programme data on LBW cases, however, shows a far lower percentage of incidence of low weight at birth, ranging between a low of 3.6 per cent in phase I districts to a high of just 5.3 per cent in phase IV districts, averaging 4.5 per cent overall (pooled) among the weights recorded. This does not seem reconcillable with other data and may in fact be unrealistic. Earlier baseline and mid-term evaluations of TINP have yielded LBW of 22 and 23 per cent, respectively (NIN, ICMR, 1998).

Clinical Signs of Malnutrition Some clinical signs of malnutrition among pre-school children such as oedema, marasmus and two or more signs of protein energy malnutrition (PEM) are less prevalent in Tamil Nadu as compared with pooled data, including six other States, during the period 1975–9 to 1996–7. However, angular stomatitis and bitot’s spots seem to be prevalent in Tamil Nadu (Table 4.6). In respect of anaemia, nearly 30 per cent of pre-school children in Tamil Nadu are anaemic.8 This is, nonetheless, better than other States such as Gujarat with 72 per cent, Maharashtra 67 per cent, Uttar Pradesh 63 per cent and West Bengal 95 per cent. TABLE 4.6—PREVALENCE OF NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY SIGNS AMONG PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN (percentage) Nutritional Deficiency Signs

Year

NAD Oedema Marasmus Two or more signs of PEM Bitot’s spots Angular Stomatitis

1975–79 1996–97 1975–79 1996–97 1975–79 1996–97 1975–79 1996–97 1975–79 1996–97 1975–79 1996–97

Kerala

Tamil Nadu

Karnataka

Andhra Pradesh

Maharashtra

Gujarat

91.7 98.6

84.4 82.1

0 0.2 0 0.2 0 0.1 0.5 1.6 0

0 0.6 0 0.6 0 2.9 0.7 5.0 10.6

71.9 94.5 0.4 0.1 0.9 0.5 2.3 0.5 11.8 0.5 11.8 0.5

79.8 92 0.9 0 2.0 0.2 3.0 1.1 3.1 0.8 7.9 3.4

86.0 88.2 0.5 0.1 0.8 0.2 0.6 1.8 0.4 3.0 1.0 1.2

79.7 99.2 0 0 3.8 0 0.2 0.1 0.9 0 1.5 0

Note: NAD—Clinically Normal Children. Source: National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, 1999. 8Haemoglobin

less than 11 grams per decilitre.

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The trend over the period shows that, overall, while the percentage of clinically normal children (NAD) increased from 80.7 per cent in 1975–9 to 93 per cent in 1996–7, in respect of Tamil Nadu it was the reverse. The NAD prevalence actually decreased in Tamil Nadu from 84.4 per cent to 82 per cent. In fact it was the lowest in Tamil Nadu by 1996–7. The trend for Tamil Nadu in respect of bitot’s spots, marasmus and two or more signs of PEM was downward, but a jump has been observed in respect of angular stomatitis.

Independent Nutrition Surveillance At present, weight-for-age and other detailed health and nutrition related monitoring data are available only for programme participants. These are from the relatively worse-off sections of society and do not reflect the overall prevailing nutrition condition. About two-thirds of the child population remains outside this system. Moreover, programme data are always open to questions of reliability, as they are generated by protagonists. It is suggested that an independent nutrition surveillance system be put in place on the basis of a suitable sample design and coverage so that the following comparisons can be made. This surveillance system can collect information with regard to location (rural vs urban), district, season (to pinpoint time of the year), sex, economic status, birth order (earlier born vs later born, educational status of parents and time trends. Further, a suitable panel for monitoring a cohort from birth to adulthood may be set up. This will aid policy as well as function as a communication tool. Currently, the National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB) is an agency monitoring nutrition status at the national and State levels. However, for States to be able to take targeted corrective action, data below State level are also required. The technical services of NNMB could be used to set up such a system which might even fit in with the national monitoring on nutrition. Given that Tamil Nadu already has a massive structure for nutrition intervention, the additional costs (financial and organizational) of surveillance would not be prohibitive.

State Provisioning of Direct Nutrition Services Even in the most optimistic scenario, improvements in health and nutrition take place over a generation. Better nutrition has generally followed economic growth, not preceded it. Among the low income countries, and especially among those with considerable inequalities, the route of waiting for growth to address the problem of malnutrition has been found to be unacceptably long. The consequences of such delays are costly in terms of not only productivity, but also the direct well-being of the population, which is ultimately the objective of all development efforts. Direct interventions could shorten the time taken for improved nutritional status.

Moving From Hunger to Nutrition Providing food is not equivalent to providing nutrition. Nutrition is the outcome of interactions between a variety of factors and processes, including health, care, environmental hygiene, etc. Providing food for children outside the home is not a new idea in Tamil Nadu. In some form or another this has been in operation since 1956. Starting with schemes meant primarily to combat hunger, nutrition consciousness has been in-built in strategies starting in the early 1980s. While feeding programmess may have been started to combat hunger, over the years, the government in Tamil Nadu has made serious attempts to combine provision of food under the Noon Meal Programme (NMP) with other services such as health care, immunization, growth monitoring, pre and post-natal care for women, communication and nutrition education. This has been done through programmes like the ICDS and the TINP, which have been integrated with the NMP (see Box 4.4) infrastructure for pre-schoolers. The State’s nutrition effort, however, does have a strong ‘food bias’. Resource constraints have not reduced the coverage or calorific content over the decades.

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Box 4.4—The Noon Meal Programme Starting on 1 July 1982, Tamil Nadu saw the beginning of one of the largest phased expansions of midday feeding through the Noon Meal Programme (NMP). This is a major hunger programme. For the first time, the State focused on the difficulties of reaching the pre-school age group (2+ to 5 years). Operationally, this is the hardest age group to cover, but in terms of nutritional efficiency, perhaps better than older children so that problems may be tackled before any irreversible damage sets in. Successive governments have continued to commit very significant portions of the State’s budget to it. This has resulted in one of the most expensive network of centres being established and staffed. The programme has a clear ‘food bias’. From 1997 it has also caught the imagination of the Government of India, which is now starting to support similar efforts in all States. Such a large scale programme has not been attempted before. The noon meal feeds a population of over 8.3 million, nearly every day by serving a hot rice meal cooked on the spot. The sheer logistics by itself can be mind-boggling. Yet, these schemes have grown and stabilized over the last 20 years. Starting from preschoolers and school children, today certain adult categories of pregnant women and pensioners are also covered. The scheme is now a combination of a hunger–health–nutrition effort with social security for the old, the destitute and widows. School children eat their noon meal at school. The other categories that is pre-schoolers, pensioners and pregnant and lactating women eat at the pre-school centres. Taking all pre-school as well as school centres together, there are more than 71,100 NMP centres feeding well over 7.7 million children and 0.54 million adults. Under the programme, a hot lunch of rice cooked with dhal, soyabean flour, vegetables, oil and condiments is provided to the children below six. Food is supplied for all days of the year for pre-schoolers Nearly all the pre-school NMP centres have now been merged with those of two other child development programmes—the TINP and the ICDS. In all, this accounted for 30,701 pre-school noon meal centres, 1,398,064 children and 535,502 adults. The ‘pure’ NMP centres (non-TINP, non-ICDS) operate in a few urban pockets (720 centres with around 29,309 children). While full integration has taken place at the village level, with no overlap or wastage, this has not taken place at the district and State levels. A district can have both standard ICDS and WB-ICDS-III (former TINP) offices and staff, which function independently. ‘If these projects can be administered by one single set of functionaries, enough manpower can be saved for innovations in community capacity building and training’. (Shantha, 1997). Though there was an income criteria, in practice any willing child in the eligible age group is permitted to participate. In actual fact it is the relatively poorer sections of the population who participate. One estimate indicates that at present around 33 per cent of the pre-school age group actually avails of the benefits under the programme (Shantha, 1997). This is a high percentage if it is recognized that those in poverty situations are more likely to avail of the noon meal (the percentage population below the poverty line ranges between 30–40, depending on which figures are accepted). The noon meal is perhaps better described as a substitute rather than a supplementary nutrition input, as it is in lieu of a home meal, rather than in addition to it.

Another initiative which has picked up considerably in Tamil Nadu and which can have a positive impact on overall child care and nutrition is the establishment of women’s self help groups (SHGs). Women SHGs, by empowering women financially, are able to make women more responsible decision makers vis-à-vis their family and children in particular (see Box 4.5).

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Box 4.5—Women’s Empowerment through Self Help Groups (SHGs) Combining nutrition education with women’s empowerment and poverty alleviation through regularity in savings and income generation is important. This achieves two things: women become aware and ambitious themselves and for their children and, they have the purchasing power combined with status within the household to take responsible decisions for their children. Women’s empowerment has been facilitated with the extension of a major micro-finance scheme for women, the Tamil Nadu Women’s Development Project, popularly called Mahalir Thittam, meaning women’s scheme. The scheme promotes social and economic empowerment among women through women’s organization into SHGs, rotation of their collective savings to help satisfy emergency and consumption needs of households, reduce the dependence on money lenders, institutional credit access and income generation in the hands of women. The project’s pilot phase has already demonstrated that poor rural women are credit worthy and can become financially savvy even when semi-literate. Around 9.5 lakh women in Tamil Nadu were reported as participating by December 2000. Strengthening and integrating women’s working groups of TINP with SHGs, thus institutionalizing economic empowerment systems among women rather than working in independent compartments, would help in establishing inter-sectoral linkages across schemes.

In 1995, a State policy on nutrition was explicitly drafted with technical support from the United Nations Children’s Education Fund (UNICEF). Tamil Nadu is probably the first State to draft such a policy, following the 1993 National Nutrition Policy. This has been reformulated in 2002–3 as Policy for Malnutrition Free Tamil Nadu. The State policy, for the first time, explicitly recognizes that food alone cannot eradicate malnutrition.

Public Distribution System One should also not forget the PDS system as it is also a nutrition-based intervention of sorts. Tamil Nadu’s PDS aims at price stability and attempts to make available a few selected articles of mass consumption, particularly to the vulnerable section at reasonable prices. The PDS network extends to 27,848 outlets including 36 mobile fair price shops. Essential commodities such as rice, wheat, sugar and edible oils are distributed to consumers at below market prices. As expenditure on food constitutes a considerable amount for families, the PDS is an essential element of the government’s safety net for the poor in checking the erosion of real earnings. The total number of family cards is 16 million, out of which only 2.5 million card holders have given the option for extra sugar instead of rice. Thus, about 13.6 million card holders are entitled to get rice up to a maximum of 20 kg per month per card at the flat rate of Rs 3.50. Tamil Nadu’s retail price of rice is the lowest in the country and involves a total subsidy of more than Rs 15,000 million per annum. However, in spite of the sustained and massive investments in direct nutrition in Tamil Nadu, of the kind not taking place in other States, the improvements in anthropometric indicators have not been considerable. Some States do better than Tamil Nadu, others do worse, but by and large, all demonstrate improvement. Obstacles to improvements in nutritional status in Tamil Nadu could be partial or even full replacement of the usual diet at home when there is feeding in the centres, inadequacy of nutrition education among communities, inadequate focus on the adolescent girl who is to be the future mother, difficulties in adopting changed practices recommended by the programmess as they need time (frequent feeding) and resources (fuel for boiling water), a focus on the already undernourished for providing food inputs. This last factor, while it does help the currently malnourished, does not prevent new batches of malnourished children from being added every year.

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Non-nutritional Factors and their Impact on Nutrition Various studies have shown the importance of factors like improved water supply, reduction in infections, near universal immunization, providing herd immunity etc., in improving nutritional status. In fact, as the 1999 NIN report shows, during the 1975–97 period there was no significant improvement in nutrient intake, and yet, an improvement in nutritional status of pre-school children was observed. Many of the non-nutritional factors require very little effort on the part of individual households or child care givers. Most of these are under the purview of the State, and hence comparatively easier to control as against activities that require child care givers to put in special effort, acquire better knowledge and adopt nutritionally conducive practices. For example, it is easier to just provide a protected water supply point in a village than teach all the mothers the importance of diarrhoea management with oral rehydration therapy (ORT) combined with small and frequent feeds, and to ensure such practices within households. Inter-sectoral coordination between the departments dealing with water, hygiene sanitation and health is crucial for the prevention of diseases, especially water-borne diseases. An analysis of the impact of health promoting factors on the health status of the population is dealt with here.

Water and Sanitation Water and sanitation are two non-nutritional factors which have an impact on nutrition. An attempt is, therefore, made to look briefly at the water and sanitation situation in Tamil Nadu. With a growing population, there is mounting pressure to provide water supply and sanitation facilities on a sustained basis. Provision of these basic facilities is also crucial for achieving the goal of ‘Health for All’. Specific attention is given to assessing the availability and accessibility of drinking water and sanitation facilities. Intra-state disparities are analysed and policy interventions are suggested. Data are mostly from the 1991 Census (though more recent data have also been used) as the socio-economic tables of the 2001 Census are yet to be published, and to a lesser extent from the NSS 44th and 49th rounds.

Water Supply In 1991, about 68 per cent of households in Tamil Nadu had access to safe drinking water. This is, however, slightly misleading as there are substantial distributional inequalities between districts, between rural and urban areas, between major towns as well as between local bodies. In Madurai, for instance, more than 83 per cent of households had access to safe drinking water, compared to around 32 per cent in Ramanathapuram (Census, 1991). The urban and rural situation is significantly different. In 1999, 64 per cent of the State’s urban population had access to drinking water. However, only 50 per cent had supply as per the norms. Moreover, less than 40 per cent of households residing in municipalities and about 24 per cent of households residing in town panchayats had house connections. Also, 35 per cent of water was unaccounted for, that is, it does not seem to reach the target, as compared to the world norm of about 10–15 per cent. The position in regard to access to safe drinking water by households according to Census 2001 is set out in the Table 4.7. TABLE 4.7—ACCESS TO SAFE DRINKING WATER BY HOUSEHOLDS (IN %) Total

Within premises

Outside Premises

Total

85.5

24.6

61.0

Rural

85.3

10.7

74.6

Urban

85.9

44.0

41.9

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FIG. 4.5—DISTRICT-WISE ACCESS TO WATER SUPPLY 6000

Rural Habitations Covered (No.)

5000

4000 Fully covered Partially Covered

3000

2000

1000

Ka nc he e Th pur iru am Cu val d lu Vi dal r llu or pu e r Ti ru V am va el nn lor am e al ai N Sale am m D ha akk rm al ap u Co E ri im rod b Th at e e o Ti N re ru ilg ch iri ira s pa Pe K lli ra aru Pu mb r du alu kk r N Tha ott ag n ai ap jav at ur ti Ti nam ru v M aru ad r ur Ra T ai m D hen an in i a di Vi tha gul ru pu dh ra u m Si na va ga g r T an Th irun gai o Ka ot elve nn hu li iy ku ak di um ar i

0

Districts Source: Statistical Handbook, Tamil Nadu, 1998.

Failure of systems & sources and inefficient operation and maintenance by local bodies in the absence of expertise are factors which contribute to the problem of shortage of water supply to urban areas. All the 66,631 rural habitations identified in the 1992 resurvey have been covered with drinking water supply. To asses the drinking water status in rural areas, a resurvey has been taken up and the actual position will be known on completion of the resurvey report. Figure 4.5 illustrates that the level of achievement, with respect to the habitations covered by water supply, varies across districts; with the percentage of fully covered habitations varying from about 41 per cent in Kanniyakumari to above 78 per cent in Thiruvallur district. The concentration of partially covered habitations is more in Kanniyakumari district (59 per cent) followed by Dindigul (57 per cent) and Ramanathapuram (53 per cent). Access to water is not the only problem. Time and resources are required to access water from distant sources. During the summer months the problem of scarce water is accentuated, involving long and frequent treks to the nearest accessible water source. Primarily the women of the house undertake fetching of water. Thus, the development of basic services without a doubt benefits women. The development of local water supplies, sanitation, roads and rural energy programmes can do much to reduce womens’ burden and improve the health conditions of women and children. Households that have no water source within their premises need to be covered on a priority basis. Salinity in water sources, owing to Tamil Nadu’s long coastal tract, is also posing a problem in the provision of protected water supply. This problem is particularly acute in Ramanathapuram. Desalination plants have been installed at 11 places in the district to convert brackish water, unfit for drinking, into drinking water. Among these is a major desalination plant with 3.80 mld capacity capable of converting sea water into potable water, installed at Narippaiyur and meant to benefit 345 rural habitations. An estimated 25,000 people in Chennai are benefiting from desalination plants in four different areas.

Sanitation Toilet facilities are available to only 23 per cent of the households in Tamil Nadu (1991), a situation which is not too good. Unlike in other parts of the world, pit latrines have not picked up in India at all nor in Tamil Nadu.

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Even in urban areas, less than 58 per cent of households have access to sanitation facilities, as compared to about 51 per cent in 1981. The fact that there has not been any significant improvement over a decade is worrisome. Chennai has the highest coverage with 82 per cent and Tiruvannamalai, with less than 9 per cent of households having access to toilet facilities, the lowest. The rural scenario is even worse. Only about 7 per cent of the rural population has access to sanitation facilities (1991). According to 2001 Census, the coverage is as follows: Total

Rural

Urban

Toilet

35.2

14.4

64.3

No Toilet

64.8

85.6

35.7

In comparison, about 67 per cent of households in Kerala have access to toilet facilities (NSSO, 1993). This is a major area of concern. Though the Tamil Nadu Government initiated steps for the construction of rural toilets in 1986–7, the programme did not succeed due to lack of water facilities. Therefore, in recent years, the emphasis is on the provision of quality community toilets with water facilities. Dry type latrines no longer exist in village panchayat areas. Toilets within or near dwellings are a rarity in rural areas. Defecation in the open is common among villagers, not only because there is no alternative, but also because it is a preference. Even among the upper caste households that have a latrine constructed within, only the women use it while the men continue to go to the fields. Water scarcity in some villages is another factor for dysfunctional latrines. Rural sanitation is a priority area and the goal is to cover at least 75 per cent of rural population with access to sanitary facilities by the end of the Tenth Plan. This will uphold the dignity and privacy of rural women and improve the quality of life in rural environs. In order to prevent defecation in open areas and in drains, concerted effort is required to disseminate knowledge and create awareness among people on sanitation and its impact on their health and environment. This can be accomplished by educating a target group, in this case women, which would in turn influence the families.

Water and Sanitation—Impact on Health The link between water, sanitation and health status is a complicated one. Nonetheless, these non-nutritional factors do have a significant impact on the ability of individuals and households to attain a good nutritional status. Why? The World Bank has estimated that more than 30 million life years are wasted annually due to water-related diseases. It is estimated that 80 per cent of all diseases and sicknesses are water-borne and water-related. Water pollution in developing countries creates a major problem of diarrhoeal disease, not only among children but also among adults. The conditions that facilitate the transmission of these diseases are all related to poverty and unhealthy living conditions. In India, diarrhoeal diseases are a major cause of death among adults. It is observed that incidence of diarrhoea cases is less among those using own wells or piped water at home. An analysis of acute diarrhoeal disease cases in Tamil Nadu reveals that a higher percentage has been reported in districts such as Tiruvannamalai, Ramanathapuram, Vellore, Virudhunagar and Cuddalore, which have a lower percentage of households with water sources within premises. Thus, the control of these diseases needs to be addressed chiefly through improving sanitation and the supply of safe drinking water. Here again, the situation in Tamil Nadu is quite grim—43 per cent of households (more than 50 per cent in the rural areas) do not have access to drinking water, toilet facilities and electricity. Lack of good drainage is another possible cause contributing to water-borne diseases. Virtually no municipality

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has an underground sewerage system. Underground drainage facilities have been provided fully or partially in 16 towns, though the existing drainage systems also suffer from deficiencies. Rural and urban areas have a predominance of open kutcha drainage, a rather inefficient medium that is responsible for widespread overflowing, clogged or broken drains. It is also a cause for concern that of the total urban malarial cases reported in 1999, 70 per cent were in Chennai.

Utilization of Health Services—Public vs Private There has been an impressive growth in physical infrastructure and personnel in public health care. The government health sector now employs around 15,000 doctors including various types of specialists and around 30,000 paramedical personnel. With the focus on primary health care over the last two decades, there has been a significant expansion of PHCs and HSCs in particular. Dependence on a public facility for treatment of a non-hospitalized illness is generally higher in Tamil Nadu as compared to the average for the country as a whole. In rural Tamil Nadu, women seek non-hospitalized care from a public facility to a significantly greater extent than men, while the reverse is true in urban Tamil Nadu. The all-India figures show much smaller differences between men and women in this regard. Pubic health facilities in rural Tamil Nadu seem to be quite important for women. When it comes to inpatient care, there is a far greater public–private mix. The scenario for Tamil Nadu is dramatically different than that for All India, with private health facilities accounting for 85.4 and 56.47 per cent respectively of all hospitalized cases in rural and urban areas of Tamil Nadu as against the corresponding figures of 38 and 40 per cent for India. Surveys undertaken by the National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) and National Council for Applied Economic Research (NCAER) bring out certain basic features of the morbidity situation and provide data on access to and utilization of medical and health care services by households. Of interest are the findings regarding use of public versus private facilities, costs and patterns of morbidity. National Sample Survey (1997 and 1998) data suggest that the poor in Tamil Nadu are much more likely to use a public facility than a private one for inpatient care. In the lowest income quintile, 72 per cent of inpatient days are in public facilities. This proportion declines to just 27 per cent for the top quintile. However, the upper quintile tends to spend significantly more time under hospitalized care than the poor. As a result, the well-to-do utilize far more of public health care facilities than the poor, in terms of total inpatient days. National Sample Survey data also show that the proportion of all outpatients using the public sector has declined in both rural and urban areas between 1986–7 and 1995–6. This is true for both All India and Tamil Nadu and in fact for most States. Relative to the national average, Tamil Nadu shows a higher degree of utilization of public sector facilities in both rural and urban areas in 1986–7 as well as in 1995–6. A more recent survey by the NCAER, conducted in 1994, involving an all-India sample of 33,000 rural households, and including 1294 persons reporting ailments in Tamil Nadu (Mallaney, 2000), reveals a different picture. The results indicate that even in the poorest quintile, more than two-thirds seek private care despite it being more expensive.

Primary Health Centres Primary health centres cater to a large section of the rural population when it comes to treatment of minor ailments. Almost 35 million outpatients are treated in PHCs annually. Allowing for repeaters, this still indicates a high degree of utilization of PHCs for minor ailments (given that the rural population of Tamil Nadu is around 45 million). A study by the Community Medicine Department of the Kilpauk Medical College (KMC) shows that the average consultation is only 2.78 minutes per patient in PHCs. This indicates that adequate duration of outpatient

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services needs to be ensured by operationalizing and strictly adhering to the existing, officially mandated outpatient timings in PHCs.

Box 4.6—Towards a Health Management Information System (HMIS)—A Tamil Nadu Initiative A well-designed and properly functioning Health Management Information system (HMIS) is crucial for effective management of health service delivery. One important sub-system of HMIS pertains to the monitoring of health services. An initiative taken in the DANIDA assisted TNHCP to monitor institutional services rendered by PHCs is relevant in this context. There are two elements involved: one relates to monitoring institutional services rendered by PHCs and HSCs, and another to monitoring health programme related services for improved management. The former relating to PHCs has been established using an optical mark reader (OMR) for data entry. An appropriate system for monitoring of institutional services of HSCs and programme related services is being developed by the technical working group constituted for development of an HMIS for primary health care, taking into account the changes in the programme protocols and integration of some vertical programmes in primary health care. The DANIDA TNHCP initiative to monitor PHC performance began in April 1999. The data collected, for 12 different kinds of services that a PHC is mandated to provide, and outputs generated provide interesting insights and pointers. Discussion and sharing of the outputs at various levels of the State’s health administration have helped sensitize health officials to the importance of Indian systems of medicine, and to a range of health policy issues. Since the start of monitoring of the PHCs, there have been significant improvements in two important indicators viz: outpatient services and deliveries.

The KMC study also indicates that there is a trend towards ‘poly-pharmacy’, that is, the practice of prescribing more than two drugs for a single common illness. The percentage of prescriptions with antibiotics, even in the primary health set up, is around 54.42. Ideally, in a primary care setting, the antibiotic usage should not be more than 25 per cent. The number of prescriptions with injections are around 56.47 per cent. Here again, the ideal value in a primary care setting should not exceed 10 per cent. Similar studies are needed at secondary and tertiary levels and a more rational use of drugs needs to be emphasized. With the free and easy availability of drugs through TNMSC, there is a risk of ‘overprescription’. This is an important issue with regard to the quality of care. The interface between the public health department and the people needs to be strengthened considerably with an emphasis on the quality of care. The issue of private practice for doctors and its impact on government health services needs to be discussed and evaluated (Box 4.6).

Private Sector In India more than three-fourths of the expenditure on health care is incurred privately. Thus, while the total expenditure—public and private—on health amounted to 5.2 per cent of GDP in 1997, public expenditure on health as a percentage of total health expenditure was just 13 per cent. It is thus clear that the private sector is a major player in the country’s health care system. The private sector is the major provider of outpatient care in all the major States according to data from the 52nd round of the NSS pertaining to the reference year 1995–6. This is true for both urban and rural areas. Even with respect to inpatient care, as many as 10 out of 15 major States report the private sector to be the major provider in both rural and urban areas in 1995–6.

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In Tamil Nadu, the private sector accounted for 75 per cent and 72 per cent, respectively of total outpatient care in 1995–6 in rural and urban areas. The corresponding percentages for inpatient care were 58.9 per cent and 64.3 per cent as against the all-India figures of 54.7 per cent and 56.9 per cent. There are only four States—Punjab, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Bihar—in which the proportion of private provision of inpatient care to total in urban areas is higher than that in Tamil Nadu. The private sector in the health sector is far from homogenous. The private corporate sector in health is numerically small but enormously influential in setting trends and standards as well as the terms of reference on issues such as quality. The corporate private health care institutions—including super-specialty hospitals— are largely located in metropolitan and other big cities. What is emerging with the rapid growth of the ‘for-profit’ sector in health care, and of corporate health care enterprises in particular, is a high degree of commercialization of health care as well as systemic dualism. The rich, and in emulation, the not-so-rich, seek and obtain expensive private health care at reputedly world class institutions, while the poor who cannot afford such care go the public sector health institutions, low cost private providers of uncertain quality or sometimes avoid seeking any type of treatment. Despite competition from the private sector, costs have gone up rapidly in both public and private hospitals. The average expenditure on hospitalization per episode of illness has gone up very sharply in the public sector, from Rs 320 to Rs 2080 in rural areas and Rs 385 to Rs 2195 in urban areas at the all-India level. The average cost per hospitalization has also risen sharply in the private sector over this period but the ratio of cost of private care to that of public care has come down from 2.29 and 3.13 to 2.07 and 2.43 in rural and urban areas, respectively. In the case of outpatient care, the cost of care at private facilities has risen more rapidly than that at public facilities. The private–public cost ratios for outpatient care rose from 1.05 and 1.08 in 1986–7 to 1.44 and 1.20 in 1995– 6 for rural and urban areas, respectively. On the whole, cost per hospitalization rose by 132 per cent in rural areas and 146 per cent in urban areas, that is, it more than doubled. While the private sector has played an important role in providing better services, this has led to increased inequality in access to health. This has had a caste dimension as well. Scheduled castes and tribes report poorer health outcomes than the non-SC/ST population. This is because most SCs and STs do not have access to private medical facilities because of the prohibitive cost. The issue of equity in health raises complex questions and needs to be addressed in a multidimensional manner, keeping in mind the dimensions of class, caste, gender and subregions within the State. Apart from the issue of equity that this sort of dualism in access to health care raises, there is also the issue of regulation. The private sector in health has remained largely unregulated even while subsidies to private corporate hospitals have grown. It is widely recognized that there is little standardization of quality or costs of care in the private sector.

Special Programmes to Reduce Morbidity With regard to overall morbidity, the NCAER survey found that Tamil Nadu reported a lower morbidity prevalence rate than India in both rural and urban areas in 1993, the figures being 78.5 per 1000 rural (India: 106.7) and 75.7 per 1000 urban (India: 103). In line with the all-India pattern, the rate of prevalence of chronic illness was relatively higher in rural areas. Serious communicable diseases such as typhoid, malaria, chicken pox, cholera, acute gastroenteritis, jaundice, measles, mumps and tuberculosis (TB) accounted for around 12 and 14 per cent, respectively of reported rural and urban morbidity in Tamil Nadu in 1993, not very different from the corresponding all-India percentages of 14.5 and 13.3 per cent. The NCAER survey data suggest that morbidity prevalence rates decline as income increases, in both rural and urban areas. In particular, acute illnesses and serious communicable diseases occur more frequently among low income groups.

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AIDS Control The first case of HIV in India was reported in Tamil Nadu in 1986. Since then, a number of measures have been taken to address the issue of AIDS control. Tamil Nadu was the first State in the country to form a State-level AIDS Control Society to implement the programme in a fast track mode in partnership with non-government organizations (NGOs), community-based oganizations (CBOs), the private sector as well as national and international agencies. All 29 districts of the State have reported AIDS cases. It is estimated that there could be 300,000–350,000 HIV positive cases. A major thrust in Tamil Nadu in tackling the AIDS epidemic has been in the area of IEC. Other elements of the strategy to control AIDS include: modernization of blood banks and promotion of voluntary blood donation; control of sexually transmitted diseases; interventions focused on high risk groups; surveillance; and training of health system personnel. Two major agencies in the State involved in the area of sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV/AIDS prevention and control are: the State AIDS Control Society and the APAC, administrated by the Voluntary Health Service (VHS) with funding from United States Agency for International Development (USAID). Both work in close collaboration with NGOs. The components of the programmes of intervention include development and use of IEC materials, behaviour change communication, increased quality of STD care services, training clinical and non-clinical personnel counselling for STD/HIV/AIDS patients, partner treatment, condom promotion etc. However, despite greater knowledge related to STD and HIV among respondents, the perception of risk remains relatively low.

Malaria Control The National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) was launched in Tamil Nadu in 1953. Following its perceived success, the National Malaria Eradication Programme (NMEP) was launched in 1958–9. Initial optimism that malaria could be completely eradicated was belied by the resurgence of malaria during the mid-1960s. A modified plan of operation seeking to control rather than eradicate malaria was introduced in 1977. It sought to integrate malaria control with primary health care rather than treat it as a separate wing of the Directorate of Public Health, with field activities also remaining outside the purview of the PHCs. Areas have been classified as epidemicprone areas, tribal areas with malarial problems, and urban areas with malarial problems. Another classification is that of urban malaria, coastal malaria and riverine malaria. An analysis of the incidence of malaria in the State shows that malaria remains an urban problem. While the incidence of total malaria cases has come down from around 100,000 cases in 1992–3 to around 35000 cases in 2002, the share of urban malaria cases has gone up from 65 per cent to 84 per cent during the same period. Of the total malaria cases reported in the State, the share of Chennai has gone up from 48 per cent in 1992 to 79 per cent in 2002. Since the malaria mosquito breeds in fresh water, a campaign to cover overhead tanks with tight-fitting lids could yield a breakthrough in Chennai and other cities and towns. Simultaneously, vector control through anti-larva work, active surveillance by door to door visits and treatment, and educating private practitioners are needed to tackle the problem.

Leprosy Eradication The National Leprosy Eradication Programme (NLEP) was launched in 1994–5. With the introduction of multidrug therapy in 1981, there has been a remarkable improvement in the treatment and recovery of leprosy patients. In Tamil Nadu, the prevalence rate has been brought down rapidly from 118 per 10,000 population in 1983 to a mere 2.2 in 2002. Taking into account the changes in trends and profile of leprosy, the State government decided to integrate leprosy services into general health services. Leprosy curative services are now available in all PHCs, corporations, municipal hospitals and government dispensaries. The programme components

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65

in Tamil Nadu include: case detection, treatment and release; prevention of disabilities and rehabilitation; manpower development; IEC and community participation; and monitoring and evaluation, backed up by health system research. While the prevalence of leprosy has come down in the State as a whole, there are inter-district variations. Chennai and Kanniyakumari respectively report the lowest figures of 0.9 and 1.7 per 10,000 population. The highest incidence rates are in Perambalur 5.9 and Thiruvannamalai, 5.7. Other districts with above average prevalence rates include Thoothukudi (5.6), Namakkal (5.5) and Dharmapuri (5.2).

Tuberculosis Control Tamil Nadu has about one million TB patients of whom 25 per cent are regarded as infectious. The TB control programme in the State functions through district-level units. It is based on the revised national TB control programme. It envisages detection of TB patients from those reporting with chest symptoms at the district TB centre as well as peripheral medical and health institutions in each district, including effective treatment for the prescribed period. During the period 1998–2002, a total of 349,000 new cases have been detected, exceeding the ‘target’ of 333,000 by a sizeable margin.

Other Public Health Issues Some public health issues, which need both government intervention and strong campaigns, relate to smoking, alcoholism and drugs. Drugs and alcoholism are yet to be treated as public health issues and are dealt with more as social problems which defy or do not warrant public health interventions. The issue of domestic violence is also not treated as a public health problem. In fact, this issue remains very much in the private sphere of the family. A lasting solution to the issue of domestic violence will involve both the all-round empowerment of women and the sensitization and mobilization of the community as a whole as well as legal and public health interventions. Another important policy issue is occupational health. There are several industries where workers are exposed to serious health hazards such as cement, asbestos, tanning, bleaching and dyeing, pharmaceuticals and chemical industries. Health surveillance, diagnosis and care of workers in these industries needs to be prioritized. Also, issues of environmental monitoring and protection and occupational health need to be streamlined in health policy.

Sectoral Outlays—Health and Nutrition In the context of the ongoing process of structural adjustment and economic reforms, it is widely recognized that social sector expenditures come increasingly under pressure on account of the government’s fiscal constraints. Given the importance of the social sector, and especially health, it is important for human development that ways are found to protect and enhance the government’s budgetary allocation to the health sector even as one pays attention to more efficient utilization of the allocated outlays. Government outlays for the health sector in Tamil Nadu fall primarily under two heads: (i) medical and (ii) public health. Over the years, the government’s budgetary outlays to the health sector have been increasing in both nominal and real terms. Taking only the decade of 1991–2000, the budgetary provision for ‘medical and public health’ rose in current prices from Rs 4.11 billion in 1991–2 to Rs 10.51 billion in 1999–2000. Except in 1995–6 and 1999–2000, the increase in nominal outlay over the previous year has exceeded 10 per cent with the highest increase of 19.8 per cent being recorded between 1990–1 and 1991–2. Despite absolute increases in health expenditure, the outlay on health as a share of the total expenditure provision on the revenue account in the State government’s budget has shown a declining trend in the 1990s.

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Summary and Policy Imperatives Tamil Nadu is moving towards population stability and has managed to reduce maternal and infant mortality substantially over the last three decades. It has also established a widespread network of health institutions in the public sector, and equipped them to some extent. In respect of the three strategic elements for reduction of MMR—family planning, antenatal and post-natal care, and essential and emergency obstetric care—Tamil Nadu has also, over the years, made significant progress. With some additional resources, imaginative policy initiatives and increased participation of the people, the State can make more strides forward. For Tamil Nadu to improve upon its past performance, it not only needs to target particular areas of concern, but also ways and means to go about attaining these goals. A number of priority points are identified below which will provide certain targets for the future. Reduction of IMRs, especially female IMRs. Emphasis on malnutrition—in particular girl and maternal malnutrition. Efforts to reduce anaemia and in particular, anaemia among women of child bearing age. Improve quality of primary health care institutions and antenatal care. Strengthen emergency obstetric services. Continued emphasis on family planning and increased options for birth control, especially for men. Improve service delivery and choice options. Increase and improve provision of MTP services. Mainstream Indian systems of medicine in the health system. Mainstream gender in health. Emphasize decentralization of health care planning and administration and community participation in health. Improve quality of data for policy purposes and strengthen surveillance and health information systems. To move towards attaining these goals of better health and nutrition status, Tamil Nadu needs to focus more on disease control as opposed to management. Tamil Nadu’s nutrition policy document provides a clue for the future when it says, ‘feeding programmess which seek to improve the nutritional status among the already malnourished children are less likely to be effective. They are expensive and therefore non-sustainable’. Future generations may be better served if priority is accorded to prevention of malnutrition rather than to its management. The long term objective should be to eliminate malnutrition altogether. Hence reduced direct food provisions can be combined with an increasing emphasis on strategies for community education and participation to bring about widespread consciousness in communities about the importance of good nutritional status and the ability to recognize poor growth cases so as to trigger behavioural changes. Increasingly, the focus could shift to orienting all adolescents, boys and girls, who are to be the parents of the future, rather than merely women who are already pregnant and whose habits may already be rather fixed.

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67

Chapter

 5

Literacy and Education

Given Tamil Nadu’s rich heritage in education (see Box 5.1), it is not surprising that it is in the forefront with regard to several educational indicators such as literacy, school enrolment, infrastructure, access and achievement. Education is a vast sector, making it impossible to dwell on all facets within the confines of this chapter. As the focus of this report is on human development, elementary, secondary and tertiary education are examined as an indicator of the present level of human development as well as a means for greater human development in the future. Data from the Sixth Educational Survey 1993 and the State’s Education Department have been extensively relied upon, comparative data from other States have also been used in the study.

Literacy Literacy Performance of Tamil Nadu While the literacy rate of Tamil Nadu was almost comparable to the all-India position in 1941, the State has inched ahead of all-India in the decades following independence (Figure 5.1). The results of the 2001 Census show that Tamil Nadu has attained third position behind Kerala and Maharashtra among major States, both in terms of overall and female literacy. While the overall literacy rate has gone up from 62.7 per cent in 1991 to 73.47 per cent in 2001, the male literacy rate has increased from 73.75 to 82.33 per cent. What is encouraging is that the female literacy rate has gone up by more than 13 percentage points from 51.33 per cent in 1991 to 64.55 per cent in 2001. The ratio of male literacy to female literacy has come down from 1.4 in 1991 to 1.27 in 2001, revealing the narrowing of gender inequality in the State. International comparisons are useful to contextualize Tamil Nadu’s performance amongst other developing countries. Figure 5.2 shows the male and female literacy rates of some major developing countries, including China. Also plotted in the figure is the ratio of male and female literacy, which serves as a measure of gender inequity. While Tamil Nadu’s position in 1991 was significantly better than that of Pakistan and Bangladesh on all literacy indicators, the State has not yet attained the average level of all developing countries. The literacy levels of China, Indonesia and Sri Lanka are much higher, having marginally surpassed the average attainment levels of ‘medium human development’ countries as defined in the United Nations HDR. The gender inequity index for Tamil Nadu also follows the same trend, being lower than that of Pakistan, Bangladesh and India as a whole, but yet to reach the levels attained by other countries shown in the graph. Within the Asian region, Sri Lanka, South Korea, China and Indonesia have made impressive strides.

TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

FIG. 5.1—LITERACY RATE INDIA VS TAMIL NADU 80.00 70.00 60.00 50.00

Per cent

40.00 30.00 20.00

20 01

19 91

19 81

19 71

19 61

19 51

19 41

19 31

19 21

19 01

19 11

10.00

Year All India

Tamil Nadu

FIG. 5.2: LITERACY RATE AND MALE/FEMALE RATIO 100.0

2.5

90.0 80.0 70.0 60.0

1.5

50.0 40.0

1.0

30.0 20.0

0.5

10.0 0.0

Male

In

do

ne

sia

.H .D M

Ch in a

D

.C

. Female

A.

ad u

a di In

.D H L.

N Ta m il

Ba

ng

al

ki

ad

st

es

h

an

.

0.0

M/F Ratio

Male/Female Ratio

2.0

Pa



Literacy Rate (Percentage)

68

LITERACY AND EDUCATION



69

Literacy by District, Gender, Residence and Social Grouping A more detailed analysis based on the 1991 Census data shows wide variations in Tamil Nadu across districts and wide disparities across gender, area of residence as well as social grouping. Total female literacy, however, still tends to show a widely dispersed range from 34.23 per cent in Dharmapuri to 78.30 per cent in Kanniyakumari. The districts of Dharmapuri, composite South Arcot and Tiruvannamalai have female literacy rates equal to or less than the national average, in spite of the fact that Tamil Nadu is one of the better performing States in terms of overall education. An analysis of the urban–rural differentials in literacy rate for 1991 shows that the literacy level for urban men stands at 86.06 per cent while that for rural females is nearly half at 41.84 per cent. Further, the male–female literacy ratio for urban areas is 1.2 while that for rural areas is 1.6, showing that gender discrimination is higher in the rural areas. Also, urban literacy rates for almost all the districts tend to hover in a band between 70–80 per cent, whereas the rural literacy rate varies unduly from a low of 43.32 per cent in Dharmapuri to a high of 80.76 per cent in Kanniyakumari. The literacy rate of the SC population is distinctly and consistently lower than that of the total population in all the districts. The State’s literacy rate for the SC population is 46.74 per cent by which the ratio of overall literacy to SC literacy is 1.34. The literacy rate for SC women is 34.89 per cent with the comparable ratio to overall female literacy being more adverse at 1.56. It is a matter of serious concern that female SC literacy figures are lower than 30 per cent in districts like Erode and Coimbatore where the other development parameters are above average.

Youth Literacy Rates According to international standards, the literacy rate of 15–24 year olds is an indicator of the level of participation in primary education in the previous decade. The 1991 Census indicates that the overall literacy rate of this age group is 72.7 per cent, with a male literacy rate of 81.8 per cent and a female literacy rate of 63.9 per cent. Two features are worth noting. Over the last decade, female literacy levels in this age group in Tamil Nadu have gone up by 29.5 per cent, above the country average of 22.4 per cent, indicating some degree of success in increasing female participation in primary education. While the gender equity ratio is 1.31 in this age group, this ratio has dropped to 1.1 in urban areas with a male literacy rate of 90.0 and a female literacy rate of 80.7. These figures are positive indicators of urban primary school attendance and achievement in the eighties.

Elementary Education In line with the constitutional mandate, the State government is committed to the task of providing universal primary (elementary) education for all children up to the age of 14 years. The success of the State in achieving this end can be studied by analysing three broad parameters: •

Enrolment of all children between six and fourteen years in primary and middle school;



Retention of children in primary and middle schools, both with respect to the drop out and repetition rate; and



Quality of education with reference to attainment in basic language and numeracy skills.

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TAMIL NADU HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT

Primary Education Trends in Enrolment Table 5.1 shows the trends of sex-wise enrolment from 1975–6 to the present. In primary classes, the overall increase in enrolment is 27.6 per cent with the current level of achievement having been achieved as early as 1980–1 itself. However, there has been a distinct narrowing of the gender gap. The drop in enrolment in the nineties could also be attributed to the drop in birth rate. TABLE 5.1—SEX-WISE ENROLMENT AT ELEMENTARY STAGE Year

Primary (I–V) Boys

Girls

Upper Primary (VI–VIII) Total

Boys

Girls

Total

(in lakhs) Elementary (I–VIII)

Boys

Girls

Total

1975–76

30.01

23.39

53.40

8.69

5.04

13.73

38.69

28.44

67.13

1980–81

34.80

28.66

63.46

11.48

6.94

18.42

46.28

35.60

81.88

1985–68

38.90

33.03

71.93

14.69

9.98

24.67

53.59

43.01

96.60

1990–91

41.82

35.81

77.63

18.14

13.44

31.58

59.96

49.25

109.21

1995–96

43.89

38.06

81.95

21.02

16.80

37.82

64.91

54.86

119.77

1997–98

35.18

32.95

68.14

19.30

16.63

35.93

54.48

49.58

104.07

Source: National Institute of Education and Planning (NIEPA).

In the middle school classes, the growth in the same period has been more dramatic, showing an increase of nearly 161 per cent. The gender ratio has also improved from 1.72 to 1.16. The disturbing factor is that the annual growth rates in enrolment have slowed down considerably in the nineties. A part of this phenomenon could be explained by the drop in birth rate, but the falling growth needs to be checked so that 100 per cent enrolment in middle schools can be achieved.

Box 5.1—History of Elementary Education in Tamil Nadu The earliest developments in the field of education in the State were brought on by the advent of the Christian missionaries as early as the beginning of the eighteenth century. Though the English East India Company had started a school at Fort St George in 1673 for educating the children of its own employees, it was the missionaries who were responsible for spreading education among the local population. The Report of the Elementary Education Survey of the Madras Presidency, 1925, gives us some interesting insights into the history and progress of elementary education in the State. The report points out that there were three agencies managing elementary schools in the province: i) private bodies, mission and non-mission including private individuals and teacher managers, ii) local boards and municipal councils, and iii) government. Three distinct periods are also traced in the spread of elementary education in the province: i) the early period up to 1910, ii) the middle period from 1911–20, and iii) the period from 1921 onwards. The earliest period is characterized by major changes in policy, both regarding the medium of instruction, agency to start and run elementary schools as well as the methodology of funding of aided institutions.

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71

Though early initiatives like Munro’s minute of 1820 made some headway in vernacular education, these were often cancelled by contradictory policies such as Macaulay’s directives on English as the medium of instruction. Progress was made after Wood’s despatch of 1854, which introduced the system of grant-inaid for encouraging private participation in primary education. Spurred by the national movement under leaders like G.K. Gokhale, there was a marked shift in the educational policy of the government from 1910 onwards, marking the second period in educational development in the Madras presidency. The Government of India agreed to subsidize the opening of elementary schools in every village with more than 500 inhabitants. In pursuance of this policy, a liberal recurring grant of Rs 5 million was sanctioned out of Imperial subsidies which enabled the Provincial Government to subsidize district boards for the opening of such new schools. The third major breakthrough in the spread of education came with the Madras Elementary Education Act 1920. Under this act, local bodies were given the responsibility for elementary education and were also given powers to levy special cess to raise funds for education. The act also directed the local bodies to introduce compulsory primary education in selected areas based on their financial position. Some interesting highlights on the status of girls education in the State in a recent article reveal that the proportion of boys to girls in elementary schools changed from 4:1 in 1911–12 to 3:1 in 1926–7. A report published on ‘Development of Women’s Education’ (1929) revealed the various obstacles that stood in the way of girls education. Since the society at large and the backward communities in particular had not accepted co-education as a system, there was a need to open more girls schools so as to ensure access for girls. But the limited funds for education were used up for the opening and development of boys schools for which there was much more public clamour and support. Private aided agencies also were not keen to open girls schools which would necessarily serve a more limited group of children. Further, the spread of girls education was severely hampered by the non-availability of trained women teachers, especially among Hindu and Muslim women. In March 1927, as against 39,000 male teachers in higher and lower elementary grade, there were only 6000 women teachers, which was considered ‘satisfactory’ by the authorities at that time.

District-level Analysis District-level variations in GER can be studied using the School Education Department data for 1998–9. At the primary level, the overall enrolment for the year 1998–9 was 105.21 per cent. Boys’ enrolment was 106.37 per cent and girls’ enrolment was 104.01 per cent. The GER for primary classes shows a wide variation across districts, from 85.86 per cent in Villupuram to 114.40 per cent in Coimbatore. The percentage of district-wise enrolment of girls also reveals a similar pattern. There is a clear correlation between districts with low girls’ enrolment and overall enrolment. The GER for girls is below 100 per cent in eight districts with two districts, Dharmapuri and Villupuram, having GER for girls below 90 per cent. It is significant to note that six out of the eight districts have been covered under the World Bank funded District Primary Education Programme (DPEP). In the other two, Salem and Namakkal, the projections for girls’ school age population may be slightly higher than the actual figures due to a high female infant mortality and a rapidly falling sex ratio which distorts the GER and makes it appear lower than it really is. Though the overall gender inequity is not striking, gender differential is most visible in the low performing districts of Cuddalore, Villupuram, Perambalur and Pudukkottai. In some of the other districts, the GER for girls

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is equal or even marginally higher than that of boys, showing that the State has made some progress in ensuring access for girls at the primary school level. Disaggregated, district-level GER data for SCs and STs are not available. However, the enrolment of SC/ST children accounted for 24 per cent of total enrolment in 1998–9 which is higher than the percentage of SCs/ STs in the State (19.2 per cent). The data from the districts covered by DPEP, confirm the same trend with enrolment ratios for the SC students in primary classes being higher than that for all communities put together.

Box 5.2—Incentives for Enrolment Tamil Nadu has been a pioneer in the introduction of various schemes to enhance enrolment of children in elementary education. The most important of these schemes is the Noon Meal Scheme (NMS). In July 1982, the government introduced this massive programme to cover all rural children in the age group 2 to 9. This scheme was extended to urban areas and to the age group of 10 to 15 (both rural and urban), that is up to Class X, in September 1984. The main objective of the scheme was not only to ensure nutritional support to children but also to act as an effective incentive to achieve universal enrolment and retention in primary school. There are 40,437 school meal centres which cover nearly 6.4 million children in the age group 5 to 14. The State Government provides text books free to all children studying up to Class VIII in the government and government-aided schools. Another scheme which aims to reduce the economic cost of sending a child to school is the free provision of uniforms to all beneficiaries under the Noon Meal Scheme. A total of 6.04 million beneficiaries are covered under the scheme with a budget provision of Rs 250 million. Though there have been improvements in attendance after the introduction of these schemes and drop out rates have decreased, there are no scientific studies that assess the exact extent of their impact on the universalization of education.

Attendance in Primary and Middle Schools A comparative analysis of the performance of various Indian States in achieving school attendance at the primary and middle school levels, as measured by the 52nd Round of the NSSO on utilization of educational facilities, can be seen in Table 5.2. With a gross attendance ratio (GAR) of 98 per cent for the age group 6–10 years and 80 per cent for the age group 11–14, Tamil Nadu is among the better performing States in the country. Kerala and Himachal Pradesh have the best figures. However, States such as Punjab, Haryana and Maharashtra are inching ahead showing equal or higher levels of attendance at primary as well as middle school levels. It is clear that Tamil Nadu has to gear up its educational system to keep up its competitive advantage. TABLE 5.2—GROSS ATTENDANCE RATIO

Andhra Pradesh Karnataka Kerala Maharashtra Haryana Tamil Nadu Bihar All India Source: NSSO, 1995–6.

I–V

VI–VIII

86 87 109 106 106 98 54 85

58 61 97 80 86 80 51 65

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73

Retention in Primary Schools The Education Department figures for drop out rates at the primary level show a steady fall in the last decade to 14.52 per cent with male drop out rates being 12.98 per cent and female drop out rates 16.15 per cent. However, district-wise analysis of these drop out rates is not possible since they do not show much variation— the traditional method of drop out rate calculation is strongly influenced by data quality and collection methodology. The Sixth Educational Survey also gives details of district-wise retention. In this survey, the percentage of enrolment in Class V as a Percentage of class I enrolment in the same year has been studied. The figures are very revealing. Though the overall enrolment in Class V is 84.98 per cent of Class I enrolment, falling in line with the departmental drop out rate, there is wide variation among the districts. Dharmapuri, once again, brings up the rear with a ratio of only 74.79 per cent, while the three districts of Chennai, Nilgiris and Kanniyakumari have ratios of above 100 per cent. It is also interesting to note that for the State as a whole, the figures for boys and girls are practically equal. There are some districts, however, such as Dharmapuri, Cuddalore, Villupuram, Pudukkottai and Erode where the male–female gap is quite significant. It must be borne in mind that these socalled ‘drop out rates’ are not a measure of the actual percentage of children who leave the school system, but also include the percentage of repeaters who form a part of the enrolment figures in Class V. The phenomenon of repetition is also brought out by the data from the Sixth Educational Survey which show that repeaters make up 14.31 per cent of the enrolment in primary classes—with 15.92 per cent repeaters in Class I and 13.14 per cent in Class II, respectively. The reasons for retention of children in the first two classes need thorough analysis. TABLE 5.3—DPEP—COMPLETION RATE, DROP OUT RATE AND PERCENTAGE REPEATERS Name of the District

Completion Rate

Drop out Rate

Percentage Repeaters

Dharmapuri

50.74

21.93

27.34

Cuddalore

57.27

13.54

29.19

Tiruvannamalai

60.44

14.63

24.93

Villupuram

56.44

17.95

25.61

53.72

17.67

28.62

Perambalur

52.05

18.47

29.48

Ramanathapuram

52.26

17.78

29.96

DPEP Districts Average

55.01

17.57

27.41

Phase—I Districts

Phase—II Districts Pudukkottai

Source: DPEP-MAS.

Studies under DPEP (see Box 5.3) have also revealed that the internal efficiency of the school system is strongly influenced by the high level of repetition. A comprehensive cohort study conducted from 1994–5 to 1998–9 in all seven DPEP districts has shown that the actual completion rate (ACR) for the primary classes is only 55.01 per cent, that is only 55 per cent of children complete primary school at the end of five years (Table 5.3). The poor completion rate is due to an average drop out rate of 17.51 per cent, compounded by an alarmingly high repeater percentage of 27.41 per cent. Among the seven districts studied, Tiruvannamalai shows the highest ACR at 60.44 per cent while Dharmapuri has the least rate at 50.74 per cent.

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Box 5.3—Quality Improvement in Primary Education: District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) The DPEP is an externally-aided programme implemented in selected backward districts from 1993–4 onwards. The programme which aims to achieve the goal of universal primary education focuses on the improvement of quality of education in primary classes as well as on equity between schools and districts. The districts covered under the scheme include Dharmapuri, Tiruvannamalai, Cuddalore and Villupuram in Phase I and Pudukkottai, Perambalur, Ariyalur and Ramanathapuram in Phase II. Under this programme, child-centred, activity based text books and work books have been developed by practicing teachers of primary classes. Emphasis has also been placed on continuous in-service training for teachers through setting up of block resource centres. In addition to providing infrastructure such as school buildings and toilets, the programme has several innovative components such as ‘alternative schools’ for drop outs and special coaching classes for SC and ST girls. Another success area has been the Integrated Education for Disabled (IED) Programme implemented in 42 blocks. Non-governmental organizations have been used to train teachers to provide integrated education to moderately disabled children attending normal schools. The DPEP also has a strong component of public participation with 94 school buildings having been constructed through the community.

Wastage, due to repetition and drop out of pupils, increases the per-pupil cost of providing education—thus diverting scarce resources available for this purpose. Further, high levels of wastage are closely correlated with poor quality of education, and are often good indicators which can be used to monitor and improve school-specific performance.

Achievement Due to the initial priorities of access and retention in the schooling system, historical trends regarding quality and achievement in primary education are not readily available. It is possible, however, to draw some conclusions from the studies on mathematics and language achievement conducted during mid-term assessment in the DPEP districts. The mean performance in language in Class I varied from 56.34 per cent in Tiruvannamalai to 79.4 per cent in Villupuram, and in mathematics from 52.27 per cent in Tiruvannamalai to 77.6 per cent in Villupuram.

FIG. 5.3—MEAN PER CENT OF ACHIEVEMENT OF CLASS I STUDENTS 80

Per cent

60 40 20 0 Assam

Haryana

Karnataka

Kerala

Tamil Nadu

Language

73.27

69.46

70.03

76.41

65.52

Maths

74.45

76.48

71.78

72.91

61.66

Source: DPEP-MAS.

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In Class IV testing, the performance of the districts in language varied from 43 per cent in Tiruvannamalai to 59.7 per cent in Cuddalore, while in mathematics the best performance was in Villupuram at 50.98 per cent. Another conclusion that emerged from this study was that the gender differential in achievement in Class I was reduced to less than 5 per cent, while in Class IV no significant difference between boys and girls was observed. A comparison of average figures in Tamil Nadu and those of DPEP districts in other States is presented in Figures 5.3 and 5.4. While the State’s performance lags behind in both language and maths for Class I, the performance of Class IV students in language is better than that in other States. The performance of Class IV students in mathematics is also better than that of students in Madhya Pradesh. As the districts covered under the first phase of DPEP are the educationally most backward districts of the State, their performance might be slightly worse than that in other districts of the State.

FIG. 5.4—MEAN PER CENT OF ACHIEVEMENT OF CLASS IV STUDENTS 50

Per cent

40 30 20 10 0 Haryana

Madhya Pradesh

Tamil Nadu

Language

43.52

37.82

49.71

Maths

47.29

28.99

42.17

Source: DPEP-MAS

Having said this, home-related factors alone will not have much of an impact. They must be accompanied with good inputs in the primary schools themselves. To get a better understanding of the State of primary education, the Education Department should put in place a mechanism to study the quality of primary education and achievement levels of children.

Primary School Infrastructure Having examined the educational process and ‘outcomes’ of education in general in Tamil Nadu as well as across districts, it is now necessary to look at the various infrastructural inputs which make these attainment levels possible or in fact constrain high attainment levels.

Availability of Primary Schools It is the State government’s policy that every habitation with a population of 300 and above should have a primary school within a distance of 1 km. According to the Sixth Educational Survey in 1993–4, 44,516 out of 45,139 habitations in the State (with population above 300), fulfilled these criteria. In subsequent years, the State government has opened new primary schools to cover not only the 603 habitations identified in the survey but subsequently populated areas also.

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Availability of Basic Infrastructure While 62.34 per cent of primary schools in Tamil Nadu have drinking water, only 19.97 per cent have urinals and only 12.57 per cent have lavatory facilities. Though this places Tamil Nadu relatively better off than the all-India average, States like Kerala with 76.16 per cent of primary schools having drinking water are doing much better. The coverage under these parameters is also better in States such as Punjab and Haryana (Table 5.4). TABLE 5.4—BASIC INFRASTRUCTURE, SELECT STATES State

Drinking Water

Urinals

Lavatory

Kerala

76.16

81.38

40.29

Tamil Nadu

62.34

19.97

12.57

Haryana

76.95

56.30

15.7

Andhra Pradesh

31.42

7.34

6.01

Karnataka

23.94

4.57

3.31

Punjab

87.72

52.49

20.87

All India

44.23

18.93

10.86

Source: Sixth Educational Survey.

With regard to educational infrastructure, only 232 schools have reported that they do not have a blackboard. Nearly 24,000 out of 34,000 reporting schools have maths and science kits, presumably supplied under Operation Blackboard. Availability of tape recorders is observed in 18,069 schools. Sports articles are available in 17,990 schools. However, while the survey gives a relatively good picture, the results will have to be verified, that is, what needs to be seen is whether all these materials are actually being put to use or are even in a usable condition. TABLE 5.5—PUPIL–TEACHER RATIO State

Primary

Middle

Andhra Pradesh

49.26

44.71

Bihar

49.58

42.99

Kerala

31.05

30.10

Tamil Nadu

37.19

42.22

Maharashtra

37.47

38.10

All India

40.00

36.07

Gujarat

35.98

41.08

Rajasthan

36.73

29.09

Orissa

37.50

31.49

Assam

34.80

19.77

Source: Sixth Educational Survey.

Availability of Teachers The pupil–teacher ratio for primary schools for the State as a whole is 38, which is better than the all-India average of 40. A State-wise look at pupil–teacher ratios shows that there is no exact correlation between this ratio and educational performance. Tamil Nadu’s ratio falls in the medium range, above Kerala’s value of 31.05 and far below

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the values of Andhra Pradesh (49.26) and Bihar (49.58). Even educationally backward States such as Orissa, Rajasthan and Assam, have pupil–teacher ratios which are comparable to that in Tamil Nadu at the primary level. This reinforces the point that this ratio has to be studied along with spatial distribution of teachers as well as other infrastructure parameters if it is to serve as an indicator of educational performance. Pupil–teacher ratios vary significantly between the districts in Tamil Nadu. Data from the Sixth Educational Survey show that the pupil–teacher ratio varied from 56 in Dharmapuri to 26 in Nilgiris. Subsequently, teacher vacancies have been systematically filled up. Further, the high pupil–teacher ratio districts have been covered by the DPEP which has helped reduce the overall disparity. This is reflected by the figures observed in 1998–9. Though the overall ratio continues to be 38 for primary schools, there has been some improvement in the educationally backward districts such as Tiruvannamalai, Cuddalore, Dharmapuri and Villupuram with ratios of 33, 40, 41 and 41 respectively. There is still a wide dispersion of values from 54 in Pudukkottai to 29 in Dindigul and attempts will have to be made to redistribute the available teachers across the districts. The pupil–teacher ratio in each district will have to be disaggregated further and studied with reference to block-level variations since the unit for appointment of primary school teachers is the block. A block-wise pupil– teacher ratio for the two districts of Dharmapuri and Tiruvannamalai shows that the district-level ratio conceals more than it reveals. While one block in Dharmapuri had a pupil–teacher ratio of 32.8, there were seven blocks with ratios above 60. Similarly, in Tiruvannamalai, two blocks had a ratio of less than 32 while four blocks had ratios above 50. The same pattern is observed in nearly all the districts. Further, the highest ratios are observed in areas which are lacking in educational and other infrastructure. New strategies are required to devise means to rationalize teacher availability across the State.

Compulsory Education Act A major legislative effort for the universalization of education has been the introduction of the Tamil Nadu Compulsory Education Act, 1994. Though the provisions for introduction of compulsory education were available in the Tamil Nadu Elementary Education Act, 1920, these were not mandatory and were left largely to the initiative of the individual local bodies. Under the 1994 Act, the duty of the government to provide the necessary infrastructure (schools and teachers) for ensuring universalization of elementary education is laid down. Similarly, the duty of the parent to send every child of school going age to attend school has also been categorically declared. The State Government has also issued rules under the Act, giving powers to education officers to fine parents who do not send their wards to school. Implementing the penal clause is, however, fraught with complications. It is the children of the most vulnerable families who often do not attend school. Such parents (very often, a single parent), already marginalized by poverty and illiteracy, cannot be punished again for a situation that may not entirely be their fault.

Middle School Education Enrolment in Middle Schools Studies have already established the linkage between improved development indicators and education up to the middle school level. Given the commitment of the State Government to achieve education for all up to the age of 14 years, the process indicators in upper primary education can be analysed for the State as a whole, as well as the variations across districts, gender, area of residence and community. The GER of the State for Classes VI to VIII, according to Education Department statistics for 1998–9, is 89.25 per cent. The districts performing poorly include the educationally backward Dharmapuri with a GER of

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73.33 per cent. Some unexplained low figures are found in Nilgiris with a GER of 75.96 per cent and Karur with a GER of 72.69 per cent. At the upper end are Madurai with a GER of 100.4 per cent and Thoothukudi with a GER of 99.33 per cent. A look at girls’ enrolment figures shows that there is a distinct bias in favour of boys. The differential in most districts is also wider than that observed in primary school enrolment. Some anomalous figures such as the lower enrolment ratio for boys, observed in Nilgiris, Perambalur, Ramanathapuram and Virudhunagar, need further analysis in order to determine the reasons. It is interesting to observe that unlike for primary school enrolment there is no direct correlation between low performing districts and gender inequity. The pattern observed is that male GERs are in a much narrower band (except for Nilgiris) between 84.54 and 105.28 per cent, whereas female GERs show much greater variance. Districts with male GER around and above the State average such as Thanjavur, Nagapattinam and Coimbatore show low female GERs. This clearly indicates that there are specific problems that stand in the way of ensuring female access in this age group—even in districts with better performing educational infrastructure. Efforts have to be made to identify these issues and tackle them head-on. In order to look at social bias, the most reliable figures are those of the Sixth Educational Survey, which indicate that the GER for SC students in this age group is anomalously high (119.1 as against 87.7 for all communities) while for ST students, the figures are depressingly low at 51.9 for the State as a whole. Education Department figures show that SC enrolment in Classes VI–VIII is 18.61 per cent of total enrolment which is in line with the overall SC population of 19.2 per cent. However, the ratio of ST enrolment to total enrolment is 0.78 per cent which is slightly lower than the ST population percentage.

Retention in Middle Schools The drop out rate at the middle school level is 35.23 per cent with the girls’ drop out rate being 33.3 per cent and the boys’ 36.85 per cent. There has been a curious upturn in the drop out rate of boys at the middle school level in 1998–9 which has led to the girls’ drop out rate being marginally lower. This is contrary to the prevailing trends and belies the expectation that girls would tend to drop out more often due to puberty. The highest drop out rates have been recorded in Cuddalore and Villupuram namely, 40.39 per cent and Kancheepuram at 42.72 per cent. A point of interest is that Salem and Namakkal districts, which have an average drop out rate at the primary level, show a very low middle school drop out rate of 21.65 per cent. As already discussed, the current method of calculation of drop out rate is strongly influenced by data of earlier years which may be flawed, both due to changes in methods and accuracy of data collection. For districtlevel analysis, a more reliable indicator would be to look at the percentage of children in Class VIII to children in Class I as studied during the Sixth Educational Survey in 1993–4. Here, the figures show that the enrolment of boys in Class VIII is 65.7 per cent of Class I figures while that of girls is 60.59 per cent. The trends are as expected, with Chennai and Nilgiris topping the list with 110 per cent and 96 per cent, respectively. The educationally backward districts of Dharmapuri and Ramanathapuram bring up the rear at 43.55 and 42.40 per cent, respectively. Anomalous figures such as the low percentage of 45.51 for Tirunelveli, where other educational parameters are positive, merit further analysis. As already stated, the only satisfactory way to study wastage in the middle school system would be to follow a cohort, which has yet to be done. The repetition phenomenon in these classes was, however, studied at the time of Sixth Educational Survey. The average percentage of repeaters in middle school classes is 15.17 per cent The highest is 19.55 per cent, namely in Class VI. This clearly shows the problem of educational adjustment in Class VI, a factor that will have to be studied in more detail.

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Middle School Achievement As there have been no significant studies on achievement in Classes VI–VIII, it is not possible to comment on district-level achievements. The success rate in the school leaving exams is, however, studied under the section on secondary schooling, and indicates the quality of middle schooling in the district to some extent.

Middle School Infrastructure Availability of Basic Infrastructure The availability of basic facilities such as drinking water, toilets, etc. is similar to that in elementary schools. Though 75 per cent of the middle schools have drinking water, only 51.9 per cent have toilet facilities and 27.5 per cent have a separate toilet for girls. Tamil Nadu’s performance is better in comparison to the all-India scenario and most other States. As expected, the performance of Kerala in this regard is significantly better— at least in terms of provision of drinking water and toilets. Two other States, namely Punjab and Haryana, are also far ahead of the all-India average. Provision of such basic infrastructure is a key area which the State will have to concentrate on in order to achieve universal access and retention of middle school children, especially girls.

Availability of Teachers At the time of the Sixth Educational Survey, the pupil–teacher for middle school classes in Tamil Nadu was 42.22, higher than the all-India figure. The States with pupil–teacher ratios above 40 are Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana and Karnataka which are not necessarily the educationally most backward. The range of values across the States is also very wide with values as low as 22.85 in Punjab and as high as 54.31 in Karnataka. District-wise disparities in Tamil Nadu are also significant. While the pupil–teacher ratio is 30 in Nilgiris, it is as high as 57 in Villupuram. The arguments for further disaggregation of these ratios for meaningful analysis are the same as discussed for primary education. It is, however, a positive feature that the departmental figures for 1998–9 show a distinct improvement in nearly all districts, with the ratio falling to 36.

Box 5.4—Teachers in Elementary Education According to the Sixth Educational Survey, there are 144,000 teachers in primary schools and 63,371 teachers in upper primary schools in the State. Nearly all the teachers are trained, with only 7.6 per cent in primary and 6.97 per cent in upper primary schools being untrained. The proportion of teachers possessing graduate qualifications is 14.63 per cent in primary sections and 34.87 per cent in upper primary classes. Though the prescribed qualification up to Class eight is only secondary school with teachers training of two years, an increasing proportion of teachers who possess or acquire a graduate degree will have a favourable impact on raising the quality of education, especially above Class six. The gender composition of the teaching community reveals that at the primary level, 48.9 per cent of the teachers are women. When the schools are analysed management-wise, we find that private aided and private unaided schools have the largest proportion of women teachers with 63.27 and 78.27 per cent respectively, while local body schools have the lowest at 42.34 per cent.The same trends are revealed in upper primary schools as well, with the ratio of female teachers being 56.22 per cent and private aided and unaided schools having the largest percentage of women teachers. The all-India figures for women teachers in primary and upper primary schools are 31.6 and 35.97 per cent respectively. There seems to be some correlation between a higher proportion of women teachers and better school performance as may

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be seen from the fact that Kerala, Goa as well as union territories like Delhi have proportions of women teachers higher than 60 per cent while educationally backward States like Uttar Pradesh have less than 25 per cent of teachers who are women. The State Government has put in place a policy of recruiting women for at least 50 per cent of government and panchayat union school posts. The State has 16.15 per cent SC teachers in primary schools which is more or less in line with the SC population percentage for the State. However, a management-wise break-up shows that private aided and unaided schools have ratios far below this figure whereas government schools have 41.46 per cent of their primary teachers belonging to SC. This is mainly due to the fact that most of the government primary schools are run by the Adi Dravidar department and have a teacher recruitment policy which is skewed in favour of SC teachers. The same pattern is also seen in middle schools.

Box 5.5 is a summary of areas of concern and initiatives required for universalizing elementary education in Tamil Nadu. As is evident, there are areas of concern with regard to enrolment, retention and drop out as well as highlights of initiatives required. Emphasis is also placed on devising a clear strategy for non-formal education and concentrating on improving the quality of education in terms of syllabus, teaching materials and infrastructure.

Box 5.5—Elementary Education: Areas of Concern and Initiatives Required Areas of Concern

Initiatives Required Enrolment

• Variations in enrolment across districts, especially in backward districts.

• Strategies should be devised to help these districts break through their historical backwardness and achieve universal enrolment.

• Identifying pockets of non-enrolment and covering left out children.

• Conduct micro-level household surveys, identify pockets of non-enrolment and bring the left out children into the primary school system.

• Gender inequity in middle school enrolment.

• Devise clear strategies focused at universal middle school access for girls. Retention

• Reducing repetition rate especially in Classes I and II.

• Reduce irregular attendance of children by continuous monitoring and counselling through mother–teacher councils; improve quality of schooling. Drop outs

• High drop out rate among children.

• As this is related to poverty and low literacy levels, support systems should be designed for such children as well as the teachers to help them attend school regularly. Non-formal Education

• Over 15 lakh drop outs in the State in the age group of 9–15.

• Clear strategy should be devised to cover all these children and link them to a formal school. The coverage of NFE projects should be expanded by bringing all drop outs under its net.

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Quality of Education • Lack of teaching materials and infrastructure.

• Make available basic infrastructure and teaching and learning material such as maps, charts etc., besides utilizing fully the existing infrastructure; improve quality of existing infrastructure in schools, for example functional blackboards; devise systems to assess and improve quality of teaching at the school level.

• Syllabus based teaching.

• Programme of teacher training to achieve ‘Joyful Learning’ should be sustained. Text books to be redesigned with the child as the focus for joyful learning.

• Small school size.

• Teachers of small schools should be given special training in multi-grade teaching to achieve high quality in teaching at the primary level. Teachers

• Rational distribution of teachers.

• While pupil–teacher ratio may be as per the prescribed norms at the State or district level, it may not be so at the block level. Re-deployment of teachers from schools which are over-staffed to those which are understaffed needs to be done by devising appropriate transfer policies. Tackle delays in posting and timely joining, especially in remote areas.

• Lack of teacher motivation.

• The school administrative system should be designed to reward teachers for their performance and prescribe disincentives for those who do not perform. Headmasters should have a more positive role in teaching as well as administration. Community Participation

• Low involvement of parents.

• At the primary school level, parent–teachers association are not very active. There is a need for parents and teachers to get together frequently, so that the former may be counselled periodically on their children’s education. Innovative methods (such as village education committees) should be put in place to empower village communities to act within the ambit of public provisioning of primary education. Role of Local Bodies

• Greater role for local bodies in primary education.

• This requires a major policy change. Meanwhile, some decentralization will definitely increase accountability and efficiency of teachers. Partial autonomy at the primary school level should also be thought of for greater accountability to the local community.

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Secondary Education In this section, issues of secondary education, that is from ninth standard upward, are dealt with. They include the steep decline in enrolment, the gender gap, quality of education and infrastructure disparities. Inter-district disparities and causative factors have also been analysed. TABLE 5.6—STATE-WISE ENROLMENT IN CLASSES IX AND X AS PERCENTAGE OF ENROLMENT IN CLASS I STATE

Andhra Pradesh Tamil Nadu Kerala Karnataka Haryana Bihar Maharashtra Punjab Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Madhya Pradesh All India

Secondary Schools IX

X

22.00 53.90 100.46 29.96 40.42 16.57 42.77 43.90 21.69 28.52 22.24 30.90 31.06

19.68 37.22 79.22 26.26 39.81 14.59 33.26 42.80 13.89 27.68 13.81 22.87 25.03

Source: Sixth All India Educational Survey.

Inter-State Comparison An intriguing feature of Tamil Nadu’s educational system is that despite the incentives of free noon meals, free uniforms and free textbooks up to the eighth standard, the State has not been very successful in registering an impressive enrolment ratio in Class IX. The State ranks fifth in enrolment at the all-India level in Class X with 37 per cent enrolment. Its neighbour Kerala, ranks first (with none of these incentives), and has an enrolment figure of 79 per cent (Table 5.6). Tamil Nadu comes a close third (45 per cent) to Kerala (51.42 per cent) in terms of girls’ enrolment, ahead of Haryana, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh (Sixth Educational Survey, 1993). In terms of social group-wise enrolment, the percentage of SC girls enrolment is 43.7 per cent of the total SCs enrolled, which is quite close to the State’s figure for overall girls’ enrolment. The State stands second only to Punjab in SC enrolment in Classes IX–X, while in Classes XI-XII, Tamil Nadu ranks first. Therefore, despite a relatively lower overall enrolment in Classes IX–X, the State’s performance in terms of girls’ enrolment overall as well as SC girls’ enrolment is very impressive. The rural–urban differential at the State-level is very narrow (6 per cent) for high schools, while it shoots up sharply at the higher secondary level where the gap is as much as 23 per cent, indicating the reluctance among parents in rural Tamil Nadu to send their children to schools beyond Class X.

Enrolment Ratio and Inter-district Disparities There is a perceptible drop in the GER across districts as children move from the middle school segment to high school and from high school to the higher secondary level. The GER in the State in 1988–9 dropped from 89.25 per cent at the middle school level to 66.53 per cent at the high school level and further dropped, by more than half, to 30.33 per cent at the higher secondary level. The district level GER is lower than the State average in

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Cuddalore, Tiruvannamalai, Salem, Dharmapuri, Erode, Coimbatore, Perambalur, Pudukkottai, Dindigul and Virudhunagar for both high school and higher secondary segments. An analysis of the gender gap in enrolment reveals that while the gender differential at the high school level (14–16 years) during 1998–9 was 7 per cent; at the higher secondary level it was just 1.3 per cent. Thus, while at the State-level, the gender differential is not much, it is clear from the district-wise data that there are wide variations in girls’ as well as boys’ enrolment. The wide differences in boys’ and girls’ GER in certain districts have smoothened out the State average, presenting a deceptively satisfactory picture. In contrast, at the higher secondary level, Tiruvannamalai, Erode, Nilgiris, Madurai, Tiruneveli and Tuticorin showed a wide gender gap in favour of females, where the girls’ GER is higher than the boys’ GER ranging from 5 to 16 per cent. Therefore, it appears that intra-state disparities in enrolment are inherent in the school education system and district-level gender gaps in enrolment are attributable to both social and school-related factors. The impact of female literacy, poverty and gender gap in enrolment at the high school level is analysed in Table 5.7

Female Literacy, Enrolment, Poverty and Gender Gap The link between poverty, female literacy and the gender gap has been a subject of intense debate for quite some time now. A comparison of high and low performing States shows a definite link between poverty and female illiteracy. The logic can be extended to girls’ enrolment as well. Only 9.5 per cent of girls from the poorest 40 per cent of households complete middle school, while 85 per cent of boys and 80 per cent of girls in the top 20 per cent of households do so (World Bank, 1998). TABLE 5.7—FEMALE LITERACY, POVERTY, ENROLMENT AND THE GENDER GAP (High School, 14–16 Age Group) District

1. Kancheepuram 2. Thiruvallur 3. Villupuram 4. Cuddalore 5. Vellore 6. Tiruvannamalai 7. Coimbatore 8. Nilgiris 9. Tiruchirapalli 10. Salem 11. Nagapattinam 12. Tiruvarur 13. Madurai 14. Dindigul 15. Virudhunagar 16. Sivagangai 17. Tirunelveli* 18. Thoothukudi* 19. Nagerkoil 20. Pudukkottai State

Female1 Literacy %

55.2 55.2 39.7 39.7 48.6 39.3 55.7 61.5 48.5 41.5 54.8 54.8 54.7 43.9 50.2 49.7 54.2 64.6 78.4 43.6 51.3

GER2 Boys

65.0 82.2 76.7 57.5 70.0 56.5 44.6 82.4 62.5 55.4 50.5 48.4 94.2 65.0 38.4 86.1 111.4 109.5 70.2 50.3 69.9

GER2 Girls

51.7 81.7 64.4 53.7 75.0 46.9 54.2 69.7 84.3 50.6 58.6 60.1 75.2 46.5 53.6 58.1 54.7 55.9 81.8 43.2 63.0

Gender Differential

–13.3 –0.6 –12.3 –3.9 5.0 –9.6 9.6 –12.7 21.8 –4.9 8.1 11.6 –19.0 –18.5 15.2 –28.0 –56.7 –53.6 11.6 –7.1 –7.0

%ge of Population below Poverty Line3 27.0 27.0 50.9 50.9 36.6 42.2 25.8 21.2 21.6 30.1 20.2 20.2 30.4 46.3 26.2 26.6 44.1 47.0 48.6 26.9 31.7

Note: *Gross enrolment ratios may exceed 100 because some pupils are younger or older than the high school age group of 14–16 years. Source: 1. Census, 1991. 2. State School Education Department, 1998–9. 3. Directorate of Economics and Statistics, 1993–4.

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In Table 5.7, the correlation between GER at high school level, female literacy and poverty has been analysed for 20 out of the 29 districts in the State. The analysis shows a definite correlation between the three indicators, while in the remaining nine districts (including Chennai) the correlation is not well established. The indication is, therefore, that poverty has a signficant impact on the education of girls. The reverse is also true, that high education levels can have a positive impact on reducing poverty. As household income is limited, boys tend to get preference over girls for schooling. A World Bank study (1996) reported that as income falls, parents’ willingness to educate their daughters decreases faster than their willingness to educate sons. Out of the 20 districts analysed above, in 13 districts girls suffer from educational deprivation. Educating girls does not get the highest priority among the family’s survival concerns in a State of poverty. Even when education is free, there are other costs such as transport, learning materials and participation in extra-curricular activities at school. This is compounded with the opportunity cost of sending girls to school when they could be helping with household work or with income earning activities. This also partly explains the higher school drop out rate among the older girls since their opportunity cost becomes higher. The supply side factors, such as lack of conveniently located schools, non-availability of female teachers and the absence of single-sex schools, play an even greater role in preventing girls from enrolling in high schools. Many parents, particularly in rural areas, fear the social risk of sending adolescent girls to schools which are coeducational and which lack female teachers. A common apprehension among parents is that it is an unnecessary risk that may later damage their daughter’s marriage prospects, and perhaps even force them to give a larger dowry so as to compensate for the loss of reputation. There have been apprehensions that education makes a girl independent and less submissive to her natal family and subsequently after marriage, to the husband’s family. Parents also feel that investment in girls’ education brings them no return when the girls have to be married off early, since once married, the reciprocal support to her natal household is not possible because of social restrictions on her mobility and choice. In spite of all these impediments, it is pertinent to note that literate mothers are increasingly influencing their daughters to go to school, as is evident from the higher enrolment of girls seen in districts such as Coimbatore, Tiruchirappalli, Nagapattinam, Tiruvarur and Virudhunagar. Narrowing the gender gap in education at the high school and higher secondary levels calls for a multipronged strategy that includes: (a) educating parents about the economic and social benefits of girls’ education, (b) lowering the opportunity cost of girls’ education, (c) free education, (d) providing scholarships to girls to encourage them to continue in secondary school, (e) eliminating the requirement of school uniforms, (f) providing day care facilities to look after the young ones, (g) involving the community in planning and development of education, (h) making the curriculum more gender sensitive and (i) recruiting more female teachers. Ultimately, teachers should be trained to create an enabling environment whereby parents feel comfortable sending their girl children to school.

Low Retention At the high school level, the drop out rate was 58 per cent in 1998–9. The inter-district disparities in drop out and gender disparity were not very at the high school level. At the higher secondary level, the drop out rate for the State as a whole was 81.49 per cent in 1998–9. Except districts like Kanniyakumari, Madurai and Theni, all other districts had drop out rates above 80 per cent. The gender divide is not very sharp with girls having a slightly lower drop out rate than boys.

Achievement The analysis of data and pass percentage at the Class X and Class XII public examinations for the year 1998–9 reveals that girls outperform boys in both the examinations. While the State’s pass percentage in Class X examination

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was 67.9 per cent, with a gender divide of 9 per cent; at the higher secondary examination, the pass percentage was 79.3 with a gender differential of 10 per cent. Villupuram, Cuddalore and Tiruvannamalai have consistently recorded a lower performance in both high school and higher secondary public examinations.

Quality of Education and Infrastructural Disparities The first step in increasing access to high and higher secondary schools is to provide sufficient schools, classrooms and teachers. As per the Sixth All India Educational survey, 85 per cent of habitations in Tamil Nadu have been provided with secondary school facilities within a distance of five km, which is an accepted norm. This is significantly higher than that in most States. Even in Kerala, only 67.64 per cent of habitations have a high school within the desired 5 km. Inter-district comparisons show that Dindigul has the lowest coverage, with only 70 per cent of habitations having a high school facility within a distance of 5 km, followed by Pudukkottai (74.69 per cent) and Ramanathapuram (74.64 per cent). Dharmapuri, Cuddalore, Erode, Pudukkottai and Ramanathapuram have high schools within the habitation in only 15 per cent of the habitations. All these districts have lower GERs compared to the State average. In the case of SC habitations, 13.61 per cent have a high school within the habitation, which is lower than the State average for the general population. As far as higher secondary schools are concerned, Tamil Nadu ranks second with 82 per cent of habitations having higher secondary schools within a distance of 8 km (acceptable norm) as against the all-India average of 63.60 per cent (Figure 5.5). Districts with fewer schools are Dindigul and Ramanathapuram.

FIG. 5.5—PERCENTAGE RURAL HABITATION WITH HIGHER SECONDARY SCHOOL (HSS) AT DESIRED DISTANCE All India

63.60

Punjab

82.47

Tamil Nadu

81.88

Uttar Pradesh

78.49

West Bengal

76.84

States

Haryana

74.01

Kerala

67.64

Karnataka

60.26

Madhya Pradesh

56.60

Maharashtra

56.23 HSS up to 8 kms

Bihar Andhra Pradesh Rajasthan

50.74 45.77 40.48

Source: Sixth All India Educational Survey.

Schools cannot operate without teachers; so teachers are needed in both existing schools and new schools. However, the pupil–teacher ratio for secondary schools and higher secondary schools in the State reveals a disturbing profile. As per the Sixth All India Education Survey, the pupil–teacher ratio for secondary schools is 37.63 (all-India average is 30.21), and in respect of higher secondary schools it is 39.69 (all-India average is 34.21).

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The State also lags well behind other Southern States such as Kerala, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh as also Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. This is a grey area as far as the secondary and higher secondary school system in Tamil Nadu is concerned. Pudukkottai (46.21), Erode (41.51), Tiruvannamalai (55.62), Dharmapuri (50.58) and Villupuram (48.42) have a very high pupil–teacher ratio. A significant feature of the high pupil-teacher ratio is that it is more pronounced in rural areas than in urban areas indicating a marked preference and lobbying among teachers for a placement in urban schools, due to the better living conditions in urban areas. The ratio in local body schools in rural areas is as high as 59 while in urban areas it is only 35. In unaided schools, on the other hand, the pupil– teacher ratio is only 23. There is an imperative need to look at pupil–teacher ratios at the taluk level so that more rational distribution of teachers can be made and the existing high ratios in rural areas can be brought down considerably.

Lessons for Policy The above discussion suggests a number of issues with regard to secondary education which require policy interventions in the future. • Declining enrolment rates cannot be explained as a result of poor infrastructure as Tamil Nadu has good •

coverage of high school and higher secondary schools with sufficient infrastructure facilities. A major reason for declining enrolment rates in secondary school in some districts is the high opportunity cost in terms of demand for labour in the 9–14 age group category. Virudhunagar district, which has 60 per cent of the total match/fireworks factories in the State and where child labour is rampant has a combined GER of only 45.7 per cent as against the State average of 66.53 per cent. Similarly, Nagapattinam and Tiruvarur, which constitute the rice bowl of the State and which have agricultural operations all round the year, have a combined GER of 54.52 and 54.19 per cent, respectively, suggesting high rates of child labour



on the farms and in the fields. Due to economic reasons, parents are not willing to spend on transportation to send their children to high schools and higher secondary schools which may be 5 to 8 km away.

• •

In respect of girls, social risk and apprehensions in the minds of the parents are a contributory factor. High pupil–teacher ratios act as a disincentive to sending children to school because of the perception that children do not learn anything in school. All of this suggests that the strategy for improving enrolment rates in secondary schools needs to be multi-

pronged in nature. While additional schools are needed in particular areas, this needs to be done after a thorough assessment of which areas actually require more schools. It is imperative that school mapping is done meticulously in order to achieve a more rational location of schools and establishment of high schools and higher secondary schools in accordance with local population densities and GERs in Class VIII. Besides setting up more schools, a number of other initiatives are also required. Efforts need to be targeted at reducing the opportunity cost of sending children to school so that there is no incentive to drop out. Second, a concerted effort needs to be made to decrease pupil–teacher ratios in areas where they are currently high. Third, focus must be laid specifically on retaining girls in school by convincing parents that this is both economically and socially worthwhile. This will require a long-term strategy aimed at overcoming mindsets which do not place as much value on girls education. A final issue which requires some attention is decentralized education. With panchayats being increasingly empowered with the 73rd Amendment to the Constitution, these bodies will have to play a more important role in the future. Many of the problems mentioned above, with regard to particular areas being deprived of good schools and adequate teachers, can be rectified if panchayats are given more control over the running of schools.

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As Box 5.6 illustrates, elected panchayat representatives are much more educated than in the past. They are also more aware of particular local needs which need to be addressed. In the future, therefore, more attention needs to be given to decentralizing education and giving local bodies a greater say in addressing issues pertaining to education.

Box 5.6—Education and Panchayati Raj A study of educational attainments of those elected in 1996, as village panchayat presidents, chairmen of panchayat unions and chairmen of the district panchayat boards presents a very interesting picture. Out of 12,609 panchayats, 3500 elected presidents had studied up to primary school while 6200 had high school qualifications. Over 1200 panchayat presidents had passed higher secondary, while 1600 presidents were either graduates or post-graduates. It could, therefore, be seen that non-literates among panchayat presidents are practically non-existent. With the spread of education, there appears to be an awakening in the villages for taking an active participation in governance at the village level. This is an encouraging sign as it augurs well for responsible governance. Women panchayat presidents constitute as much as 34 per cent, of whom nearly 50 per cent are high school educated. About five per cent of the women presidents are either graduates or post-graduates and another eight per cent are higher secondary qualified. Therefore, besides gender equity in governance, there is also the emergence of a new trend of educated women seeking participation in local governance. At the block level and also at the district panchayat level, the educational attainments of the presidents at the second and third tiers of the Panchayati Raj administration are quite impressive. Therefore, whatever may be said of the pros and cons of decentralization of education at the district, block and panchayat levels, there is little doubt that there is now a new generation of people who are reasonably educated, who are at the helm of affairs in the Panchayati Raj institutions in the State, and who may be expected to constructively contribute to introducing innovative ideas in decentralized planning and thus, trigger a new era of development.

Vocational Education The new all-India pattern of education (10+2+3) including the vocational education stream, introduced in Tamil Nadu from June 1978, brought about major changes in school education to suit the needs and aspirations of the people. The preparation of the revised education system at the school level was a hectic process which started in 1972, and after many changes finally came into effect in 1978. The professional entry class, also known as the pre-university course, taught at university-level and in 88 colleges, mostly in urban areas, was dispensed with and instead higher secondary education with a duration of two years in five main branches was introduced at the school level itself in 1927 schools. This has extended higher secondary education to even interior rural parts. Higher secondary schools were started in such a way that there was at least one institution in each panchayat union and in each municipality. Tamil Nadu has become known as a pace setter in vocational education. As of today, 66 vocational courses under six major areas, viz. agriculture, home science, commerce, engineering and technology, health and others, are being taught at the higher secondary level. Out of 2493 government and aided higher secondary schools, vocational courses have so far been introduced in 1389 schools (47 per cent) and out of the total of 694,000 students, 109,000 students (16 per cent) are studying under the vocational stream in the State. There are 3366 vocational instructors working in the higher secondary schools in the State. During the year 1999–2000, agriculture and allied subjects were introduced in 100 more higher secondary schools. One stream and

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100 posts for vocational instructors have been created at the higher secondary level. Further, in order to encourage students to opt for vocational courses at the higher secondary level, the government has also earmarked 100 seats in government and government-aided engineering colleges and another 600 seats in private self-financing colleges for students of engineering and technology. There are, however, problems with vocational education as well. The relevance of vocational education for example, in agriculture is not clear when the share of agriculture in NSDP is declining. Vocational courses should be so structured as to enable the students to look for employment using the basic skills acquired. With the introduction of computer education (see Box 5.8), vocational courses in schools would lose their attraction if not suitably restructured. Besides, no evaluation appears to have been undertaken with regard to the usefulness of the 66 vocational courses currently being taught. The courses would appear to have been retained largely to support the already recruited vocational teachers who cannot be re-deployed elsewhere or otherwise utilized. The recommendations of the Lawrence Committee, submitted in 1993, for revamping vocational education in the State should be examined and action taken to implement them.

Tertiary Education During the last decade, Tamil Nadu witnessed a rapid growth in the number of institutions in higher education ranging from industrial training institutes (ITIs) and polytechnics to arts and science and engineering colleges. The State’s Ninth Plan places emphasis on consolidation and optimum utilization of the existing infrastructure through institutional networking and restricted expansion of the university and open university system.

Box 5.7—Information Technology Initiatives in Education Tamil Nadu has been at the forefront in IT and is one of the first States to announce a far reaching, industry friendly IT Policy and set up the State Level IT Task Force to implement it. The government recognized that computer education at the school level is essential to enable children coming out of school to be computer literates and that acquiring basic knowledge in computers would be useful to them either in gaining employment or in pursuing higher studies. The government accordingly introduced computer science as an elective subject in all 1200 higher secondary schools in the State in a phased manner in 1999–2000 and 2000–01. At an average of 40 students per school, every year, 48,000 students passing the higher secondary examination would have acquired basic computer education and hands-on experience in computers. The courses are based on curriculum designed by experts. For Classes IX and X computer education is being introduced from the year 2000–01. A single textbook for both these classes is being brought out in the form of a practical guide (learning by doing). The syllabus for computer science in Classes XI and XII is also being revised keeping in view the developments in the field of computer science.

Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) Recognizing that the industrial development of the State is dependent on skilled manpower, the government set up a vast network of ITIs throughout Tamil Nadu. There are 53 government ITIs spread all over Tamil Nadu, imparting training in 36 engineering and 15 non-engineering trades. To supplement the efforts of the government in producing more skilled craftsmen for the industry, a pilot scheme for starting new private ITIs in all 218 blocks, where there were no ITIs, was launched in 1996–7 to allow rural youth to benefit from industrial training. During the last three years, 152 new private industrial training

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centres have been started in the State, increasing the total number of private industrial training centres to 590 with an intake of 6075 trainees. However, to prevent a mismatch between training and employment as well as to steer training priorities and programmes in the right direction, a market-oriented planning approach has to be adopted that relies on analysis of trends in the labour market. This can be done by conducting comprehensive surveys and tracer studies, which are useful tools to find out about employers’ expectations and plans over time. Such surveys and studies should be updated at required intervals. If technical skills are to be rapidly absorbed in the market at attractive salaries, emerging market demands should be constantly studied so that the technical training imparted meets the market requirements.

Arts and Science Colleges There has been a rapid expansion in colleges offering arts and science courses in the State. At present, there are 422 arts and science colleges, of which 67 are government colleges, 161 aided colleges and 194 self-financing colleges (Figure 5.6). FIG. 5.6—GROWTH OF ARTS AND SCIENCE COLLEGES IN TAMIL NADU, 1991–2000 422

450 400

Number of Colleges

350 300

1991–92

250

194

100

1999–2000

161

200 150

224

Haryana

132 67

54 38

50 0 Government

Aided

Unaided

Total

Management Type Source: Policy note on Higher Education, Government of Tamil Nadu.

The opening of self-financing arts and science colleges started in the State in 1984–5. By 1991, 27 selffinancing arts and science colleges had been opened. In the following decade (1991–2000), 167 self-financing colleges were opened.

Box 5.8—Women in Tertiary Education The government’s focus on empowering women can be seen from the encouragement given to the starting of women’s institutions, both under the auspices of the State and the private sector. So far, 120 arts and science colleges have been started, especially for women students. Wherever women’s colleges are not available, the colleges located in their area admit women students to the extent of not less than 30 per cent of the total intake. Out of 53 government colleges set up for imparting basic technical skills, 10 are exclusively for women. In the field of technical education, there are 11 women’s polytechnics and two

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women’s engineering colleges. In 1999–2000, of the total number of 25,119 students admitted to engineering courses, 7856 were women, constituting 31 per cent of the intake. In the sphere of university education, Mother Teresa Women’s University was established in Kodaikanal in the eighties exclusively for women with the unique objective of furthering women’s development through research and education. The Avinasilingam Institute of Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore is a premier institution for women and has been accorded Deemed University status. Out of 20,648 college teachers, 8897 teachers are women, accounting for 43 per cent of the teaching staff in the State. It is, therefore, gratifying to note that the State Government is a strong advocate of women’s education and its policies are directed towards opening up all possible avenues for the educational advancement of women.

In resorting to the self-financing mode, the government had in mind the fact, that of the 450,000 students covered in Class X and +2 streams, 80 per cent would opt for arts, science and commerce courses. In keeping with the government’s policy of providing job-oriented courses, computer science, bio-chemistry, microbiology, business administration and catering are the main courses now offered not only in self-financing colleges but also in government colleges. As 35 per cent of the arts and science colleges are women’s colleges, women have plenty of opportunity to go in for higher education. However, the quality of education offered in self-financing institutions needs closer monitoring.

Technical Education The State has also witnessed a rapid growth of engineering institutions during the last decade. There are 123 engineering colleges in the State of which 113 are self-financing institutions. Of the 202 polytechnics in the State, 145 are self-financing (Figure 5.7). The intake of students in the engineering colleges and polytechnics has gone up rapidly during the last few years. In 1999–2000, 25,119 students were admitted to engineering colleges, of these 20,411 were absorbed by self-financing engineering colleges. The percentage of girls admitted was 31. The number of students admitted to polytechnics in 1998–9 was 29,346. However, the intake of girls in the polytechnics

FIG. 5.7—GROWTH OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES AND POLYTECHNICS, 1991–2000 250 202

Eng. & Poly. Numbers

200 Eng. 1991–92 145 129

150 113

123

Eng. 1999–2000 Poly. 1991–92

100 73

35 35 50

21 22 6

30

7

Poly. 1999–2000 39

3 3

0 Government

Aided

Self-Financing

Management Type Source: DTE.

Total

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was only 14.4 per cent (see Box 5.7). Interestingly, the intake of girls in government polytechnics is as high as 32.77 per cent while in self-financing polytechnics, the percentage is only 8.72. Technical education in the State has expanded rapidly during the 1990s. While this by itself may be encouraging, it needs to be seen in the context of employment opportunities. As per the current trend, the number of engineering graduates will be 25,000 per year. Placement data of Anna University, a premier technical university in the State, indicate that 60 to 85 per cent of the students of various branches of engineering get absorbed through campus placement. The remaining students normally go abroad for higher studies. This happy position, however, may not be true of other engineering colleges in the State. Though no data are available on the placement of engineering college students (outside Anna University), except for a few premier private engineering institutions in Chennai and Coimbatore, there does not appear to be any worthwhile intake of engineering graduates of other engineering colleges by the industry. The reason for this may be lack of quality teaching and consequently, poor quality of students graduating from these institutions. This is a matter for concern and the government may have to review its policy of permitting the setting up of new engineering colleges in the State in future.

Public Expenditure on Education This chapter is concluded by looking at the expenditure incurred on education. The total expenditure on general education in the State in the year 1999–2000 was Rs 41.39 billion, which forms 19.9 per cent of the revenue expenditure of Rs 207.03 billion. The trend reveals a minor drop in this percentage from 20.7 per cent in the previous year, something which could be explained by the large impact of the Pay Commission in 1998–9. There are also various other areas under which expenditures are incurred on education. Some outlays are obvious—such as construction and maintenance of school buildings, running of schools for Adi-Dravidar children— while some components such as pensions to teachers of panchayat union and government schools are merged in the overall pension expenditure and cannot be differentiated. Adding the readily identifiable expenditure increases the overall outlay on education by Rs 1.18 billion, which then forms 22.9 per cent of the State revenue expenditure. It is also observed that expenditure on the revenue account makes up more than 97 per cent of the total expenditure, which is in keeping with trends across the country. Two indicators which give an idea of public expenditure on education in the State are expenditure per capita and expenditure per student at various levels of education. The per capita expenditure (in current terms) for Tamil Nadu in 1997–8 was Rs 575.5 which was just higher than the all-India average of Rs 525.7. The highest figures are seen in Kerala (Rs 754.3), while States such as Bihar (Rs 297.1) and Uttar Pradesh (Rs 316.4) have the lowest expenditure, suggesting a correlation between educational performance and per capita expenditure by the government. Though Tamil Nadu’s expenditure is not very high, it has managed to sustain its performance due to existing levels of infrastructure as well as strong presence of the private sector, especially in higher education. The per student expenditure by the government at various levels shows that while State spending is on par with all-India levels at the primary and secondary levels, the expenditure at the college-level is much lower. This once again confirms the strong presence of the private sector in higher education. International funding of education has also become significant.

Box 5.9—External Assistance for Elementary Education Finding resources for financing education expenditure has always been a problematic area, particularly in the field of basic education. However the Jomtien Conference in 1990 gave a major boost to external

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assistance for attaining the goal of basic education of all, especially, since the conference was co-sponsored by four funding agencies viz. the World Bank, UNDP, UNICEF and UNESCO. Out of the World Bank assistance for education, while primary education accounted for nearly 25 per cent during 1985–90, India got very little share of it. Tamil Nadu’s only World Bank funded project at the tertiary level which materialized during the 1990s was the World Bank Technician Education Project which was essentially meant to strengthen government run polytechnics in terms of infrastructure and modernization of equipments. Except for this, no funding for education from international institutions has benefited the State during the last two decades. The growing commitment since the nineties among the international agencies towards basic education means that foreign aid is now an important source of finance for funding basic education. The DPEP jointly funded in 1993 by the European Union, World Bank, Overseas Development Agency etc., is a major project for extending basic education which has been sanctioned to the State along with several other States in the country. This exclusive focus on basic education in Tamil Nadu through the DPEP has begun to yield results. There is a need to propose projects for elementary education that can attract external assistance so that the goal of compulsory education for all, up to Class VIII may be achieved. Innovative projects for extending elementary education would attract the attention of international financial agencies. While privatization of higher education has been growing at a fast pace, elementary education will continue to remain the State’s responsibility, particularly in rural areas and if funds have to be found for extending elementary education to all, projects seeking external assistance will have to be conceived and proposed to international agencies. Such projects should focus on the improvement of teacher quality, teaching materials, class room infrastructure and also creating social awareness among parents for educating their children.

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Chapter

 6

Gender

No report on human development can be complete unless and until it unravels gender inequities in human development, analyses the strengths and weaknesses of efforts to address these, and suggests possible strategies to bridge the gender gap in the future. The performance of Tamil Nadu with respect to female literacy, female IMR, female life expectancy and fertility rate shows that the status of women in Tamil Nadu is higher than that in other States barring Kerala. However, while women have improvements in absolute levels of literacy, enrolment and life expectancy, their position vis-à-vis men has remained unchanged (for example, persistent gender gap in literacy) or even worsened in many ways (for example the declining sex-ratio). Unfortunately, neither data nor comprehensive and up-to-date studies exist on the condition (absolute levels of well-being) and position (wellbeing relative to males) of women in Tamil Nadu with regard to most gender dimensions which can indicate the lack of concern for gender issues. The first part of this chapter, therefore, focuses on women’s position in society while the second gives attention to women’s role in the decision-making process, namely within political parties, the State Assembly and other elected and non-elected bodies. The final part focuses on institutional interventions aimed at tackling gender inequities.

Social Construction of Gender in Tamil Nadu The gender based division of roles, responsibilities, resources and power is in turn determined by a variety of institutions: family, marriage, religion, schools, market and State. The rules of these institutions vary from country to country and community to community, and thus it is necessary to elaborate on some of the unique features of these institutions in the context of contemporary Tamil Nadu (For a historical overview see Box 6.1).

Family, Marriage and Religion The family in most parts of contemporary Tamil Nadu is largely patrilineal, that is lineage and inheritance is from father to son, and patrilocal, that is women are brought as brides into the family of the male. The head of the family is normally a man unless by death, divorce (de-jure), sickness or migration when a woman assumes headship. In the past, most women in Tamil Nadu married a close kin within close distance from their natal family, and this practice is still common but slowly declining. As a result of this practice, women in Tamil Nadu have greater access to support from the natal family, and a greater say in decision-making as compared to women from elsewhere, for example northwest India (Dyson and Moore, 1983). However, the freedom to decide which

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male kin to marry and at what age is not available to most women. In the past, dowry was common mainly amongst the upper caste communities. In the last two or three decades, the system of dowry has permeated most communities in Tamil Nadu in the form of jewels, money, vehicles and consumer goods. A sacred symbol of marriage for women in Tamil Nadu is the thali, which binds them into a relationship they are afraid to walk out of. Bigamy or affairs, on the part of men are condoned, while similar behaviour on the part of women leads to social ostracization. Like in most parts of India, there is strong pressure on women in Tamil Nadu to bear a male child.

Box 6.1—Socio-cultural Ethos and Efforts to Change It: A Historical Road Map Historically, the socialization of women in Tamil Nadu emphasized women’s domestic and reproductive roles. A Kuruntokai poem reads, ‘men live by action, but women within the precincts of home by their men’. In the Sangam age, women had the freedom of choice of partner and marriage was a contract and not a sacrament. The post-Sangam age marked the introduction of caste divisions. Rituals turned marriage into a sacrament and severance was not possible. Chastity of married women became an obsession. Widowhood became a punishment through isolation and rituals. The medieval period saw the coming to the forefront of a few women like Karaikal Ammaiyar and Andal who achieved literary and religious heights. The rise of the bhakti movement provided liberating space for some women, but was also the cause for degradation of another set of women: the devadasis. In the later period of the Nayak dynasty, polygamy became common practice, further lowering the status of women (Sathianathier, 1956). British rule weakened some of the cultural norms impeding equitable status of women. In 1821, the first girls school was opened in Chennai. Women were allowed to sit for university exams for the first time in 1897, through the Madras University. An attempt was made to recruit women teachers. Nevertheless, the percentage of girls or women enrolled in schools and universities remained very low, although Madras recorded a higher percentage of enrolment of girls in schools than other provinces. Around the same period, the social justice reform movement led by the reformer ‘Periyar’ E.V. Ramasami Naicker in Tamil Nadu played an important role in influencing public thought on marriage customs, widow remarriage, child marriage, sati etc. Another influential thinker was Dr Muthulakshmi Reddi. She played a key role in the passage of the Child Marriage Restraint Act in 1929 and the Devadasi Abolition Bill (introduced in the assembly in 1927 and enacted in 1947). The Women’s Indian Association in Chennai led by Dr Annie Besant also played a key role in the granting of the right of suffrage to women in 1921 by the Madras Legislative Assembly. Dr Muthulakshmi Reddi was the first woman to sit in the Legislative Council. Women’s participation in the freedom struggle also challenged gender norms, albeit within elite groups.

Education Education plays a major role in social conditioning. In the past, school textbooks revealed a strong gender and class bias with women being predominantly shown in domestic roles, while men were shown as officers, farmers, shop owners and so on. The 1990s have seen a reform of school textbooks to make them more gender and socially sensitive, though a lot more remains to be done. Segregation of male and female students is a common practice in schools even today. Differences in school uniform and a change in uniform for girls after they attain puberty are also common. Promotion of different extra-curricular and sports activities for boys and girls also instills gender differences from a young age. Gender bias of teachers, who play a key role in socialization, is also not uncommon.

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Status of Women in Tamil Nadu Usually, the status of women is examined in the absolute sense by looking at where women stand vis-à-vis health1, education, income and social indicators. This section focuses more on their position in society, that is, compares where they stand vis-à-vis men, and second, integrates both the ‘rights’ and ‘development’ framework while choosing indicators.

Gender and Rights to Labour and Livelihood The secondary position of women in Tamil Nadu is, amongst other things, reflected in the extent to which women have control over their own labour: whether to work, what work to do, at what wages and under what social conditions. Work participation, gender composition and nature of work are dealt with under the chapter on labour.

Gender Division of Labour Gender division of labour is predominant, under which the gender of the person rather than their competencies or inclinations shape task-allocation. While both men and women in Tamil Nadu are found more in agriculture than in manufacturing and services, the agricultural labour force is on the whole more ‘feminine’, while the labour force in manufacturing and services is more ‘masculine’. For example, in the manufacturing and service sectors women constitute only 25 per cent of technical and professional workers (1991), a slight increase from 20.5 per cent in 1981. Among administrative and managerial workers, women’s share was 4.4 per cent in 1991, up from 2.3 per cent in 1981 (Government of Tamil Nadu, 1998). On the other hand, women constitute more than 50 per cent of the agricultural workforce.

Box 6.2—Time Use Studies A recent time use survey in Tamil Nadu, covering 11 districts, indicates the pervasive nature of the division of labour. The weekly average time spent by men on System of National Accounts (SNA) and extended SNA activities was 25.32 hours and 1.90 hours while that of women was 11.29 hours and 18.13 hours respectively. It appears that the extended SNA activities tend to keep women away from important components of economic activity (marketing, trading, banking) and reduce their mobility. These figures also suggest underemployment (productive) of women in Tamil Nadu. Within the so-called SNA or productive activities as well, there is a marked gender based division of labour.

Along with this segmentation, there is a differential valuation of work, with women’s work being valued less than that of men. Such segmentation of tasks is also common in the manufacturing and tertiary sectors. In the service sector women are, for example, found more in low-end jobs such as domestic work, teaching, nursing and secretarial service, while the high-end tasks like advertising, etc., are carried out by men. The same is true of manufacturing where women are found in lower jobs such as beedi manufacturing, manual labour in cotton textiles, garment making, cashew nut processing, fish and food processing and the match industry (see Box 6.2).

Terms and Conditions of Women’s Work Women’s involvement in the informal sector is characterized by a high incidence of casual labour with women mostly doing intermittent jobs at extremely low wages or working on their own account with uneconomical 1For

example, health indicators will include not just gender disparities in access to health care, but also indicators on reproductive and

sexual rights.

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TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

returns. In the case of wage-workers, exploitation, in the form of long hours, unsatisfactory work conditions and health hazards, is common because supply of labour far exceeds demand. Notable examples include sub-contracting to women at home in the beedi and match industries. In both the formal and informal sectors, sexual harassment is prevalent, but it is higher in the informal sector. Studies indicate that when faced with such harassment poor women either succumb to the pressures of the employer or lose their jobs. In rural areas, caste and gender interlock and thus women labourers from SC communities are harassed more than labourers from other communities. The presence of few women in mixed-cadre trade unions at leadership positions and prevalence of few all womens’ trade unions and associations have barred women from asserting themselves against such harassment.

Girl Child Labour Girl children are a significant part of the rural labour force. The 1991 Census data reveal the presence of over 606,000 child labourers in the main and marginal worker categories, with a large majority being girls. The girl child in rural areas is more prone to child labour than her counterpart in urban areas. This is particularly true of girls from the SC community. In rural areas, 10 per cent of girl children in the age group 5–14 are workers and, therefore, child labourers, as against 4 per cent of male children (NSSO, 49th round). In urban areas in the age group 5–14, 2.4 per cent of female children are classified as workers as against 5.9 per cent for boys. Besides the enumerated child workers, there is a class of invisible child workers, particularly girl children, who are in popular perception ‘drop outs’, but in reality workers at home. Fifty per cent of girls in the age 10–14 belong to this category. Recent statistics contradict the popular myth that girl child labour is concentrated in pockets of North Arcot or Virudhunagar. The problem is spread all over the State with districts like Dharmapuri, Salem, Periyar, Madurai and composite North Arcot showing high incidence of girl child labour (Jayaraj et al., 1997).2 Beedi rolling, gem cutting, handlooms etc., are cottage industries in which girl children largely work. There are also cases of bonded labour where children are forced to work to settle loans taken by the parents.

Access and Control over Resources Assets No State (or national) level statistics are available on the ownership of land. A study of land ownership amongst 161 households in Dindigul district carried out by MSSRF3 revealed that in 94 per cent of the households, men owned the land. Women who owned land were predominantly those heading households or the only child of their parents (Murthy, 2000). Again no gender-disaggregated statistics are available in this regard. The patrilineal customary system of inheritance, patrilocal system of marriage, the lack of knowledge of women of their legal rights and dependence of women on their male siblings for support in the event of marital conflict all come in the way of women claiming their rights (Agarwal, 1994).

Credit and Markets The fact that women engage less in paid work and have less access to formal education than men further constrains their ability to access credit. They also do not have valuable independent assets to make them credit worthy. Other constraining factors are distance from banks, gender bias of bankers, working time of banks and the lack of resources to meet formalities. 2North 3M.S.

Arcot no longer exists as a district as it has been bifurcated.

Swaminathan Research Foundation, Chennai.

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Box 6.3—Tamil Nadu Women’s Development Project (Mahalir Thittam) The Tamil Nadu Women’s Development Project (TAWDP) was initiated in 1989–90, with the assistance of International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). Initially, it was launched in eight districts (then five districts). The focus was on the formation of SHGs of poor women, to improve their economic position. The success of the project led to the announcement of Mahalir Thittam (Ma Thi) in 1996 extending the coverage to the entire State in a phased manner. Currently, the coverage extends to rural areas of 28 districts of the State except Chennai. In the budget for 2000–1, this project has been extended to cover all town panchayats and municipalities in the districts. This project is based on a long-term partnership among three agencies—the State government, NGOs and NABARD/other banks and financing institutions. Recently, this project was renamed as Bangaru Ammaiyaar Ninaivu Mahalir Thittam (in memory of the Late CM Arignar Anna’s mother). This project is participatory, people-centred and process-oriented and intends to promote social empowerment of poor and disadvantaged women through equal status at household, community and village level, increased status in democratic institutions and helping them to overcome social, cultural and religious barriers. Further this project supports economic improvement through financial self-reliance of women, greater access to financial resources and reduced vulnerability to crisis situations like famine, floods and riots. Both social and economic empowerment are complemented by capacity building through better awareness on health, education, environment and legal rights, better communication skills and better leadership skills. As on 31 March 2000, 26,220 SHGs had been formed in 28 districts, with a membership of around 0.4 million women and with savings of Rs 334.3 million. The objective is to cover about 1 million poor women through 60,000 self reliant and sustainable SHGs in a period of five years. By March 2003, over 126,100 exclusively women’s SHG’s were operating with a membership of 2.15 million women. The future plans of Ma Thi include consolidation of SHGs, targeting uncovered habitations, focus on sustainability and entrepreneurship training for NGO staff. Source: http://www.tamilnaduwomen.org

In the past, household-focused poverty alleviation programmes such as Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) sought to reserve 50 per cent of credit for women. Against this target, 38.46 per cent of IRDP loans were channeled to women in 1998–9. However, women’s access to credit did not always imply that they exercised control. In many cases, a wife was just a channel to get access to subsidized credit which her husband eventually utilized (Kabeer and Murthy, 1997). In extreme cases, women had to struggle to repay the loan on their name, which had been used or misused by their husband. Learning lessons from the past, the Tamil Nadu Government has evolved the Tamil Nadu Women’s Development Project (Mahalir Thittam) which is an SHG based scheme with a focus on the economic empowerment of women. As regards access to markets, it is most often the husband who is involved in the marketing of products/goods in the case of agriculture, family business or service, and as a result women lack knowledge of markets which includes information and dynamics of pricing, quality, marketing channels, etc.

Income There are no macro-level statistics on women’s control over their income or their family income. A micro-level study of 34 households carried out in three districts by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) mission of the TAWDP in 1999 reveals that women’s control over the income they earn varies with their

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TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

age, household headship, and nature of activity (IFAD, 2000). Women’s control over their income is higher when they are engaged in wage labour or where marketing is controlled by them (for example milk vending, flower vending, fish vending), and less so when marketing is controlled by the men. However, where the women have some control over the money they earn, they usually spend the bulk of it on the family’s basic needs, especially food, health care and education, unlike their husbands. Moreover, the issue of control over household income is a crucial factor affecting nutritional levels of women (in particular pregnant women), infants and children, and the well-being of the family in general.

Common Property Resources Poor women in Tamil Nadu, like all over the developing world, have a gender-specific form of interaction with the environment. As per social norms, women are concerned with the provisioning and care of the household. Scarcity and pollution of water and lack of fuel wood affect poor people more than the better-off, and amongst them poor women more than poor men. Micro-studies in Masinagudi block of the Nilgiris reveal that the erosion of traditional rights of STs to forest produce in the colonial period led to a decline in food security for ST families, particularly of women and girl children. While many of these common property rights have been denied even in the post-independence period, a single Act in the 1990s, of issuing permits to STs to collect forest produce, has expanded the incomes and food security of women (MYWA, 2001).

Feminization of Poverty Number of Women and Men in Poverty More women than men experience poverty in Tamil Nadu, like in most parts of the world. As poverty estimates focus on household as the unit, there is no macro estimate of the number of women in poverty vis-à-vis the number of men in poverty. Micro-level evidence from Madurai, Ramnathapuram, Dharmapuri and Dindigul districts indicates, however, that the proportion of women-headed households (WHHs) in poverty is higher than the proportion of male-headed households in poverty4 (IFAD, 2000). Tamil Nadu stands fourth in terms of the percentage of WHHs in India. This estimate could be on the lower side as it may not take into account de facto factors leading to headship by women (due to migration, sickness of husbands, alcoholism). The proportion of SC women and women agricultural labourers (often overlapping categories) in poverty is much greater than the proportion of other caste groups in poverty.

Differential Impact of Poverty Women and girls in poor households experience poverty more intensely than men and boys within the same households. This is because of intra-household inequalities in access to food, health care, education and the rest. A study carried out amongst 161 households in Dindigul district indicates that gender differentials in access to food prevailed in 60 per cent of the households. Gender disparities were also prevalent in access to primary health care and primary education, but to a less extent. As expected, gender disparities existed in 60 per cent of households with respect to higher education. Disparities were also noted with respect to the workload of poor women and men. Poor women find no time to rest in a day, in contrast to at least two to three hours of leisure time for the men (Murthy, 2000). A surprising finding was that the gender of the person heading the household did not make any difference to the extent of disparity with respect to basic needs. Faced with poverty, women often adopt gender specific negative coping strategies which include cutting down their own purchases of new clothes, mortgaging their jewellery, marrying their daughters to older men getting married for a second time etc. (DeW, forthcoming). 4With

the qualifier that all women headed households are not in poverty.

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Gender-specific Causes of Poverty Finally, women in Tamil Nadu, like elsewhere, slip into poverty in gender-specific ways and gender specific factors prevent them from coming out of poverty. Getting married into a poorer family for want of dowry and breaking down of marriage are two gender specific reasons for women slipping into poverty. Women’s lack of independent rights to land, house and productive rights, the gender based stratification of the labour market, their greater dependency on wage labour, lower wages as compared to men, lesser control over family income and lesser access to formal credit all come in the way of their overcoming poverty. Women headed households not only face many of these constraints, but often also a smaller family size, lesser access to adult labour and a lack of social support, especially from their husband’s kin.

Gender and Rights to Health Gender differences in mortality can be attributed to the high degree of son-preference and low status of females in Tamil Nadu. As a consequence, there are substantial disparities in access to food and health care, and in extreme cases female foetuses and infants are even killed. Micro-level studies indicate that there is a substantial difference between the desired and actual age of marriage by women. One half of women marry at or before 18 years of age, and have little choice in whom they want to marry. Twenty-five per cent of Tamil Nadu women marry their first cousins and at least 50 per cent of women marry some relative or the other. Post-natal mortality is higher among children born of consanguineous marriages, and hence this practice is a health issue. Ironically, such marriages give women a comparatively greater amount of protection from marital problems as compared to women in the northern or western parts of India. Another concern is that 39.6 per cent of pregnancies in Tamil Nadu occur in the age group of 15–19 as per SRS estimates for 1994 posing risks for both the mother and the child. Figure 6.1 shows age of marriage in the southern states.

Gender, Morbidity Profile and Access to Health Care There are gender differences in the morbidity profile of women and men. Fifty-six per cent of women in the 15 to 49 age group in Tamil Nadu have anaemia as against 22 per cent in Kerala and 42 per cent in Karnataka (NFHS, FIG. 6.1—PER CENT EVER MARRIED, SOUTHERN STATES 120

Per cent ever married

100

80

60

40

20

0 13

15

18

20

22

25

Exact age of female AP

Source: NFHS-2 (1998–9).

TN

Kar

TN

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TAMIL NADU HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT

1998–9). Respiratory problems, reproductive health problems and cancer are higher amongst women than men, while heart ailments are higher amongst men than women. Part of these differences can be attributed to the gender-based division of work, and part to the lack of reproductive and sexual rights of women. Given the fact that women are responsible for cooking, and firewood is the single largest source of energy, chronic lung diseases and cancer in women are some of the common fallouts (Swaminathan, 1997). The posture of women labourers involved in transplanting and weeding also leads to a variety of health problems. Women in the informal sector, namely the beedi, lace and agarbatti industries, are known to suffer from a variety of eye problems, and those working in beedi making units, dyes and quarries also suffer from a variety of respiratory problems and skin ailments. In all instances, the vulnerability of pregnant women is higher than others, leading to chances of miscarriages. Also, while morbidity levels amongst women are higher than men, their access to quality health care is lower than men.

Box 6.4—Wife Battering in Chennai In a study of 90 battered women in Chennai city, all the women, irrespective of education or class backgrounds, experienced various forms of violence—ranging from severe physical battering to psychological and sexual abuse. Physical violence constituted 50 per cent of the total cases of abuse while psychological violence formed 48 per cent and included economic deprivation, desertion, restrictions on mobility and so on. On an average, every woman experienced twelve different forms of abuse with varying frequencies. Almost all the women reported being slapped/beaten, kicked and insulted in the presence of others. Seventy-nine per cent of the women experienced violence on an everyday basis. Almost always, the causes for battering were multiple. Suspicion of infidelity, alcoholism, dowry and instigation by in-laws formed the main causes of violence in the case of most respondents. Verbal retaliation and independence and confidence of some women posed a real threat to men and heightened their vulnerability to increased violence. Significantly, the type of marriage that the respondents had opted for had no bearing on either the onset, frequency, or cause of violence. Source: ‘Violence Against Women: Wife Battering in Chennai’, Economic and Political Weekly, 17–24 April 1999.

Gender and Rights to Bodily Integrity Incidence of Violence against Women Women in Tamil Nadu face a variety of forms of violence, some of which are similar to those across the globe: female infanticide, female foeticide, rape, wife battering, eve-teasing, molestation, pornography and trafficking in women. Others are specific to the Indian or South Asian context such as female infanticide/foeticide, childmarriage, forced marriage, dowry-related harassment and witch hunting. These forms of violence take place in a variety of institutional contexts: family, work place, schools and colleges, temples, roads, hospitals and even prisons. Violence against women is largely under-reported due to the tendency of the society to victimize the victim, as well as the feeling that violence within the family is a private issue. As a result, the statistics on violence perhaps underestimate the real magnitude of gender-specific violence. Furthermore, some forms of violence like marital rape are as yet not legally recognized as violence, hence official records do not cover all forms of violence. As per the records of the Director General of Police, the incidence of reported crimes against women has gone up from 2494 in 1990 to 5074 in 1998. The rise is particularly sharp in the number of cases of dowry deaths, molestation, eve-teasing, torture and kidnapping of women. Molestation and eve-teasing account for 65 per cent of reported cases of crimes against women. Unfortunately, disaggregated statistics are not available on the incidence across different groups.

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Causes and Consequences of Gender-based Violence There are several causes of violence against women. The perception that after marriage women are their husband’s property is strong in Tamil Nadu. Suspicion of infidelity, infertility (of the couple), alcoholism, dowry and instigation by in-laws are some of the immediate causes of violence against women, signalling the deep-rooted patriarchal values that underlie the same. The result is that wife beating is considered normal, even by women themselves. Portrayal of women in the media as sex objects and different forms of violence within films have also played a major role in perpetuating and increasing violence within and outside the family. Violence has significant effects on the mental and physical health of women. Studies in Tamil Nadu show that foetal wastages (abortions) often occur due to battering (Jejeebhoy, 1998). This is, however, yet to be recognized as a public health issue in Tamil Nadu. Violence leads to income loss for women and break-up of families, both of which also affect children adversely.

Decision Making and Participation One of the basic objectives of human development is expanding choices, and doing so for all sections of people. An important aspect of this is enabling all sections of the population to take part in administrative and economic decision making. While such participation might not happen in the short-run considering the social construction of gender (as detailed above), it can play an important part in the long-run. This section looks at selected indicators to explore the extent to which decision making and participation in Tamil Nadu are widespread and the extent to which women enjoy the same opportunities as men. Wherever possible, comparisons with the allIndia position and with other countries have been made. Experiences from most countries in the world have shown that a more broadbased participation in decision making influences decisions in a positive way. Gender differences, however, continue to exist across the globe. In some ways, in fact, India has taken the lead as far as constitutional and statutory initiatives are concerned. For example, the recent sharp increase in the participation of women in grassroots democracy has paved the way for women’s increased mobility outside their homes, creating a space to voice their concerns. While there is still a long way to go for full participation, the 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments, reserving one-third seats in local bodies for women, have facilitated women’s participation in the political process. There is, however, a need for the administrative and political machinery to develop a sensitivity to women’s aspirations and priorities and to make them mainstream and not marginal concerns.

Levels and Trends in Political Participation Voting Voting trends are an indicator of participation in the political process. Over the last fifteen years, general elections to the State Assembly have been held in 1984, 1989, 1991 and 1996. As Parliament elections coincided with State Assembly elections, voting trends have only been examined for the State Assembly. There were 31.14 million persons (both rural and urban) listed as electors in the State in 1984. This number increased to 41.93 million in 1996 (see Table 6.1). TABLE 6.1—NUMBER OF ELECTORS IN TAMIL NADU Rural

(millions)

Urban

Total

Year

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Total

1984 1989 1991 1996

7.35 8.43 9.50 9.58

7.38 8.40 9.44 9.60

14.73 16.83 18.94 19.18

8.29 9.51 10.72 11.57

8.09 9.13 10.26 11.18

16.38 18.64 20.98 22.75

15.64 17.94 20.21 21.15

15.47 17.53 19.70 20.78

31.11 35.47 39.91 41.93

Source: Government of Tamil Nadu, Election Department.

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TAMIL NADU HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT

Data on the number of electors and percentage voting in the last four assembly elections of Tamil Nadu are tabulated by place of residence (rural, urban), by sex (male, female) and also by district. An analysis of the voting trends in the last four assembly elections shows that the female voting percentage has been similar to the male voting percentage. While male voting percentages range between 65.29 and 74.36 per cent, female percentages range between 63.85 and 73.03 per cent. The overall voting percentage (for both males and females) declined from 1984 to 1991 but again increased between 1991 and 1996. The pattern is the same for rural as well as urban areas (Table 6.2). TABLE 6.2—VOTER TURNOUT Rural Year

Male

Female

Urban Total

Male

Female

Total

1984

73.8

71.2

72.5

74.8

72.2

73.5

1989

75.0

70.0

72.7

72.6

68.4

71.1

1991

66.0

63.0

64.5

64.5

61.8

63.1

1996

70.4

66.6

68.5

67.5

63.0

65.3

Source: Election Department, Government of Tamil Nadu.

Data from the Election Department, Government of Tamil Nadu, shows that there are great inter-district as well as temporal variations. Some districts such as Nagapattinam had a voter turnout of over 80 per cent in the 1980s. The majority, however, had State-average turnouts. Interestingly, districts with big urban centres such as Chennai and Coimbatore have consistently had below average turnouts perhaps suggesting apathy amongst urban voters, something borne out by the higher voting percentages in rural areas (Table 6.3). TABLE 6.3—DISTRICT-WISE VOTING PERCENTAGES District

Voter Turnout

Voter Turnout

Percentrage of Electors Voted

Rural—Female

Urban—Female

Total

1984

1989

1991

1996

Kancheepuram

72.6

82.5

60.4

65.0

Thiruvallur

74.8

67.4

64.1

67.0

Vellore

75.2

73.4

65.2

67.6

75.9

72.3

61.8

65.0

Tiruvannamalai

74.7

74.9

69.3

69.8

76.7

77.2

70.0

69.8

Chennai

1984

1989

1991

1996

62.1 72.0 70.2

1984

1989

1991

1996

57.4

51.5

67.4

53.1

54.9

61.8

60.0

53.7

57.8

51.7

72.8

74.8

60.5

55.0

59.3

62.4

56.7

75.0

70.6

63.7

65.8

76.5

75.4

65.5

68.5

77.1

76.6

70.5

71.9 69.0

Villupuram

73.8

72.6

67.0

68.6

73.6

74.9

65.2

67.1

74.4

76.0

67.4

Cuddalore

73.7

74.9

68.3

68.8

77.6

75.4

67.2

69.4

76.4

77.0

68.9

70.0

Salem

67.2

65.6

63.6

64.5

72.5

66.3

60.0

63.0

71.7

69.8

64.6

66.2

Namakkal

61.2

64.3

59.5

61.6

70.7

66.0

58.7

62.4

69.9

68.8

62.5

66.0

Dharmapuri

67.4

70.1

58.1

61.1

69.3

66.9

59.7

61.7

70.2

72.2

62.2

65.2

Coimbatore

58.8

59.0

61.9

64.6

84.7

79.4

60.0

63.0

72.9

71.9

63.8

68.2

Erode

64.6

63.9

64.9

63.3

87.7

81.7

61.6

65.0

79.3

77.2

66.4

68.8

74.5

66.5

57.8

61.4

38.0

35.1

30.3

32.2

Tiruchirappalli

0.0

Karur

75.1

73.1

61.7

66.3

76.7

75.3

58.6

65.3

77.8

76.3

62.2

67.7

Perambalur

77.2

79.3

57.8

64.2

75.2

70.8

59.3

65.3

77.1

76.0

61.5

67.1 (Contd...)

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(Table 6.3 Contd.) District

Pudukkottai Thanjavur Tiruvarur Nagapattinam Madurai Theni Dindigul Ramanathapuram Virudhunagar The Nilgiris Sivagangai Thoothukudi Tirunelveli Kanniyakumari Tamil Nadu

Voter Turnout

Voter Turnout

Percentrage of Electors Voted

Rural—Female

Urban—Female

Total

1984

1989

1991

1996

79.3 75.5 81.3 82.7 72.0 69.3 70.5 68.0 71.1 0.0 71.1 70.9 67.6 66.3 71.2

77.7 78.8 77.2 82.4 65.4 65.9 69.6 64.4 67.0

59.1 62.7 66.4 68.5 62.5 70.5 72.0 66.9 63.8 55.9 61.9 55.6 60.3 57.8 63.0

64.7 67.0 74.7 73.1

71.4 67.5 63.8 66.3 70.4

70.4 74.0 72.6 66.8 60.1 68.7 60.2 65.3 58.2 66.6

1984

1989

75.1 80.2 83.6 69.4 71.2 71.3 77.9 73.5 68.4 74.7 73.7 35.7 66.6 72.2

68.6 75.2 81.3 57.8 67.1 68.7 73.6 68.9 65.1 69.9 68.5 61.2 64.7 68.4

1991

1996

1984

1989

1991

1996

50.7 66.3

57.6 68.6

59.4 58.3 69.9 61.5

66.6 73.6 71.8 67.6 65.7 67.1 67.0 63.3 66.4 60.1 63.0

39.2 76.7 76.3 83.7 65.6 69.6 71.6 68.6 70.1 34.3 69.4 69.9 65.5 65.8 71.9

57.9 66.3 34.7 66.4 62.9 75.5 68.7 34.8 62.5 57.9 64.1 57.6 63.2 58.6 63.8

63.4 70.4 37.3 70.1 30.2 73.4 72.3 36.0

63.5 62.0 61.8 56.2 62.7 56.6 61.8

39.7 78.4 80.9 83.9 71.3 71.0 69.8 72.4 73.1 35.3 72.1 72.7 58.4 68.3 73.0

61.5 69.8 63.5 67.3 60.9 66.9

Source: Election Department, Government of Tamil Nadu.

Decision Making—Parliament and State Assembly As women constitute around half of the world’s population, it is important to reflect on international attempts made to assess the threshold share of women in elected offices that would make a significant, irreversible difference in combating the unequal access to decision making in the public domain. The UNDP HDR stipulates that 30 per cent should be a minimum (UNDP, 1995). Very few countries have come anywhere near this minimum goal. Nordic countries lead the way in this regard. For example, in countries like Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden, the 30 per cent threshold has been crossed either at the parliament or cabinet level. However, in the case of Tamil Nadu (as no doubt in other States as well), the situation is very different. Despite the fact that differences in participation in voting among men and women are not considerable, gender difference in achieving positions of power through elections is higher. Table 6.4 captures the trend over time with regard to female members in both the Lok Sabha and the Tamil Nadu Assembly. As seen from the table, the percentage of female members of parliament (MPs) has been consistently below eight per cent. No improvement is seen over time. The gender gap is erratic for All India with female percentages ranging between a low of 2.5 per cent (1996) to a high of just 9.09 per cent (1984), with no discernible trend. There has only been one woman minister at the Centre from Tamil Nadu, in 1984. TABLE 6.4—MEMBERSHIP IN LOK SABHA AND CABINET Lok Sabha Members

Ministers in the Cabinet

Year

Male

Female

Total

% Female

Male

Female

Total

% Female

1984 1989 1991 1996 1998

500 502 484 503 496

42 27 37 40 43

542 529 521 543 539

7.75 5.10 7.10 7.37 7.98

40 39 52 39 42

4 2 6 1 4

44 41 58 40 46

9.09 4.88 10.34 2.50 8.70

Source: Government of Tamil Nadu, Election Department.

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Table 6.5 gives details for the Tamil Nadu Assembly for the same years. While overall, the situation has been similar, the 1991 assembly had 13.25 per cent women or 31 female members. The percentage of female ministers has been higher than their membership on average, ranging between 5.56 per cent in 1989 and 7.41 per cent in 1996. A study of district-wise representation of women shows that Tiruvannamali, Nilgiris, Karur, Perambalur, Nagapattinam, Pudukkottai, Theni and Ramnathapuram have not sent a woman representative to the assembly in the last four elections. TABLE 6.5—MEMBERS IN TAMIL NADU ASSEMBLY AND CABINET No. elected as members Year

Male

Female

Total

% Female

1984 1989 1991 1996

226 224 203 224

8 10 31 10

234 234 234 234

3.4 4.3 13.2 4.7

No. represented as ministers Male

Female

Total

% Female

22 17 25 25

2 1 2 2

24 18 27 27

8.3 5.6 7.4 7.4

Source: Government of Tamil Nadu, Election Department.

Decision Making—Local Bodies With respect to political participation in local bodies, the situation is more favourable in terms of women’s participation. The 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments in 1992, which went a long way in re-activating decentralized democracy in India, also made it mandatory to reserve one-third of seats in local bodies for women. This set the stage for serious participation by women in the political process in India, not as passive voters or party workers alone, but also as candidates. Local body elections in both rural and urban areas were held in Tamil Nadu in 1996. Table 6.6 shows that the total number of candidates elected to rural local bodies was 19,448 (620 district-level panchayat seats, 6395 block-level panchayat union seats and 12,433 village panchayat seats). Of these 7040 were women, constituting 36.20 per cent of the total (37.26 per cent for district panchayats, 37.90 per cent for panchayat unions and 35.27 per cent for village panchayats). The story is similar for urban local bodies. The total number of seats was 3919 (3445 for municipalities and 474 for municipal corporations). Of these 1311 went to female candidates constituting 33.45 per cent (1151 in municipalities accounting for 33.41 per cent and 160 in municipal corporations accounting for 33.76 per cent). TABLE 6.6—REPRESENTATION IN RURAL AND URBAN LOCAL BODIES IN TAMIL NADU, 1996 Areas

Female

Male

Total Seats

% Female

Rural District Panchayat (Ward Members) Block Level Panchayat Union (Ward Members) Village Panchayats ( Presidents )

231 2424 4385

389 3971 8048

620 6395 12,433

37.26 37.90 35.27

Total Rural

7040

12,408

19,448

36.20

Urban Municipalities ( Councillors) Corporations( Councillors)

1151 160

1294 314

3445 474

33.41 33.76

Total Urban

1311

2608

3919

33.45

Source: Government of Tamil Nadu, State Election Commission.

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Electability Comparing contested with elected figures indicates ‘electability’ or ‘wastage’. Available data for assembly elections is given in Table 6.7. On an average, 4.72 per cent of those who contested overall were only actually elected. The gender-wise break-up shows that while male percentage elected was 4.66, female percentage elected was 6.67 (1996). The rural–urban break-up was as follows: higher in urban areas for men (6.27 per cent for males, 3.80 per cent for females) and the reverse in rural areas (3.62 per cent for males, 9.86 per cent for females). Thus, overall, women were no less electable than men. TABLE 6.7—PERSONS CONTESTED AND ELECTED IN ASSEMBLY ELECTIONS BY SEX, 1984–96 Year

Contested

Elected

Elected as %

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Total

1815

57

1872

226

8

234

12.45

14.04

12.50

1989

2261

105

2366

224

10

234

9.91

9.52

9.89

1991

1347

37

1384

203

31

234

15.07

83.78

16.91

1996

4808

150

4958

224

10

234

4.66

6.67

4.72

1984

Source: Government of Tamil Nadu, Election Department.

Trends in Employment Government Women’s participation in government is often used as an indicator of increasing decision making power and participation. In industrial countries, women constitute 13 per cent of government employees. The all-India figures for central government employees show an upward trend in respect of female percentages from 1990 to 1998, from 10.34 to 13.44, comparable to developed countries. In the context of Tamil Nadu (Figure 6.2), female employment is even higher, at 17 per cent in 1990 and 24 per cent in 1998. Female employment figures in local bodies went up from nearly 45 per cent in 1990 to over 59 per cent in 1998 (Table 6.8). These substantially

FIG. 6.2—EMPLOYMENT IN STATE GOVERNMENT 10

Persons Employed (in lakhs)

8

8

7.9

7.95

6

4 2.52

2.37

2

1.66

0 1995

1990

1998

Year Male

Female

Source: Director of Employment and Training, Government of Tamil Nadu.

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higher percentages in Tamil Nadu are due to higher female employment in educational institutions and welfare services in particular as compared to the all-India situation. Thus, though men continue to outnumber women in government and quasi-government positions, there is a smaller gender gap in Tamil Nadu as compared with All India.

FIG. 6.3—EMPLOYMENT IN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT 5 3.89

Persons Employed (in lakhs)

4

3.71

3.56

3 2 1

0.55

0.53

0.45

0 1995

1990

1998

Year Male

Female

Source: Director of Employment and Training, Government of Tamil Nadu.

TABLE 6.8—TREND IN FEMALE EMPLOYMENT IN CENTRAL/STATE/LOCAL BODIES Central Government, No. of persons employed (in lakhs) Year

Male

Female

Total

% of female

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

3.89 3.83 3.84 3.78 3.73 3.71 2.99 3.65 3.56

0.45 0.47 0.50 0.50 0.52 0.53 0.50 0.55 0.55

4.34 4.30 4.34 4.28 4.25 4.24 3.49 4.20 4.11

10.34 10.93 11.53 11.60 12.17 12.49 14.24 13.14 13.44

State Government, No. of persons employed (in lakhs) Male

Female

7.90 8.00 7.39 7.99 7.87 8.00 7.74 8.07 7.95

1.66 1.80 1.79 2.03 2.26 2.37 2.80 2.48 2.52

Local Bodies, No. of persons employed (in lakhs)

Total

% of female

Male

Female

Total

% of female

9.56 9.80 9.18 10.02 10.13 10.37 10.54 10.55 10.47

17.40 18.39 19.48 20.29 22.31 22.83 26.59 23.48 24.09

0.85 0.73 0.76 0.71 0.73 0.71 1.32 0.72 0.70

0.70 0.96 1.06 1.00 1.00 1.01 1.10 0.99 1.00

1.55 1.69 1.82 1.71 1.73 1.72 2.42 1.71 1.70

44.99 56.87 58.09 58.21 58.11 58.72 45.54 58.13 59.14

Source: Directorate of Employment and Training, Government of Tamil Nadu.

Co-operatives As per data from the Registrar of Cooperative Societies, there are 357 co-operative societies in operation in Tamil Nadu. Among them, overall elected membership stands at 3061 of which 1158 are women, constituting 38 per cent. One-third reservations for women along with the fact that some co-operatives are all-women societies, have contributed to this. Some districts fare even better, namely Dharmapuri (56.76 per cent), Pudukkottai (68 per cent), Nagapattinam (64.29 per cent) and Theni (52.86 per cent). This is most likely because in these districts there are a number of special co-operatives for tailoring, weaning foods, etc. where a number of women are employed.

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Data on office bearers illustrate, however, that only 21.15 per cent of office bearers are women. Nonetheless, the overall situation is encouraging, revealing that women are no longer marginal players so far as elected membership and office bearers among co-operatives is concerned. A more detailed qualitative study on the perceptions of men and women members and office bearers would be of interest.

Trade Unions Unlike the relatively high share of females in co-operatives, trade unions are largely male-dominated. Data from the Commissioner of Labour shows that out of a total membership of 1,636,042 (in the 7035 trade unions), women comprise only 17.72 per cent of the total, that is there are 289,949 female members. While this can be partly explained by the fact that women contribute a smaller share of the total workforce as compared to the men, it also suggests that there are barriers to working women becoming trade union members. Moreover, there is no reservation for women in trade unions.

Participation by Social Groups It would be of interest to analyse decision making and participation by social groups to assess the position of the weaker sections, namely SCs and STs who constitute 19.2 per cent of the total population in Tamil Nadu and 16.7 per cent in India (1991). However, no recent data are available.

Self Help Groups In Tamil Nadu, SHGs have emerged as important local institutions in villages. A group of 10–20 persons of similar economic class, generally poor, mostly women, get together to organize themselves into a cohesive group to improve their social and economic position through collective action. Started on an experimental basis in 1989, under the IFAD assisted women’s development project, SHGs now operate in all rural districts of Tamil Nadu. An external catalyst like an NGO helps in social mobilization, formation and nurturing of the SHGs through government administrative and financial support. As the movement has gained momentum, some bankers and NGOs are also forming groups on their own. Self help groups are developing into strong local institutions, providing a legitimate avenue for members to participate in public life outside their homes as a means to access inputs such as training, banking services, government schemes etc. By March 2003, over 1,26,100 exclusively women’s SHGs were operating with a membership of nearly 2.15 million women. Even without explicit reservations for SCs/STs, their percentage in SHGs is well over 40 per cent. This is because of the conscious efforts by project management in recent years to focus on the worst-off and most vulnerable sections of the population. The SHGs have enabled a tremendous physical mobility among women, increased their bargaining capacities, self confidence, life skills in areas such as accounts keeping, money management, savings and credit, awareness about health, nutrition, immunization, education, and so on. They have also enabled households to reduce dependence on local moneylenders by providing an optional pool of resources through the group’s common fund, generated out of regular savings and internal rotation. Further, SHGs have empowered women to cope with important social problems like alcoholism, domestic violence, abandonment, dowries and female infanticide. This apart, individual women hitherto considered credit unworthy, have been transformed into good banking propositions. The initial reluctance of male members has been transformed into support as the entire household benefits. Women have been able to influence thinking in the banking sector, increasing finance to the poor. Self help groups, therefore, seem to be a better option than government sponsored credit programmes, though the two are not mutually exclusive.



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Improving Female Participation in the Future For more equitable participation by all, the State should take the lead in understanding the constraints faced by women as compared to those faced by men. This will no doubt lead to greater participation by women in public life. As suggested at the outset of this chapter, the social construction of gender is very strong in India as a whole and in Tamil Nadu, in particular. This leads to many constraints. Some obvious ones are social conditioning, patriarchal attitudes, lower status of girls and women (both in their natal and marital households), burden of unpaid household work, child care (only marginally shared by husbands), gender blind places of work, and so on. If access to higher education is unequal, the consequent inequalities in employment are hardly surprising. For those fortunate enough to access higher education, the double burden of unpaid and paid work becomes the norm, unless other family members, in particular the husbands, share the unpaid domestic work. This will become possible with a wider acceptability of women’s aspirations and needs. Child rearing is another issue. Quality child care services, pre-schools and crèches are some of the obvious support services of relevance for women across the social and economic spectrum. In fact, only when such services are considered as support to the family as a whole, rather than to women alone, will there be a greater supply. The State can take a lead in the matter and work in collaboration with suitable NGOs. Another kind of support service where the State can play a direct role is safe places of stay for working women. When a woman has to live alone, either out of choice or circumstance (say, due to a transfer), rental accommodation is often ruled out because of suspicion and prejudice, especially in smaller towns. Also, safety is an issue. Working women’s hostels, where quality services are provided on a payment basis, are a critical need. Working women’s hostels are already operating in major districts in Tamil Nadu. However, there is a need for many more. Funds from the Government of India can be tapped and made available to suitable organizations willing to run them. Other support services, like transport facilities and separate toilets for women in the work place, still cannot be taken for granted as many work places tend to be designed only keeping the men in mind. However, the beginning of change is already evident. This can be built upon through gender sensitization training as a pre-service and in-service training requirement, with suitably and sensitively designed training modules. Reservation is also an instrument of State policy which has been used for positive discrimination in the public sector, initially only for the SC/ST population but now even for women in the lower rungs of political participation. From the earlier analysis, it is possible to conclude that where there is no reservation for women, women have not managed to participate in decision making in numbers significant enough to make a difference. Whether reservation is the best instrument, however, is also debatable. As the share of women participating in the decision making process begins to cross minimum threshold levels, other changes are likely to be triggeredoff as well.

Institutional Arrangements for Gender Equity Institutional arrangements aimed at promoting gender equity for women in Tamil Nadu are quite elaborate. Three key institutions are involved in promoting gender equity: Tamil Nadu State Commission for Women, Tamil Nadu Corporation for Development of Women and the Department of Social Welfare. These organizations are the nodal agencies through which the government implements policies. In addition to programmes, however, a number of legislative measures exist which address questions of gender equity. This section looks at both programmes and legislation.

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Programmes and Policies Facilitating Economic Empowerment of Women A variety of self-employment programmes have been initiated for women by the Central and State government. Through the Mahalir Thittam, 80,000 exclusive SHGs, covering 1.4 million women, have been formed all over the State. However, the programme is yet to make a significant impact on several fronts: changing norms vis-à-vis the gender division of domestic work and child care, reducing drudgery of women, generating full employment for women, expanding non-farm activities of women, bridging the wage gap between women and men, and expanding women’s ownership of land and houses. In other words, the programme, is focused more on women’s entrepreneurship and skill building. The challenge will be to retain the focus on group-building and empowerment of women, while expanding their access to capital and building the capacity of grassroot field workers of both NGOs and the government to facilitate entrepreneurship amongst women SHG members.

Box 6.5—Breaking the Glass Ceiling? Suguna of Kasimapatti village in Dharmapuri district joined an SHG facilitated by MYRADA under TNWDP in 1995 and took a course in photography the same year. She then obtained a bank loan of Rs 10,500 for the purchase of a camera and set herself up as a photographer. In the years that followed, she has become well known in her neighbourhood and also works much further afield, in Hosur and Bangalore, covering private functions such as birthdays and marriages. She repaid her loan within two years and makes a significant contribution to her household income and enjoys the support of her husband. Source: Tamil Nadu Women Development Project.

In order to facilitate women’s increasing participation in the workforce (both self-employment as well as salaried employment) and to improve their economic status, however, a number of existing measures will have to be strengthened or new measures introduced. Some of these are addressed below. • The State’s 30 per cent reservation policy for women should be made statutory as in the case of SC and ST reservation. It should also be extended to all categories of staff. Removal of constraints with regard to its implementation and periodical monitoring are essential. It is essential to give preference to women in promotional postings, remove biases in promotional opportunities in the case of gender-differentiated cadres and increase the representation of women in leadership positions of trade unions of mixed cadres. A few other traditions also need to be changed, such as the gender-based allocation of jobs in some departments (example, all health inspectors are men and village health nurses (VHNs) are women in the Department of Public Health), provision of parental medical cover to male staff but not to female staff, and absence of maternity •

leave for unwed mothers and single women seeking to adopt. Added efforts are essential to prevent sexual harassment in work places as mandated by the Supreme Court. At present, sexual harassment is a common but under-reported phenomena because of the lack of protection



given to women workers. Protecting labour and safety conditions of women in the informal sector is yet another challenge. Establishment of the Unorganized Labour Welfare Board by the State Government is hence a move in the right direction.



Creation of women exclusive markets as well as women federations at the district-level for women traders and producers to sell their wares could be facilitated under the Poomaalai programme of the rural development

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department. Enhanced usage of liquified petroleum gas (LPG) as domestic fuel, currently promoted by the •

co-operative department, would reduce drudgery and enable women to visit distant markets. Amendments to legislations on property rights are required to the effect that any will disinheriting daughters or any document by which a woman surrenders her right in favour of her brothers, husband or in-laws is invalid. If a women dies childless or under suspicious circumstances, her property should revert to her natal family. Along the lines of the Maharashtra Government policy for women, legislation should be passed such that as soon as a marriage is solemnized, the wife becomes the joint owner of the properties and assets earned by the husband. Collection of gender disaggregated statistics on land ownership and transfers must be institutionalized so as to monitor the land rights of women.

Addressing Other Gender-specific Concerns These measures, as mentioned above, are generally aimed at making it possible for women to enter the workforce and to strengthen their overall economic status. More specific initiatives, however, will be needed to address questions such as the feminization of poverty, rights to literacy and education, better health, violence against women and women’s participation. This section highlights these concerns and suggests remedial measures. •

Feminization of Poverty Indications are that increased income does not always lead to increased well-being of the family in terms of better nutrition, health care and education. Male expenditure on alcohol is a major leakage, reflecting women’s poor control over family income. A total prohibition policy is a felt need of poor women. Another leakage is the expenditure on dowry and marriages. Given the large number of sociallyoriented SHGs and other community-based organizations in Tamil Nadu, an initiative to promote dowryfree marriages amongst member families could be attempted. Inadequate convergence between various schemes and departments at the village level is yet another reason for the gap between increased income and improved well-being. It would be useful to form villagelevel coordination committees (VLCCs) comprising representatives of gram panchayats, mahalir thittams and other SHGs, nutrition workers, VHNs, school principals and village accountants. This same VLCC, the operational arm of the gram panchayat, could work towards arresting gender-specific ways in which women slip into poverty, by intervening in instances of divorce, separation or martial conflicts, and at least ensuring that women’s economic interests are protected.



Rights to Literacy and Education The Tamil Nadu Government has adopted several policy measures to address gender-specific barriers to girls’ education. Perhaps every block can have a women’s resource centre, which could act as a venue for a 10–15 day residential training courses for women (including SHGs) and girls who are interested in strengthening their functional literacy skills and also offer inputs for economic, social and political empowerment. It could, in other words, act as an education centre for women. Establishing womenonly libraries and reading rooms, posting women as librarians (part-time or full-time), locating libraries in places accessible to women are possible strategies to enable girls and women to gain access to knowledge. With regard to access to schools, specific focus should be made on increasing the proportion of women teachers at middle, high school, and higher secondary school levels, with greater focus on districts where the gender balance is low. Gender sensitization of teachers is another issue, and greater attention could be paid to mainstream gender concerns within teachers’ training courses and in-service training (see Chapter on education).



Health and Reproduction A study was initiated in 1999 on the challenges of mainstreaming gender in public health administration. The recommendations of this study are now being reviewed. Adopted recommendations need to be internalized and institutionalized as part of an overall staffing policy. However, barriers to gender equity on the demand side also need to be addressed. This includes sensitization of men on reproductive and

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sexual rights of women and their responsibility in this regard, changing public attitudes towards inequalities in distribution of food and health care, strengthening knowledge on infertility and sex-determination, and promoting health insurance or credit for poor women, through better convergence between health and villagelevel, community-based organizations. On the programme front, gender equity in fertility control, focus on infertility treatment, occupational health of women, violence as a health issue and cancer screening for middle •

aged women need to be addressed. Violence Against Women Several institutional structures exist that address violence against women. Allwomen police stations, free legal aid boards, family counselling centres as well as the State Commission for Women (which has a broader mandate) have been established. Several NGOs, moreover, are working to prevent atrocities against women. Recognizing that the attitude of the police is one of the barriers to institutional redress, the State Commission for Women has initiated gender sensitization of Tamil Nadu Police functionaries and legal literacy programmes for teachers with the support of NGOs. Gender sensitization programmes for police should be institutionalized within the graduation curricula in the Police Training College for the constabulary as well as for officers. Several legal reforms suggested by the State Commission for women5 need to be implemented in the area of divorce, re-marriage and domestic violence, including giving greater teeth to the Commission. Training on human rights and law needs to be given to those working on women’s issues. Censorship policies and laws also need to be reviewed from a



gender perspective. Women and Governance Female and male representatives of gram panchayats have received training through the DRDA on different aspects related to the functioning of panchayats and their role in decentralized democracy. The rural development department and the United Nations International Childrens’ Education Fund (UNICEF) now plan to systematize training through the development of a series of manuals and training programmes for functionaries. Special training for women functionaries of both panchayati raj institutions and urban local bodies needs to be built into these modules, and gender concerns need to be effectively mainstreamed. Training for promising SHG members (a fertile breeding ground for leaders) on local self government will pave the way for a large number of women to emerge as genuine leaders. Measures to increase accountability of gram panchayats towards women including sensitization of the elected leaders is needed along with an amendment to panchayat laws mandating a minimum representation of elected women functionaries in every sub-committee of the local body. Fair representation of women, that is at least 33 per cent, in all government committees, parastatals, statutory boards, etc., at every level—State, district, block and village—would help in mainstreaming gender concerns in all sectors.

Summary and Conclusions The above analysis suggests that Tamil Nadu fares reasonably well (above the all-India level) in terms of indicators such as female literacy, girls enrolment, female life expectancy, and women’s access to basic amenities. The MMRs and total fertility rates are also lower than the national average. In terms of political participation, women are faring reasonably well. While the absolute condition of women in Tamil Nadu is better than that in most States, the position of women vis-à-vis men with respect to literacy, education, work force participation, wages, asset ownership and political participation has not improved. The condition of women seems particularly poor in four backward districts: Dharmapuri, Cuddalore, Villupuram and Tiruvannamalai. The position of women, in particular 5The

specific recommendations include: i) amendments to the CrPC and IPC providing more safeguards to women in marriage and

divorce; ii) amendments to the CPC in favour of divorced and/or separated women giving powers of inquiry to the Commission; and iii) legal provisions to curb domestic violence.

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the gender gap in IMR and sex ratio, is extremely poor in Salem and Dharmapuri. A disturbing trend has been the fall in the juvenile sex ratio by 0.29 per cent in Tamil Nadu in the period 1991–2001 (Census 2001), with 22 districts experiencing a fall in the juvenile sex ratio. Each of these districts requires immediate attention through different kinds of strategies. It is also true that while many innovative experiments have been carried out in Tamil Nadu for women’s advancement from which several lessons can be drawn, several areas require greater attention. As women’s lives are not sectorally divided, it is imperative that the State government evolves a comprehensive State policy for gender equity that does the following: • •

Lays down time-bound goals and objectives to achieve gender equity in the State. Highlights key, gender-specific issues and targets vulnerable groups.

• •

Mandates announcement of a gender policy by each department and organization. Mandates gender budgeting for each sub-head under the State budget and perhaps a women component plan followed by annual departmental gender audits.

• •

Specifies indicators that will be used for monitoring the achievement of gender policy. Specifies what gender disaggregated data need to be gathered by each department to measure whether the



indicators are being achieved or not. Specifies agencies responsible for achieving the policy goals.

Ideally, the policy should be evolved with the involvement of all stakeholders, primarily women. Its implementation should be done as a collective and examined independently by the State Commission for Women.

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113

Chapter

 7

Social Security

The concept of social security, in its broadest sense, means support to individuals to help them attain a reasonable standard of living and/or to ensure that they do not experience a drop in their standard of living due to the occurrence of any contingency. If the broad social effect of a social security programme is to improve the quality of life, its economic effect is to redistribute income through a combination of promotional and protective measures. While promotional measures include growth-mediated and direct anti-poverty measures, protective measures seek to provide guarantees or entitlements to those affected by specific contingencies such as old age, death, employment injury, sickness, maternity etc. (Guhan, 1992). This chapter focuses primarily on protective social security for the elderly in Tamil Nadu as an important human development issue.

Social Security Measures in Tamil Nadu While social security in terms of assistance and insurance is not a new concept in India, state-initiated social security is fairly recent. This section identifies the major social security initiatives in Tamil Nadu promoted by the State Government. In Tamil Nadu (as in other parts of the country), social security is provided through both promotional and protective measures. The protective measures include contributory benefits in the form of pensions and retirement benefits to government employees, survivor benefits for the workers of the unorganized sector, provident fund and other benefits for workers in factories and other commercial establishments, benefits/welfare schemes for unorganized sector workers and social assistance schemes for women (and others) such as marriage and maternity assistance, old age pension etc. In this chapter, the following measures are discussed: • Pension Benefits for Retired Government Employees. •

Social Security for Private Organized Sector.

• •

Social Security for the Unorganized Sector. Pensions for Vulnerable Groups.

• •

Survivor Benefits for Unorganized Sector. Marriage and Maternity Assistance for Poor Women.

Pension Benefits for Retired Government Employees Pension benefits for retired government employees in Tamil Nadu are in the form of pensions, family pensions and retirement benefits such as death-cum-retirement gratuity, encashment of earned leave, etc. With consistent

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increase in life expectancy, the annual number of new entrants for pension has tended to outstrip annual displacements on account of death. Public expenditure on the payment of pension and other retirement benefits has steadily increased over the years, from Rs 4.01 billion in 1991–2 to Rs 25.78 billion in 2000–1 at current prices, as the number of pensioners has increased from 230,000 in 1991–2 to 413,000 in 2000–1. Expenditure is estimated to go up to a staggering Rs 138.61 billion in 2010, constituting 15 per cent of revenue expenditure. The liberalization of pension formulae, commutation facilities, sanction of dearness allowance and other benefits have provided a fairly comfortable post-retirement package for government pensioners.

Social Security for Private Organized Sector The four statutory social security schemes to protect workers in factories and other commercial establishments in Tamil Nadu, employing 20 or more persons, include Employees’ Provident Fund Scheme 1952, Employees’ Depositlinked Insurance Scheme 1976, Employees’ Pension Scheme 1995 and Employees’ State Insurance Act 1948. At present, they cover 177 types of industries, 44,308 establishments and 3.86 million members.

Social Security for the Unorganized Sector The unorganized sector is marked by low incomes, unstable and irregular employment and lack of protection either from legislation or trade unions. An exclusive welfare board for construction workers was set up by the State Government in 1995 which provides welfare schemes in the form of group/personal accident relief, marriage assistance, maternity benefits, assistance for the education of workers’ children, terminal benefits and assistance for funeral expenses. An estimated 238,000 construction workers are covered by the welfare board. In 1999, the government constituted the Tamil Nadu Manual Workers Social Security and Welfare Board for 57 categories of unorganized labour and further constituted seven separate boards for seven categories of manual workers, including agricultural labourers, palm tree workers, and auto rickshaw and taxi drivers. These boards are at present in their nascent stage.

Pensions for Vulnerable Groups Pensions are provided to five target categories of varying age-groups, namely old age people (normal), deserted wives, destitute widows, destitute physically handicapped and destitute agricultural labourers. The main eligibility criteria for drawing the pension amount are that persons belonging to these categories should have no means of subsistence and no family support.

Survivor Benefits for the Unorganized Sector Poor unorganized labour households suffer sudden income losses on account of death of or grievous injury to the bread-winner. In order to provide social secuirty to the bereaved families in the form of survivor benefit, a Family Distress Relief Scheme (FDRS) and Accident Relief Scheme (ARS) are operated in all the districts of Tamil Nadu. The FDRS is intended to provide special financial assistance to the bereaved families of the poor in the event of the demise of the bread-winner to compensate for the loss of wages. The financial assistance under FDRS, initially met by the State Government, has been entirely borne by the Government of India since 1999. The quantum of assistance being Rs 10,000, ARS is intended to provide financial relief to the families of persons belonging to 44 identified poor occupational categories who die or suffer physical impairment in accidents while in pursuit of their occupation or otherwise. The quantum of financial assistance ranges between Rs 5000 and Rs 15,000 and is shared by the Centre and State. About 400,000 families have benefited since the inception of these schemes, mostly from FDRS.

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115

Marriage and Maternity Assistance for Poor Women There are five marriage assistance schemes in Tamil Nadu. One of the major schemes is for girls below the poverty line, which attempts to reduce the financial burden on the girl’s family, while simultaneously enforcing the legal age of marriage for girls (18 years) and promoting female literacy/schooling. The maternity assistance scheme provides cash assistance to pregnant working women belonging to poor households to compensate them for the loss of wages during the last eight to twelve weeks before delivery and eight weeks after delivery. This cash assistance helps them to get essential nutrients in their diet.

Social Security for the Elderly Ageing of the population, until recently a concern of the developed countries of the world, has now become an important issue for developing countries, including India. In India, the population of the aged (60+) was 56.7 million in 1991 and it is expected to grow to over 71 million by the year 2001 and 137 million by 2021 (projected).1 The proportion of the aged population which was 6.7 per cent in 1991 is projected to increase to 7.0 per cent in 2001 and 9.8 per cent in 2021. As of 1991, the highest proportion of elderly among major States was in Kerala at 8.7 per cent, followed by Tamil Nadu at 7.4 per cent. A combination of high fertility and falling mortality rates in these States has led to a large and rapid increase in the elderly population. Other States such as Maharashtra and Punjab are not far behind. The ageing of the population in Tamil Nadu has serious implications in terms of how the future elderly— more particularly, the elderly poor—will live and, therefore, is a subject of serious concern with huge policy implications. Rapid urbanization of the State has resulted in shortage of accommodation in urban areas and high rentals have acted as severe constraints on the joint family system. Traditional respect as well as the attitude of empathy and care for the aged has considerably weakened. Migration of adult children to urban areas has accentuated the vulnerability of the old who are left behind; this has been especially so in families which do not have independent production assets and are dependent primarily on their labour (Sankaran, 1998). Consequent to changing societal values, the responsibility of the welfare of the elderly has devolved on the community and the State, and this has, therefore, brought provision of social security for them into sharp focus. An attempt is made here to examine (a) the ageing profile of Tamil Nadu, (b) financial security for the aged poor and old age pension schemes for the elderly, (c) health security—health care, housing and social services for the elderly, and (d) policy imperatives.

Age Structure of the Population The age structure of the population in Tamil Nadu has been undergoing a change. The proportion of population in the age group 0–4 has decreased from 11.15 per cent in 1981 to 7.79 per cent in 2000 (projected), while that of the 60+ population was projected to increase from 6.41 to 8.26 per cent during the same period. While the average LEB has increased from 49.6 years in 1970–5 to 63.3 years in 1991–5, life expectancy for 60+ has also increased from 11.9 years to 14.5 years during the same period. It is, therefore, necessary to look more closely at the aged population.

Demographic Profile of the Aged in Tamil Nadu According to the 1961 Census, the number of elderly (aged 60 and above) in Tamil Nadu was 1.89 million. This figure more than doubled to 4.16 million in 1991. While the aged constituted 5.60 per cent of the total population 1Age

specific data for the 2001 Census were not available at the time of writing this chapter.

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TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

in 1961, by 1991 they constituted 7.45 per cent (Table 7.1). In each of the age groups 60–9, 70–9 and 80+, the population had more than doubled from 1961 to 1991. Moreover, in the decade 1981–91, the percentage of the population in these age groups was higher as compared to the previous decades. An independent estimate projects the percentage of the aged at 9.05 per cent and 11.43 per cent in 2001 and 2011 respectively, next only to Kerala (Irudayarajan et al., 1999). The projected increase in both the absolute and relative size of the elderly population in the State is quite staggering and has implications for State policy for the aged.

District-Level Ageing Profile Looking at the district-level ageing profile based on the 1991 Census (data for erstwhile 21 composite districts), five districts, namely Kancheepuram, Cuddalore, Salem, Tiruchirappalli and Thanjavur had more than 300,000 people of age 60+. Salem had the highest number of 80+ people, namely 34,000, and the Nilgiris had the lowest of 3000. TABLE 7.1—DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF THE AGED IN TAMIL NADU, 1961–91 1961

1971

1981

1991

60–69

1296

1633

2077

2702

70–79

452

557

780

1075

80+

138

175

247

385

Total

1886

2365

3104

4162

3.85

3.96

4.26

4.84

70–79

1.34

1.35

1.61

1.92

80+

0.41

0.43

0.54

0.69

Total

5.60

5.74

6.41

7.45

26.02

27.23

30.06

70–79

23.19

39.92

37.86

80+

26.72

41.12

55.57

Total

25.39

31.25

34.05

1. No. of aged (in ’000s)

2. Proportion to total population(%) 60–69

3. Growth rate 60–69

Source: Census of India, 1991, ‘Ageing population of India—An analysis of the 1991 Census data’, Registrar General, India, March 1999.

The proportion of 60+ elderly population, both males and females, as per the 1991 Census, was 7.45 per cent. The districts above the State average for both males and females were Erode (9.34 per cent), Thoothukudi (8.36 per cent), Tirunelveli (8.33 per cent), Salem (8.24 per cent), Kanniyakumari (8.19 per cent), Sivagangai (8.14 per cent), Coimbatore (8.08 per cent), Tiruvannamalai (7.71 per cent) and Tiruchirappalli (7.67 per cent).

Dependency Ratios The ratio of persons aged 60 and over to persons aged 15–59 is called the aged dependency ratio and is the most common type of social dependency ratio. The youth dependency ratio is the number of persons aged 0–14 to 100 persons of intermediate age (15–59). The youth dependency ratio was 63.08 per cent in 1961 but declined to 50.15 per cent in 1991, whereas the aged dependency ratio increased from 9.86 per cent in 1961 to 12.13 per cent in 1991. Thus, there was an increase of the aged dependency ratio by 3 percentage points, and a decrease in the child dependency ratio by 13 percentage points. The index of ageing is intended to measure the structure of dependency, that is the proportion of population



SOCIAL SECURITY

117

aged 60 and above to the population aged 0–14. The number of persons aged 60 years and above for 100 persons under 15 years of age (index of ageing) was 15.63 per cent in 1961 but increased to 24.19 per cent in 1991. The increase was just 2.7 percentage points between 1961–81 but was 5.87 percentage points between 1981–91, indicating the acceleration of the ageing index in Tamil Nadu (Table 7.2). Based on census projections by agegroup, the aged dependency ratio has been put at 13.12 and the index of ageing at 32.07, showing a further increase of 7.88 percentage points from 1991. TABLE 7.2—DEPENDENCY RATIO, AGEING INDEX AND FAMILIAL DEPENDENCY RATIO FOR TAMIL NADU Year

Dependency ratio Young 0–14/15–59

Index of Ageing

Familial Dependency Ratio

Aged 60+/15–59

Total 0–14 and 60+/15–59

60+/0–14

0–14/60+

60–74/40–44

1961

63.08

9.86

72.94

15.63

640

NA

1971

66.88

10.17

77.05

15.20

658

105

1981

59.78

10.95

70.73

18.32

546

115

1991

50.15

12.13

62.28

24.19

413

108

2001

40.90

13.12

54.01

32.07

312

109

Note: NA-not available. Source: Based on projections of age-group population by Census Organization, the ratios have been calculated.

Data for districts have shown that the highest dependency ratio (rural plus urban) was in Erode district at 144/1000 followed by Thoothukudi with 141, Tirunelveli with 139, Sivagangai with 135 and Kanniyakumari and Tiruvannamalai with 134. Even in the rural areas, the highest dependency ratio was in Thoothukudi with 159, followed by Erode with 156, Tirunelveli and Coimbatore with 143, Sivagangai with 142 and Salem with 140.

Literacy and the Aged The literacy rate among the aged is abysmally low. As per the 1991 Census, only 33.68 per cent of the 60+ population was literate, as against the literacy rate of 62.66 per cent for the entire population. The gender differential is huge, namely 34 percentage points. While the aged male literacy rate is 49.94 per cent, the female literacy rate is 16.07 per cent. In other words, two-thirds of the aged population is illiterate while 84 per cent of the female aged are illiterate. The female aged rural literacy in Tamil Nadu is just 8.64 per cent. On the other hand, the urban aged literacy is 31.5 per cent. With female life expectancy higher than males, the prevalence of high female illiteracy has very serious implications when the aged women become widowed, and may have to live without male support.

TABLE 7.3—LITERACY RATE FOR 60+ State

Rural Male

Urban

Female

Persons

Male

Female

Combined Persons

Male

Female

Persons

Tamil Nadu

41.07

8.64

25.74

70.29

31.56

51.06

49.94

16.07

33.68

Kerala

76.81

50.17

62.69

84.38

58.27

69.91

78.68

52.32

64.55

India

33.65

7.51

21.11

65.97

30.76

48.73

40.62

12.68

27.15

Source: Census 1991.

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TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

Elderly by Sex and Residence Of the total aged population of 4.16 million in Tamil Nadu, 2 million are women. Sixty-eight per cent of the total elderly population lives in rural areas. As can be seen from Table 7.4, the urban aged population is equally divided among men and women, while in rural areas, the male aged population (1.51 million) is slightly higher than the female aged population (1.35 million). TABLE 7.4—PERSONS AGED 60+ BY SEX AND RESIDENCE IN TAMIL NADU (millions) Rural

Urban

Combined

Male

Female

Persons

Male

Female

Persons

Male

Female

Persons

1.51

1.35

2.86

0.66

0.65

1.31

2.16

2.00

4.16

Source: Census 1991.

Financial Security for the Aged Poor Though the ageing of population is an obvious consequence of the progress of demographic transition, it has brought to the fore the financial insecurity among the aged. Kerala was one of the earliest States to recognize this and it introduced the Old Age Pension (OAP) Scheme in 1960 and followed it up with a widow/destitute pension scheme in 1964. Tamil Nadu followed suit in 1962 with an OAP scheme for the elderly. The destitute widow pension scheme was introduced only in the 1970s along with the OAP scheme for the physically handicapped. The 1980s saw the introduction of two more pension schemes—one for deserted wives and another for destitute agricultural labourers. Except for the first scheme which shall be referred to as OAP (Normal), all the other schemes were not primarily meant for the elderly, though the elderly satisfying the eligibility criteria, could obtain pension from the latter four schemes. Therefore, there is a certain overlap between OAP (Normal) and the rest of the four schemes.2 The details, such as the year of introduction, age eligibility, common and additional criteria, rate of pension and other benefits of the OAP schemes are given in Box 7.1.

Box 7.1—OAP Schemes: Year of Introduction and Eligibility Scheme

Year of Introduction

1. Old Age Pension (Normal)

1.4.1962

2. Destitute Physically Handicapped Pension

6.11.1974

2In

Eligibility General Criteria: No family support and no means of subsistence. 60 and above—destitutes with blindness, leprosy, insanity, paralysis or loss of limb. 65 years—for others : 55 years : 45 years Disability with 50 per cent or more

addition to OAP (Normal), destitute persons above 60 are also covered under other categories of pension schemes. It may not,

therefore, be correct if the (1991 census) entire elderly population 60+ is taken as target population of OAP (Normal) scheme. Hence, in order to avoid overlapping, the target population under OAP (Normal) is arrived at by deducting the elderly population belonging to physically handicapped (1.9 per cent of the total population based on NSSO estimates from the 36th Round), destitute widows, deserted wives and agricultural labourers. It is assumed that these groups (that is those who are 60+) claim pension under their respective categories.

SOCIAL SECURITY

Scheme

Year of Introduction



119

Eligibility

3. Destitute Widows Pension

27.5.1975

: 45 years : 40 years : No age limit Destitute widows and widows having legal heirs of age 18 years and above.

4. Destitute Agricultural Labourers Pension

15.3.1981

60 years and above Evidence as an agricultural labourer.

5. Deserted Wives Pension

25.4.1986

30 years and above. Deserted wives and also those having legal heirs of age 18 years and above.

Rate of Pension When the OAP scheme was introduced in 1962, the rate of pension per beneficiary was Rs 20. It underwent revision in subsequent years. Since 1996, the Government of India has started contributing to the pension amount. While out of Rs 100 per beneficiary, its share was Rs 75, at present, the rate of pension per beneficiary is Rs 200, (Rs 75 by the Government of India + Rs 125 by the State). Other Benefits 1. Under free supply of dhoties and sarees, one dhoti to each male and one saree to each female are given on two occasions in a year, that is, during Pongal and Deepavali festivals. 2. Free supply of rice to OAPs was introduced in 1980. From 1997, old age pensioners who take meals in the NMP centres get 2 kg of rice free. Those who do not take meals get 4 kg of rice per month free. The data for Tamil Nadu (Table 7.5) show that the number of beneficiaries in all the five categories of old age pension schemes in the 60+ age group increased from 348,480 in 1995–6 to 506,865 in 1999–2000.3 The major increases were in OAP (Normal) and pension schemes for destitute widows. The coverage ratio for OAP (Normal) has increased substantially from 11.04 per cent in 1995–6 to 16.98 per cent in 1999–2000. The coverage ratios increased slightly from 1995–6 to 1999–2000 in the case of schemes for physically handicapped and agricultural labourers. Table 7.5 shows the category-wise number of beneficiaries and coverage ratios for the elderly 60+ population under OAP schemes for 1995–6 and 1999–2000. TABLE 7.5—OAP BENEFICIARIES AND COVERAGE RATIOS FOR ELDERLY 60+ POPULATION Category 1. OAP (Normal)3 2. Physically handicapped4 3. Destitute widows2 4. Agricultural labourers2 5. Destitute Deserted wives2 Total

Target popn 60+ 1991 (in ’000s) 2331 79 1203 535 14 4162

60+ Beneficiaries 1995–961 257,199 2934 10,716 75,038 2593 348,480

% to total

60+ Beneficiaries 1999–20001

% to total

73.81 0.84 3.08 21.53 0.74 100.00

395,692 3462 21,846 80,731 5134 506,865

78.07 0.68 4.31 15.93 1.01 100.00

Coverage ratio% 1995–96 1999–2000 11.04 3.71 0.89 14.04 18.53 8.37

16.98 4.38 1.82 15.10 36.70 12.18

Source: 1. District Collectors of Tamil Nadu: Beneficiaries of 60+ age group. 2. Census 1991. 3. Calculated from Census Tables 1991. 4. Estimated by adopting 1.9% of the 60+ census population, based on NSS 36th round of 1981. 3The

total number of beneficiaries (all age groups) of all schemes in rural areas was 620,000. The OAP (Normal) with 249,000

beneficiaries was the largest scheme followed by the destitute widows scheme with 236,000 rural beneficiaries. Together these two schemes accounted for 78 per cent of rural beneficiaries.



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TAMIL NADU HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT

A number of points are in order with regard to the changing importance of particular schemes in the recent past. • The share of OAP (Normal) which was 73.81 per cent in 1995–6 increased to 78.07 per cent in 1999–2000. On the other hand, the percentage share of the destitute widows scheme (DWP) gradually increased from 3.08 per cent in 1995–6 to 4.31 per cent in 1999–2000. The share of the scheme for physically handicapped •

declined from 0.84 per cent in 1995–6 to 0.68 per cent in 1999–2000. The share of Destitute Agricultural Labourers’ Pension (DALP) has been surprisingly low. It is probable that the bulk of beneficiaries might have accessed the pension under OAP (Normal) since (a) there is not much difference in age eligibility for both the schemes and (b) beneficiaries under the DALP scheme have to produce some evidence that they are agricultural labourers which they do not have to do under OAP (Normal). Hence,



easy accessibility to OAP (Normal) is ostensibly the reason for the DALP not being very popular. The Destitute Deserted Wives Pension Scheme (DDWP) has also not registered much growth, probably because of the social stigma attached to declaring oneself as a ‘deserted wife’ for eligibility under the scheme.



The increasing coverage in all schemes is mainly due to the scrapping of a ‘waiting list’ for OAP applications and the removal of a ceiling imposed on the sanction of old age pensions in 1989. With the District Collectors authorized to sanction OAP applications without any ceiling or limit on the number of sanctions, the coverage increased by 26.7 per cent in 1990 within a year of the removal of the ceiling (Guhan, 1992). This trend has continued.

Poverty Levels Among the Elderly and Coverage of OAP This section examines to what extent those below the poverty line among the elderly are captured by the destitution criteria and what percentage of the elderly accesses OAP schemes. Table 7.6 shows the disaggregated data on poverty, WPRs and the coverage ratio of OAP (Normal) and OAP (all categories) in 21 erstwhile composite districts as per the 1991 Census. As can be seen, the State average coverage ratio under OAP (Normal) is 16.98 per cent while the poverty level for the State as a whole is 31.66 per cent. For the purpose of this analysis, the assumption is made that poverty is evenly spread among all age groups including the elderly. The coverage ratio has been calculated by dividing the number of beneficiaries by the elderly population. TABLE 7.6—CORRELATION BETWEEN ELDERLY POPULATION, AGED WPR, POVERTY AND OAP COVERAGE RATIO S.no. Districts

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Chennai Kancheepuram Vellore Dharmapuri Tiruvannamalai Cuddalore Salem Erode Nilgiris Coimbatore

Target Elderly Popn 60+ related to OAP (normal) 1991 (in ’000s)

Target Elderly Popn 60+ All Categories (1991) (in ’000s)1

177 171 118 104 86 187 180 122 25 166

257 309 222 168 157 328 320 217 38 283

Aged WPR (%) 19911

16.81 32.21 36.82 45.10 45.55 44.28 45.16 46.59 23.79 34.74

Poverty level 1993–94 (%)2

OAP (normal) Beneficiaries coverage ratio (%) 1991–2000

All five categories3 Beneficiaries coverage ratio (%) 1999–2000

31.58 27.00 36.55 26.70 42.15 50.91 30.14 18.32 21.24 25.77

24.39 19.72 20.37 17.51 26.35 15.53 19.77 8.94 8.08 7.90

17.37 13.31 17.33 15.67 20.71 11.62 13.42 6.75 7.84 5.64 (Contd...)

SOCIAL SECURITY



121

(Table 7.6 Contd.) S.no. Districts

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

Dindigul Tiruchirappalli Thanjavur Pudukkottai Sivagangai Madurai Virudhunagar Ramanathapuram Thoothukudi Tirunelveli Kanniyakumari Tamil Nadu State average

Target Elderly Popn 60+ related to OAP (normal) 1991 (in 000s)

69 172 170 56 53 123 55 50 62 107 78 2331 111

Target Elderly Popn 60+ All Categories (1991) (in 000s)1

130 317 334 94 88 246 113 80 122 207 132 4162 198

Aged WPR (%) 19911

46.13 44.07 43.22 41.53 46.60 39.35 48.56 46.43 41.84 42.41 29.34 39.89

Poverty level 1993–94 (%)2

OAP (normal) Beneficiaries coverage ratio (%) 1991–2000

All five categories3 Beneficiaries coverage ratio (%) 1999–2000

46.28 21.59 30.73 26.90 26.63 30.35 26.21 25.86 47.02 44.10 48.59 31.66

13.99 15.78 20.36 17.64 16.33 23.18 16.81 15.03 14.76 13.41 5.83 16.98

9.04 12.76 12.05 12.27 11.48 15.81 10.36 12.40 9.61 8.11 4.50 12.18

Sources: 1. Census 1991. 2. Department of Economics and Statistics, Chennai. 3. Calculated on the basis of data furnished by District Collectors of Tamil Nadu.



The following points can be made with regard to the relationship between poverty and OAP (Normal): The number of OAP (Normal) beneficiaries in Chennai City, Vellore, Tiruvannamalai, Thanjavur and Madurai districts is higher than the State average by 20 per cent or more. All these districts have poverty levels close to the State average or more than the State average, and thus it can be reasonably confidently said that the destitution criteria has enabled the elderly below the poverty line to access OAP and eke out a living. Among these districts, Tiruvannamalai and Thanjavur have higher elderly WPRs than the State average. The inference that can be drawn is that the wages earned are either spartan or inadequate for sustenance—this is corroborated



by the high level of poverty in one of the two districts (Tiruvannamalai: 42.15 per cent). Medium poverty districts such as Kancheepuram, Salem, Pudukkottai and Dharmapuri have a coverage ratio



higher than the State average. The latter three districts also have a higher WPR as compared to the State average. Cuddalore, Thoothukudi and Tirunelveli have poverty levels much higher than the State average, yet their coverage under OAP is below the State coverage ratio. Though the WPR is high in these districts, it cannot be said that there is no recourse to OAP by the elderly poor because of high wage rates—had that been so, the poverty levels would not have been high in these districts. The reasons for poor coverage need to be examined



independently. Among the medium poverty districts, Coimbatore has the lowest ratio under OAP (7.90 per cent). The WPR



is also quite low at 34.74 per cent. Here too, the reason for the poor coverage needs to be examined. Virudhunagar (26.21 per cent), Ramanathapuram (25.86 per cent) and Sivagangai (26.63 per cent) which are medium poverty districts also have reasonable OAP coverage ratios of 16.81, 15.03 and 16.33 per cent, respectively. These are traditionally backward and drought-prone districts and the high WPRs among the elderly may not earn them adequate livelihoods due to lower wages.



The low coverage ratio under OAP in Erode district (8.94 per cent) can largely be ascribed to a family system among the predominant caste in this district which traditionally supports the elderly.

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TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

What can be ascertained from the above is that the district-wise coverage ratio of OAP schemes presents a contrasting picture when examined with reference to poverty levels and WPRs. However, what is evident is that even going strictly by the State-level percentage of people living below the poverty line (31.66 per cent), (assuming once again that poverty is spread equally across the 60+ population), the coverage of OAP (Normal) is only 16.98 per cent and all the schemes put together only 12.18 per cent. The coverage is, therefore, less than 55 per cent of the elderly below the poverty line under OAP (Normal) and less than 40 per cent in the case of all the schemes put together. Since there is no ceiling on the sanction of old age pensions by the district administration, the coverage of old age pensions among the aged poor is not satisfactory. The reasons for this low coverage need to be studied more carefully.

Gender Dimensions of Ageing and Social Security The 1991 Census data have shown that there are more male elderly people (2.16 million) than female (2 million). The proportion of the male elderly population is greater than that of the females in all districts except Vellore, Tirunelveli, Sivagangai and Thoothukudi. The proportion of male elderly, moreover, is more in rural areas than in urban areas in all the districts. In the case of the female elderly population the reverse is true in certain districts, namely Cuddalore, Thanjavur, Pudukottai and Kanniyakumari. To assess the gender dimension of ageing, the sex ratio is calculated among various groups of elderly by marital status. In all districts except Sivagangai (1016), Thoothukudi (1050) and Tirunelveli (1020), female–male sex ratios are lower in the 60+ and 70+ age groups than for the population as a whole. Higher sex ratios are reported in the age group 80+ for Kancheepuram, Vellore, Nilgiris, Sivagangai, Virudhunagar, Thoothukudi, Tirunelveli, Kanniyakumari and Chennai city. Looking at the above in the context of social security for the elderly, there were more women than men OAP (Normal) beneficiaries in 1999–2000, that is 245,000 women vis-à-vis 150,000 men. As pointed out earlier, this may be the result of women outliving men and hence having recourse to OAP as a means of subsistence. When the data for all five categories of 60+ OAP beneficiaries are put together, there are 321,000 women beneficiaries. In the three categories of OAP (Normal), physically handicapped and agricultural labourers, there were 186,000 male beneficiaries and 294,000 female beneficiaries. This may be due to the higher WPRs among aged men, that is 57.05 per cent as compared to 21.31 per cent for women. The WPR for men aged 60 and above has, however, come down from 70.23 per cent in 1971 to 57.05 per cent in 1991, whereas it increased from 13.27 per cent to 21.31 per cent in the case of women. Almost half of the aged men and one-fifth of aged women were in the workforce.

Male Elderly and Old Age Pension The variables which are correlated with male OAP beneficiaries in the districts are male elderly population and male aged WPR. As shown in Table 7.7, the distribution of the target 60+ male elderly OAP (Normal) population is very skewed. Under OAP (Norm), 52.4 per cent of the target population is concentrated in seven out of the 21 districts in the State as per the 1991 Census—Chennai, Kancheepuram, Cuddalore, Salem, Coimbatore, Tiruchirappalli and Thanjavur. The target population for the three groups, OAP (Normal), physically handicapped and agricultural labourers, put together is similarly concentrated in the above seven districts and accounts for 52.2 per cent of the target population. Despite the high target population, the coverage ratio under OAP (Normal) is lower than the State average of 8.41 per cent in Coimbatore (3.66 per cent), Tiruchirappalli (8.09 per cent) and Salem (8.30 per cent). Significantly, Dharmapuri (11.64 per cent), Tiruvannamalai (13.06 per cent) and Pudukottai (8.88 per cent) have a higher coverage ratio under OAP (Normal) though the target OAP (Normal) population in these three districts is below the State average of 85, and despite their having a male aged WPR above 60 per cent. A similar trend is observed in the coverage ratios of all three groups combined.



SOCIAL SECURITY

123

TABLE 7.7—CORRELATION BETWEEN MALE ELDERLY POPULATION, MALE AGED WPR AND OAP COVERAGE RATIO IN SELECTED DISTRICTS Target Male elderly Population 60+ (’000s)

Male aged WPR (%) 19911

Male Beneficiaries (1999–2000)2 Coverage Ratio (%)

S.no. Districts

Related to OAP (Normal)

All three Categories1 (OAP(N)+ PH+AL)

1. Chennai

126

129

30.19

2. Kancheepuram

131

157

49.31

9.93

10.37

78

92

61.77

11.64

14.00

3. Dharmapuri 4. Tiruvannamalai

OAP (Normal)

OAP all three Categories (OAP(N)+PH+AL)

9.89

9.76

70

84

63.31

13.06

14.40

5. Cuddalore

147

184

62.60

10.41

10.66

6. Salem

139

170

60.95

8.30

8.05

7. Coimbatore

126

149

50.46

3.66

3.65

8. Tiruchirappalli

136

165

60.36

8.09

9.57

9. Thanjavur

134

177

65.08

14.04

12.14

10. Pudukkottai

43

48

60.73

8.88

9.13

Tamil Nadu

1789

2164

57.05

8.41

8.60

85

103

State average

Sources: 1. Census 1991. 2. Calculated on the basis of data furnished by District Collectors of Tamil Nadu.

Female Elderly and Old Age Pension The total female elderly population in Tamil Nadu as per the 1991 Census is approximately 2 million. The State average female WPR is only 21.31 per cent as against the male elderly WPR of 57.05 per cent. Table 7.8 shows the correlation between female elderly population, female aged WPR and coverage ratio of female OAP beneficiaries. In estimating the target 60+ female elderly population under OAP (Normal), it is presumed that the female elderly who are eligible for OAP under the special schemes such as Destitute Widows Pension (DWP), DDWP, DALP and Destitute Physically Handicapped (DPH) will avail OAP through these special schemes and not under the OAP (Normal). The target population of these four schemes is deducted from the total female elderly population in the 60+ age group in order to arrive at the target population under OAP (Normal). TABLE 7.8—CORRELATION BETWEEN FEMALE ELDERLY POPULATION, FEMALE AGED WPR AND OAP COVERAGE RATIO IN SELECTED DISTRICTS Target Female elderly Population 60+ (’000s)

Female aged WPR (%) 19911

related to OAP (Normal)

all three Categories1 (OAP(N)+ PH+AL)

1. Chennai

51

128

3.45

2. Kancheepuram

40

152

3. Vellore

26

112

S.no. Districts

Female Beneficiaries (1999–2000)2 Coverage Ratio (%) OAP (Normal)

OAP all three Categories (OAP(N)+PH+AL)

60.15

24.98

14.62

51.79

16.35

17.55

58.30

22.98 (Contd...)



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(Table 7.8 Contd.) Target Female elderly Population 60+ (’000s) S.no. Districts

related to OAP (Normal)

all three Categories1 (OAP(N)+ PH+AL)

Female aged WPR (%) 19911

Female Beneficiaries (1999–2000)2 Coverage Ratio (%) OAP (Normal)

OAP all three Categories (OAP(N)+PH+AL)

4. Tiruvannamalai

16

73

25.01

84.53

27.99

5. Salem

42

150

27.17

57.93

19.52

6. Erode

31

102

26.83

22.04

9.41

7. Nilgiris

7

18

12.13

16.78

9.71

8. Coimbatore

40

134

17.19

21.34

7.86

9. Dindigul

14

60

29.13

53.73

15.07

10. Madurai

25

122

23.56

85.96

25.53

8

56

35.67

68.40

13.44

11. Virudhunagar 12. Kanniyakumari

27

65

7.11

10.50

6.06

Tamil Nadu

542

1998

21.31

45.28

16.05

26

95

State average

Sources: 1. Census 1991. 2. Calculated on the basis of data furnished by District Collectors of Tamil Nadu.

The State coverage ratio for OAP (Normal) is 45.28 per cent. Chennai City, Kancheepuram, Vellore, Salem, Dindigul and Virudhunagar have a coverage ratio in excess of 50 per cent. Tiruvannamalai and Madurai have a very high coverage ratio of over 80 per cent. The coverage is quite low in the Nilgiris possibly because of a lack of awareness about the scheme, being a hill district. However, Kanniyakumari also has a low coverage ratio of 10.5 per cent in spite of having a low female elderly WPR of 7.11 per cent. This is possibly due to the family structure in the district where the younger generation tends to provide informal social security within the family for the female elderly. The State average coverage ratio of female elderly in all the five OAP schemes is 16.05 per cent. Chennai City, Vellore, Tiruvannamalai and Madurai are the districts which have a coverage ratio of more than 20 per cent. Coimbatore and Erode have a coverage ratio of less than 10 per cent. The reasons for low coverage ratio in these districts are very much the same as in the case of the male elderly. The overall coverage ratio for the female elderly both under OAP (Normal) and OAP (all schemes) is, however, fairly robust.

Destitute Widows Pension As per the 1991 census, the 60+ widowed population in the State was 1.2 million. On the other hand, DWP beneficiaries constituted only 22,000 in 1999–2000, a coverage ratio of 1.82 per cent4 which is much lower than the OAP (Normal) coverage ratio of 16.98 per cent. This could be due to three reasons: (a) the widows’ destitution level may be lower than that of old age pensioners, (b) out of the total number of beneficiaries, more than 300,000 come under the age group of 20–60 years indicating that there are more young widow beneficiaries and (c) destitute widows above 65 years may have been covered under OAP (Normal) also. As mentioned above, some informal forms of social security are also still available for young widows from their natal families. This is true in districts 4In

practice, the coverage ratio might be even less given the fact that the number of beneficiaries is from 1999–2000 and the population

from 1991.

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125

such as Erode and Coimbatore where caste traditions provide an informal social security arrangement. Coverage ratios in these two districts are 1.40 per cent and 0.80 per cent respectively. Tirunelveli and Kanniyakumari districts also have a low DWP coverage, namely 0.75 and 1.47 per cent, again indicating a community tradition providing family security for young widows. The coverage in the four districts of Erode, Tiruvannamalai, Kanniyakumari and Coimbatore, due to the predominantly urban character is, moreover, presumably restricted to the aged widows who opt for DWP when they outlive their spouses.

Destitute Deserted Wives Pension The 60+ deserted wives population was 14,000 in 1991 whereas the number of DDWP beneficiaries in 1999– 2000 was only 5000. Deserted wives pensioners are more in the districts of Tiruvannamalai, Vellore, Dharmapuri, Madurai, Coimbatore, Kancheepuram, Erode and Virudhunagar and they are mainly in the age group of 40–50. Thanjavur has more widow beneficiaries in the age group of 50–60 years while Chennai city, Tirunelveli and Tiruvannamalai come next. The districts having more widow beneficiaries in the age group of 30–40 are Thoothukudi, Ramanathapuram, Pudukottai, Sivagangai, Vellore, Virudhunagar and Salem. Overall, the reach of this scheme is relatively low, partly due to the social stigma attached in rural areas to deserted wives and partly due to the low awareness of the scheme among the public.

Destitute Physically Handicapped Pension The total number of persons receiving the pension for elderly destitute physically handicapped in the State increased from 2934 in 1995–6 to 3462 in 1999–2000, an increase of coverage from 3.71 per cent to 4.38 per cent respectively. This is a low absolute as well as proportionate coverage, with an estimated disabled population of 79,000 in the 60+ age group. The most likely reason for the low coverage is the unduly restrictive eligibility norms. The eligibility criteria of 50 per cent disability should be reduced to 25 per cent in order to widen coverage. Despite a low coverage ratio of 4.38 per cent, Rs 7.92 million was spent on the programme in 1999–2000. If coverage was increased to 20 to 30 per cent, the annual pension outlay would still be only Rs 36.16 million (at 20 per cent coverage) and Rs 54.25 million (at 30 per cent coverage), which is not a huge expenditure.

Destitute Agricultural Labourers Pension The total number of pensioners in the category of destitute agricultural labourers in the State increased from 75,038 in 1995–6 to 80,731 in 1999–2000, 15.10 per cent of the total 60+ agricultural labourers. Data across districts reveal a mixed correlation between aged WPR, aged dependency ratio and coverage ratio under DALP. Kancheepuram has (when compared to the State average) a low WPR (32.21 per cent), low dependency ratio (109 per cent) and understandably a low coverage ratio (17.68 per cent), whereas Vellore with a fairly high aged WPR (36.82 per cent), high dependency ratio (124 per cent) has a high coverage ratio of 40.36 per cent. Salem, Thanjavur, Madurai, Dindigul, Virudhunagar, Tirunelveli and Sivagangai have a high aged WPR and correspondingly a low coverage ratio. (The dependency ratios, however, are low in some and high in other districts.) Tiruvannamalai, Dharmapuri, Cuddalore, Ramanathapuram and Pudukottai have a high WPR rate yet a high coverage ratio. The inference is that the agricultural wages earned by the aged are not adequate to bring the target population above destitution, or alternatively the aged beneficiaries covered are not doing any work and hence are dependent on the DALP. It also needs to be pointed out that in many of the districts, agricultural operations are seasonal (Ramnathapuram, Pudukkottai etc.) and hence the target population may still be below the subsistence level.

Expenditure on OAP Pension Schemes Table 7.9 shows the category-wise expenditure on OAP schemes for 1995–6 and 1999–2000. The total expenditure on all OAP schemes for the elderly 60+ population has increased from Rs 382.28 million in 1995–6 to Rs 820.95

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million in 1999–2000, a growth rate of 21.06 per cent at current prices. The per beneficiary expenditure has increased from Rs 1097.00 in 1995–6 to Rs 1619.66 in 1999–2000 due to the enhancement in the rate of pension from Rs 75 to Rs 150 during that period. OAP (Normal) accounted for 77.21 per cent of total OAP expenditure in 1999–2000. The next largest scheme, financially speaking, was DALP—accounting for 16.37 per cent. The DPH, DWP and DDWP account for only 6.42 per cent of expenditure. The expenditure on OAP schemes in 1999–2000 formed 0.41 per cent of total revenue expenditure. TABLE 7.9—EXPENDITURE ON OAP PENSION SCHEMES FOR ELDERLY 60+ POPULATION IN TAMIL NADU (Rs in lakhs) Category

Expenditure 1995–6

1. Old Age Pension (normal)1 2. Destitute Physically

Handicapped2

Widows2

% to Total

Expenditure 1999–2000

% to Total

2748.64

71.90

6338.79

77.21

47.54

1.24

79.20

0.96

99.91

2.62

342.90

4.18

labourers1

897.58

23.48

1343.69

16.37

5. Destitute Deserted Wives2

29.15

0.76

104.91

1.28

Total Expenditure (in lakhs)

3822.82

100.00

8209.49

100.00

Total Expenditure (in crores)

38.23

3. Destitute

4. Destitute Agri.

Revenue Expenditure (in crores)3 Exp. on OAP (60+) as % of Revenue Expenditure Per Beneficiary Expr. (in rupees)

10,910.57

82.09 20,166.024

0.35 1097.00

0.41 1619.66

Sources: 1. District Collectors of Tamil Nadu. 2. Based on the total expenditure for the targeted beneficiaries, the per beneficiary expenditure for three categories (DPH, DWP and DDWP) has been calculated and the expenditure for 60+ age group has been arrived at. 3. Appendices to Budget Speech, 1999–2000. 4. Budget Memorandum Part-I, 2000–01.

Health Care, Housing and Other Social Services for the Elderly Illnesses With advancing age, the elderly are afflicted by perennial health problems and chronic diseases and illnesses, sometimes of a multiple nature. As a result, their functional capacity often gets affected due to the impairment of vision, hearing and movement. Hence, they require special medical and nursing care and long-term management of illnesses at home and in medical institutions. Major diseases like blood pressure, heart disease and diabetes among the elderly are more prevalent in urban areas as compared to rural areas due perhaps to urban lifestyles. National Sample Survey Organization data from the 52nd Round (1995–6) reveal that the prevalence of chronic diseases is higher among men than among women, in both rural and urban areas. There are also age-specific diseases which affect the elderly such as dementia. In addition, the high prevalence of multiple co-existing physical conditions, such as incontinence, hip fracture and sensory loss, influence mental health through the loss of self-esteem and independence. Moreover, changes in social patterns alter the role of the

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127

elderly and the ways in which they are valued. These changes can lead to poor mental health outcomes, such as depression, anxiety and even suicide. While no comprehensive studies are currently available in Tamil Nadu on the morbidity pattern among the elderly per se, a study conducted at the national level by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) on the disabilities of the geriatric population found that 88 per cent have visual problems, 40 per cent locomotive difficulties, 18.7 per cent suffer from neurological problems and 8.1 per cent from psychiatric difficulties. Another ICMR study found that 20.74 per cent were manic depressive. What can be said about Tamil Nadu is that it has one of the lowest prevalence rates of physical (not other) disabilities in both urban (31.4 per cent) and rural (33.1 per cent) areas (Table 7.10). TABLE 7.10—PREVALENCE RATE (PER ONE LAKH PERSONS) OF ANY PHYSICAL DISABILITY AMONG PERSONS AGED 60 YEARS AND ABOVE BY SEX Males

Females

Persons

40,435

34,879

37,913

Tamil Nadu

Rural Urban

33,391

29,586

31,479

India

Rural

38,002

42,455

40,247

Urban

16,559

36,696

35,608

Source: NSSO, 52nd Round, 1995–6.

The elderly, particularly women, are also disproportionately poor and are, therefore, more likely than the general population to be malnourished. Lack of food can lead to problems such as confusion and forgetfulness, problems which are often wrongly diagnosed to make things worse. For example, a patient exhibiting symptoms of confusion could be assumed to have an organic disorder when he or she may really be suffering from malnutrition. Another scenario might be that the community, expecting the elderly to be confused and slow as normal accompaniments of ageing, will not recognize the symptoms of malnutrition and not encourage the elderly to seek treatment. Thus, problems caused by malnutrition that mark symptoms of organic disorders and leave patients undiagnosed are widely prevalent.

Institutional Care and Social Security While the State has a responsibility to take care of the elderly through the public health system, a very good system is not in place. Geriatric medicine, as a speciality department, is available only in the Government General Hospital in Chennai. While private hospitals cater more to the elderly, the costs are very high which prevent both the urban and rural poor from accessing these hospitals. All of these have put a serious barrier to the access of the poor to geriatric care. Institutional care for the elderly is, therefore, mainly provided by voluntary non-profit organizations such as religious charitable organizations. The Madras Institute of Ageing, in a monograph entitled ‘Care for Elderly’ (1989), listed 329 institutions all over the country which are involved in taking care of the elderly. According to this study, Tamil Nadu and Kerala have more elderly care institutions than other States in India, with 71 old age homes in Tamil Nadu and 70 in Kerala. On the whole, the southern States (Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh) accommodate 57 per cent of all old age homes. In recent years, the number of new homes started is much higher in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh (Irudayarajan, 1999). Old age homes are still required for the poor aged and for the sick and handicapped elderly. Even for the non-poor, the number of old age homes is too few and these are very often crowded. There is also greater



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need for day care centres because children and grandchildren cannot leave the elderly alone at home when they go out to work. TABLE 7.11—NUMBER OF OLD AGE HOMES AND DAY CARE CENTRES UNDER FUNDING FROM GOI Tamil Nadu

All India

1. No.of old age homes

20

234

No. of old persons

500

5850

2. No. of day care centres

27

398

1350

19,900

No. of old persons

Source: Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Government of India quoted in ‘Elderly in India, Profile and Programmes, 2000’, CSO, GOI.

A more long term policy is also needed. With a staggering ageing population in Tamil Nadu, provision of health care for the aged at the PHC level has to be thought of. Doctors as well as paramedical staff in PHCs have to be imparted training in geriatric care so that basic disorders among the aged can be attended to at that level. Institutional care, moreover, has to be supplemented by social security. Until recently, there was no social security scheme to provide medical care to people after their retirement from service. Recently, however, there have been attempts to extend social security benefits to retired government officials at least. The Central Government Health Service Scheme and the Employees State Insurance (ESI) scheme have been extended to Central Government officials. In Tamil Nadu, retired government employees are permitted to avail of medical facilities in government hospitals. Nonetheless, there is no arrangement to provide medical care to the large number of senior citizens who are not covered by these schemes, particularly the poor. They have to depend upon the public medical service. Public sector insurance companies have mediclaim policies but these are generally targeted at the elderly belonging to the middle income groups who have regular income. Moreover, most of the schemes offer no medical insurance for those beyond 70 years of age. It is this group which is in greater need of medicare than others. But the rate of premium is higher for this age group and that too in a period when there is a fall in income. With the opening up of the insurance sector to joint ventures from overseas insurance companies, it is possible that appropriate schemes will be developed to meet the needs of the aged.

Policy Imperatives As illustrated above, the demographic transition that has taken place during the last two decades has created an imbalance in the age structure of the population, namely the elderly constitute an increasing share of the population today. These demographic changes have been accompanied by socio-economic changes such as the emergence of nuclear families, erosion of traditional family systems and changing values of the younger generation vis-à-vis the elderly. These changes have serious implications for the elderly. Hence, the future size and composition of the elderly, based on these demographic changes, have to be considered in assessing their needs in terms of physical and mental health. A holistic policy for the aged has to be formulated. The broad features of such a policy should address geriatric care in general (health security), financial concerns (social security) and institutional support. Policy imperatives for each of these are highlighted below.

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Health Security •

Government hospitals need to have geriatric wards with a geriatric specialist. Further, elderly out-patients should receive priority attention from doctors so that they do not have to wait in long queues.



There should be integrated care addressing both the physical and mental needs of the elderly. Since the elderly are more likely to seek treatment for physical disorders than for mental problems, any attempt to treat mental disorders will be most effective, if it is part of the existing system to treat physical ailments. This would also be cheaper.



Primary healh centre doctors and paramedical staff should be given basic training in the treatment of the elderly. Bare-foot doctor programmes should be evolved in which paramedics conduct house-to-house visits to screen physical and mental health problems of the elderly, particularly in rural areas.



Multi-purpose day care centres that offer recreational facilities and other services such as medical screening and counselling, both for the elderly and their families, should be established.



Research is needed to develop acceptable programmes of care to meet the demands for long-term care, including home care and institutional care. Epidemiological studies are required on the prevalence and incidence of major illnesses of the elderly in Tamil Nadu, so as to develop appropriate care systems.

Financial Security •

The government must revise the two eligibility criteria for OAP, namely that the pensioner should have no family support and no means of subsistence. These criteria are harsh, and it is evident from the facts that the coverage ratio is just 12.18 per cent for all OAP schemes put together.



Social assistance should not only target individuals, but also the families that take care of them. It is, therefore, desirable to remove the eligibility criterion according to which poor elderly people with close relatives are excluded from the OAP scheme (Midgley, 1993). Instead all those below the poverty line can be covered.



The poverty criterion should be applied with reference to the beneficiary and not with reference to the income of the family of the beneficiary. Even if all those who are below the poverty line in the State are covered (assuming that poverty is spread uniformly across all age groups), 31 per cent of the estimated 4.1 million elderly population will be brought under the OAP umbrella, as against the present 12.18 per cent. At present, the per beneficiary cost of Rs 1619 (excluding cost of free noon meal and free dhothi/saree) works out to a total expenditure of Rs 2.09 billion, which is just about 1.04 per cent of the total revenue expenditure. An index linked OAP may also be considered, as it gives a relatively stable income and may provide an important source of income for the children of the pensioners, encouraging them to take care of their parents.



Access to OAP schemes also needs to be made simpler and sanction of OAP made promptly. The ideal solution would be to entrust this work and responsibility to the village or block level. The Gram Sabha could be the forum through which beneficiary selection is made and OAP promptly sanctioned. The payment of OAP could be either at the panchayat level or at the taluk level as at present.



Legislative measures to ensure care of the elderly by children can be passed, as has already been done in some States. In essence, such a measure would imply that young people should contribute to the maintenance of the aged (Jhabvala and Subrahmanya, 2000). Such a law will also take some financial burden of the State government to provide for the elderly.



For the above to happen, the bread-winner in the family should be totally exempted from income tax, so that it serves as an incentive to take care of the elderly in their old age. Non-income tax payers can be given a special allowance through the PDS.

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TAMIL NADU HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT

Institutional Care •

While payment old age homes are increasing in Tamil Nadu, these are primarily targeted towards the nonpoor who can afford it. Free old age homes for the poor are very crowded in Tamil Nadu and there are long waiting lists for taking in people. Government intervention is required for setting up old age homes exclusively



for the poor and destitute elderly who have no one to take care of them. Grant assistance from the Government of India for the construction of old age homes should be oriented towards NGOs and charitable institutions which provide free old age homes. The State Government can consider providing free electricity and free water supply to these old age homes.

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131

Chapter

 8

The Road Ahead: Tamil Nadu in the New Millennium

In the preceding chapters of this HDR, we have attempted to summarize the human development gains as comprehensively as possible, while at the same time identifying the challenges that have to be overcome in the coming years. This final chapter attempts to highlight Tamil Nadu’s strategy for the future to meet these challenges and progressively reduce the extent of human deprivation among different sections of the people. The recommendations set out are in the nature of broad strategies that would have the effect of bringing social and economic development in various areas into closer alignment with human development objectives. There is considerable strength in the argument that these objectives should not be treated as ancillary considerations, to be addressed after economic development policy has been worked out, but to bring them into the heart of development policy formulation itself. While there are many international examples of economic and human development taking diverging paths, it also seems clear from general experience that the most sustainable development in the long run is that in which human development is fully integrated. The recommendations made in this chapter build upon this latter premise.

Income, Employment and Poverty In a State where 65 per cent of the population lives in rural areas and is dependent on agriculture for a living, it is obvious that any discussion on increasing employment and income has to necessarily centre around the primary sector’s contribution to NSDP. Viewed in this context, the declining share of the primary sector to NSDP (18.76 per cent) over the last three decades is an area of concern. There has, after all, been no decline in the share of the labour force in agriculture; this implies that productivity per person as well as the relative productivity of agriculture have come down. With a heavy concentration of the State’s population in rural areas, there is a need to increase the contribution from this sector. This would increase employment opportunities in rural areas, arrest the growing rural–urban migration and reduce pressure on the urban infrastructure. It would also serve as the main plank for the food and nutrition security of the State and provide a platform of growth for agro-based industries. The State aims at a growth rate of 4.0 per cent in this sector. It might appear a daunting task but developments in biotechnology, IT and physical infrastructure would assist in achieving a higher growth rate. In this context, some thrust areas—indicative of the path that the State should take in the next few years—are highlighted. • Agriculture should be developed through systematic and cost effective watershed approaches with people’s participation.

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While ensuring food security with a stabilization of rice cultivation in about 2 million hectares, cultivation



of commercial crops with a market advantage should also be encouraged. Bringing wastelands under cultivation through agro-forestry and horticultural crops should be another priority. This would stimulate market-linked horticulture development including processing and value addition. Agrobased industries contributing to value additions need to be encouraged so that the rural sector becomes a



source of employment and income. Livestock development, already moving in the right direction in the State, should be consolidated by improving livestock nutrition and care. Quality of livestock products and effectiveness of support services should be ensured and private enterprises and farmers should be encouraged. The sector has a huge potential to supplement income levels in rural areas and at the same time contribute to a vibrant dairy industry.



The informal sector building industry offers tremendous scope for providing employment, especially in rural areas, if it is properly nurtured and encouraged. Housing activity generates economic growth and has a multiplier effect on other sectors of the economy. Fiscal policy needs to be tuned towards encouraging this



sector. With structural changes taking place in the economy, the industrial and service sectors will have to play a greater role. However, with greater automation and advent of IT, employment opportunities for semi-skilled and unskilled workers in this sector will decline over the next decade. Attempts will have to be made, therefore, to skill the workforce according to market demand. Economic growth must target poverty reduction. The State has done well to reduce poverty by over 35

percentage points from 56.5 per cent in 1973–4 to 21.12 per cent in 1999-2000. Still Tamil Nadu ranks eighth highest in the country in terms of people living below the poverty line. Amongst southern states, it has the highest headcount ratios. What is of greater concern is that Tamil Nadu ranks second in the country in terms of inequality of consumption (32.3), as revealed by the Gini index. Districts such as Tiruvannamalai, Thanjavur, Salem, Kanniyakumari and Tirunelveli have high poverty levels as well as high consumption inequality, indicating a high degree of deprivation. The reasons for poor performance amongst certain districts will have to be ascertained and remedial measures introduced.

Health During the last two decades, Tamil Nadu has achieved a significant stabilization of population growth and has brought down MMR and IMR substantially. The State’s institutional health care system has been considerably strengthened in terms of specialities and equipment. Yet, there are disquieting features of the health sector, which need to be recognized to revamp the system so that we get as close as possible to Kerala. For example, the CBR has been hovering around 19-20 and IMR has not shown a great decline during the nineties, still standing at 48 as per the NFHS-2 survey. This is mainly due to neo-natal mortality. There are other worrying aspects like significant rural–urban differentials, inter-district variations, stagnant neo-natal mortality and high female IMR. The early neonatal mortality has been persistently high and accounts for 58 per cent of all infant deaths. The son-preference in some districts like Dharmapuri, Salem and Theni has a disturbing fallout in terms of foeticide and female infanticide. As per NHFS-2 survey, MMR for the State as a whole is high, it is abnormally high in districts like Salem, Tiruchirapalli, Tirunelveli, Madurai and Dharmapuri. It may be argued that a reduction in birth rate does not benefit the State when it comes to devolution of resources from the Central Government or allotment of number of seats to the Parliament, but that needs to be handled at a different level. The retention in CBR has its spin-off in lesser pressure on the State’s economy in all its spheres—education, health care and infrastructure to name a few. Thus, in the future the following points need consideration.

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133

Ideally, the CBR should be reduced from the current 19.3 to about 14 by 2010. This is not unachievable if done on a campaign mode, enhancing the ideal age at marriage to 22 for girls and the ideal age for child bearing between 23-7 years with a three year gap between one child and another—the latter would reduce

• •

child mortality and morbidity. The TFR should be brought down from 2.0 to 1.5 by 2010. Infant mortality rate needs to be reduced to at least 40 by 2005 and 30 by 2010 and this is possible only with the reduction in neo-natal and peri-natal mortality rates by 70 per cent. To ensure this, focus has to be laid on early neo-natal registration, monitoring the weight gain of mothers and increasing it by 10 kgs during pregnancy by maintaining mother care centres, stress on intake of food with micro-nutrients by mothers and with supplements of iron/folic acid tablets and Vitamin ‘A’ capsules, tetanus toxoid immunization and



increasing the level of institutional deliveries. Life expectancy needs to be raised from the present level of 66 to 75 by the next decade.



Maternal mortality rate should be brought down from its present 1.5 per 1000 to less than 1 by the end of



the decade. The NHFS-2 morbidity data for Tamil Nadu are not very encouraging and the reasons for the prevalence of



specific diseases need to be closely studied and remedial measures initiated to reduce the incidence of diseases. While rural health care requirements are taken care of through a network of PHCs, smaller municipalities and town panchayats are lagging behind in such facilities. It would be necessary to fill this gap in urban areas also, which have been a neglected area so far.



Vector-borne diseases like malaria and filaria, water-borne diseases like hepatitis, and communicable diseases



like tuberculosis and leprosy need to be fully eradicated. Many of these concerns can be addressed by improving the living conditions of the poor. The correlation between health and living conditions is well established. Providing decent shelter, drinking water, electricity and sanitation facilities is essential if health indicators in the State are to improve. The composite districts of Thanjavur, Tiruchy, Salem and Cuddalore and the districts of Dharmapuri, Ramanathapuram, Pudukkottai and Sivagangai rank high in the index of deprivation of these facilities. Resource allocation should be based on the extent of deprivation, rather than on an adhoc basis, if the living conditions are to improve. Appropriate



strategies are required for tackling the problems of urban slums, by attacking the root of urban poverty. With an increase in population of the elderly, geriatric care needs to assume special significance.



Tamil Nadu has the highest incidence of HIV cases and health education and prevention of HIV should be stepped up.



Eradication of blindness is another priority area in the current decade which needs continued attention. It is possible to achieve the above if a comprehensive health policy is drawn up addressing each of the issues.

Distinct disparities in health care and incidence of diseases should be taken into account while allocating resources under such a design.

Educational Attainment Data from the 2001 Census show that the State has performed reasonably well in raising literacy levels (see chapter on Literacy and Education). The encouraging aspect of the literacy scene is narrowing down of the gender gap by more than 4.5 percentage points—from 22.42 per cent in 1991 to 17.78 per cent in 2001. However, Tamil Nadu is still way behind Kerala’s gender gap of 11.6 per cent. Female literacy at 64.56 per cent implies that one-third of the females in the 7 + age group are illiterate, and in 10 districts this figure is more than 40 per cent. We have strongly argued earlier (see chapter on Literacy and Education) that female literacy has a visible impact on sending children to school even amidst poverty. Female literacy also has its impact on lower child and infant mortality,



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TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

improved standards of hygiene and greater political participation. Therefore, a concerted effort is required in the next decade in increasing female literacy, especially in Dharmapuri district where female literacy is less than 50 per cent, the Tiruvannamalai, Cuddalore and Villupuram belt, the Perambalur–Ariyalur belt and the Salem, Namakkal and Erode belt where the literacy is less than 57 per cent. 2001 Census data on literacy rate by age group are yet to be published and hence developments in enrolment and retention cannot be assessed precisely. However, the detailed analysis made earlier in this report shows that for ‘Universalization of Elementary Education’ to become a reality, there is a need for focused strategies in improving children’s enrolment, improving retention, reducing drop out and improving the quality of education. The government has taken a number of initiatives such as opening of new primary schools, upgrading primary schools to middle schools for better access to schools, and has recruited a large number of teachers during the last five years. Though GER at the primary school level in 1998-9 is 105 per cent, in eight districts, the enrolment is less than 100 per cent and ironically six out of these eight districts are covered under DPEP. The GER for girls also reveals a similar pattern. At the middle school level the GER is only 89 per cent where reportedly there are 4 lakh children out of school. At the high school and higher secondary levels, the gross enrolment is only 66 per cent and 30 per cent respectively, and the gender differential across districts is quite substantial. Therefore, a reorientation of strategies is required if we are to achieve Universalization of Elementary Education. A number of priorities are in order. •

Mapping of schools needs to be done to ensure that new schools are opened with due care, after a rational assessment of the needs—the State’s resources are limited and this has to be borne in mind while opening new schools. However, the declining birth rate may result in some of the schools not having an adequate number of children at the primary school level in the next decade, as is being experienced by neighbouring Kerala.



Enrolment of girls should receive utmost priority to ensure that all school age girls attend school at least at the elementary level. Parents need to be educated about the economic and social benefits of educating girls.



The estimated 1.5 million drop outs in the age group of 9–15 should be covered through NEF by increasing the number of non-formal education projects, currently designed to cover only 10–15 per cent of such children.



Improving school infrastructure should receive attention and rational redeployment of teachers is also called for so as to reduce the pupil–teacher ratio to manageable levels in rural areas. Training in multi-grade teaching should receive the attention that it deserves, as teachers have to teach different classes at the elementary level.



The syllabus should be child-centered and constantly revised to make learning ‘joyful’.



Adult literacy efforts should be revamped and post-literacy campaigns made effective to see that the neoliterates do not relapse into illiteracy.



While bringing elementary education under the ambit of local bodies may be ideal, this is a major policy decision to be taken in the long term. Meanwhile, local communities and parent–teacher associations should be actively invloved in the running of schools at the primary and upper primary levels so that the teachers become accountable—this would go a long way in increasing enrolment and the quality of teaching. Such involvement should be formalized by a government order so as to be effective. It is strongly recommended that these suggestions be put in place with a new policy framework with appropriate

reallocation of financial resources among districts which need them so that the objective of Universalization of Elementary Education is within reach by the end of the current decade. At the high school and higher secondary levels also, similar efforts are required to reach at least 60 per cent coverage of school age population, especially girls.

THE ROAD AHEAD: TAMIL NADU IN THE NEW MILLENNIUM



135

Removing Inter-district Disparities The HDI and GDI are tools which not only give an insight into the level of human development in the State and provide a platform for comparison with other States and countries, but are also important indicators of inter-district disparities. The education, health and income disparities across districts are very distinctly captured by the indices. The indices of income, education and life expectancy also point to the fact that higher income does not imply higher levels of human development in terms of health and education. Though Salem and Virudhunagar have a higher district per capita income than the State average, their HDI is lower than the State average. The causative factors are found in the relatively lower LEB and educational levels. Similarly, though Madurai has a much higher district per capita income (15 per cent higher) than the State average, its HDI is only marginally above the State HDI. These facts are only illustrative of the concept that higher per capita income does not necessarily translate itself into higher levels of human development. Income disparities are fairly widespread across the State. Cuddalore, Villupuram and Tiruvannamalai districts as also the rice belt of Thanjavur, Tiruvarur and Nagapattinam have low district per capita income, and are dependent primarily on agriculture. Similarly, the drought prone districts of Pudukkottai, Ramanathapuram, Sivagangai and Dharmapuri have low per capita income levels. Kanniyakumari is the only district which despite having a low district per capita income has the second highest HDI in the State thanks to its very high level of educational attainment and health care. It is also interesting to see that the bifurcated districts show a definite pattern. For instance, Namakkal district carved out of the erstwhile Salem district, and Theni district formed out of the composite Madurai district have lower per capita income than the State average while the present Salem and Madurai districts have per capita incomes much above the State average. Whatever the rationale behind the bifurcation, it is clear that the newly carved out districts require focused development strategies aimed at increasing per capita income levels. The LEB index which reflects the State of health care, is lower than the State average in 15 out of 29 districts in the State. The higher LEB levels in some districts such as Chennai, Kanniyakumari and Nilgiris, have cushioned the State average, giving it respectability. The inter-district disparities are wide; and these need to be narrowed, by drawing up specific programmes as already pointed out in the section on health. There are distinct inter-district disparities in educational attainment. Villupuram, Cuddalore, Tiruvannamalai, Salem, Dharmapuri, Namakkal and Pudukkottai districts can be regarded as poor in terms of educational attainment. Erode, Perambalur and Dindigul districts have medium levels of educational attainment but these are lower than the State average. The issues in educational deprivation in the above districts need to be addressed and steps taken for removing the disparities as indicated earlier. Regional disparities are inevitable in the process of development. The disparities in the three indicators of development are quite pronounced. The northern Tamil Nadu belt of Cuddalore, Villupuram and Tiruvannamalai is perhaps the most deprived; the delta region comprising composite Thanjavur and Tiruchy districts, despite being the rice bowl of the State, shows a low level of human development; the drought prone region of Pudukkottai, Sivagangai and Ramanathapuram has a low level of human development due to different reasons; in the western region, Dharmapuri and Namakkal districts stand out. It may be pointed out that many of the above districts were bifurcated or trifurcated in the eighties and the nineties on the ground that the composite districts were large and unwieldy for development administration, particularly of the social sectors. Yet, several years after bifurcation, these districts have progressed very slowly and are yet to catch up with the advanced districts.

Ensuring Full Equality for Women The difference between GDI and HDI values is very marginal across districts indicating minimal gender inequality. However, the GDI shows that there are wide disparities between districts in Tamil Nadu and as in the case of

136



TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

HDI, high values of GDI in certain districts like Chennai, Kanniyakumari and Nilgiris have smoothened out the State average. The first concern, therefore, is to narrow the inter-district disparities. Ramanathapuram, Dindigul, Pudukkottai, Tiruvannamalai, Villupuram, Perambalur and Dharmapuri have a low GDI in relation to the State average GDI, indicating gender inequality in human development. A further analysis shows that Dharmapuri, Perambalur, Theni and surprisingly Madurai have a relatively low life expectancy. While this indicates lower female health care, on a further analysis it is attributable to high female IMRs in these districts. The female education attainment index is quite low in Villupuram, Tiruvannamalai, Cuddalore, Salem, Namakkal, Dharmapuri and Tiruvarur districts. The female per capita income is also low in these districts. It is, therefore, clear that these districts have a very pronounced gender inequality. A comprehensive programme should take care of the following aspects: increase life expectancy through prenatal care for expectant mothers, immunization, creation of awareness against female infanticide, increasing education attainment levels through higher female literacy, educating mothers about the benefits of sending the girl children to school, and increasing female per capita income so as to narrow the wage differential between males and females. A gender policy of the State emphasizing equality for women needs to be drawn up. Such a policy, among other things, should focus on the following: • •

Ensuring higher wages for women. Expanding non-farm activities for women.

• •

Gender equity in health and education. Highlighting gender-specific issues of vulnerable groups.



Drawing up a blueprint for effective prevention of crimes against women.

The State Commission for Women had started a pilot project for gender sensitization of the police. Subsequently, a massive gender-sensitization programme was taken up to cover all the men police personnel including senior officers in the State. A capsule course on re-sensitization was also conducted in batches for all women police personnel. Gender as a subject finds a place in the training modules of police training institutions. While a number of NGOs are working in the area of gender rights and gender sensitization, training programmes should be organized on human right laws for women networks and community based organizations such as women’s SHGs. Any gender policy should invariably involve women as stakeholders.

Social Security for the Aged According to one estimate, the proportionate share of the elderly to the State’s total population is projected to increase to 11.43 per cent by 2011. The projected increase in the population of the aged is next only to that of Kerala. The ageing of the population is due to an increase in longevity and fall in the death rate because of better health care services and improvement in the general standard of living. Due to the slow break-up of the joint family system consequent to rural–urban migration in particular, the responsibility for the welfare of the elderly is increasingly falling on the community and the State. The aged need not only income security but also health security. Geriatric care is yet to become a full-fledged discipline in hospitals except in major cities. The aged also need emotional security, as they feel lonely, helpless and unwanted by society. They need an environment where they can live with dignity and self-respect. Social security for the elderly would, therefore, have to be holistic, not limited to providing financial security through old age pensions.

Allocation of Resources Intra-state disparities in human development can be mitigated to a large extent only if resources are allocated keeping in view the extent of deprivation. As pointed out earlier, economic development policies need to be integrated with human development objectives.

THE ROAD AHEAD: TAMIL NADU IN THE NEW MILLENNIUM



137

Tamil Nadu has a relatively low per capita Plan outlay among the major States in India. The main reason is that Tamil Nadu’s own resources for the Plan have been inadequate to sustain a higher level of Plan outlay because non-plan expenditures have absorbed a relatively high percentage of its total expenditures. Current surpluses have been negative and have, therefore, not made any contribution to outlays on capital formation in recent years. The major share of current outlays is due to wages, salaries and pension of government employees. Comparison with other major States indicates that government employees were relatively large in number in Tamil Nadu. The burden on the exchequer has increased substantially due to the adoption of Central Government pay scales to the State Government employees. The tax–GDP ratio of the State is one of the highest among the major States and hence the scope for mobilizing resources for plan outlays through additional taxation is quite limited. Unless steps are taken to bring down non-development expenditure, plan outlays in real terms will remain stagnant in the near future. Zero base budgeting of staff in each department should be taken up and to begin with, redeployment of surplus staff effected. Urban concentration of government staff, particularly in education and health sectors, is very pronounced; the high teacher–pupil ratio in rural schools and low medical and health staff availability in PHCs is a case in point. For instance, suitable redeployment of health staff from districts which are performing well in terms of health indicators to districts with poor health indicators such as high MMR and high death rates would help in achieving the primary objective of improving health care in these districts. Apart from this, economy in non-plan expenditure should be enforced vigorously. The State Planning Commission has already performed a detailed exercise in identifying schemes which have lost their utility to be weeded out and these recommendations should be implemented forthwith. A critical review is needed on the direction in which plan funds are flowing to the districts. In the future, allocation of resources to social sectors should be higher in districts which have low HDI and GDI values. The progressive districts with high HDI and GDI values have reached a stage, where it should be possible to encourage private participation in the social sectors. This would make available a larger share of funds to the needy districts. Decentralized district planning is being initiated in the State and this should be used as a tool for improving social sector performance, particularly in districts which are lagging behind. Unless resources flow to the deprived districts, it is difficult to expect improvements in social sector performance and achievement of human development objectives. Cost recovery in the provision of social services, especially from the non-poor will have to be thought of, in view of constraints of limited State resources. Appropriate fiscal incentives should be introduced to give a fillip to private sector participation. Mere allocation of funds to the deprived districts would not be adequate. Appropriate monitoring of use of resources is needed to check leakages in government programmes and inefficiencies in investment, maintenance and operations which reduce the ratio of benefits to costs in government programmes. If this is done, Tamil Nadu will be able to add to its substantial achievements.

Appendix Tables

APPENDIX TABLES



141

A1. Index and Indicators A1.1—HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS

S.no. Districts

1

2

1. Chennai

Life expectancy at birth (yrs)1 (1997)

Literacy rate2 (2001)

Literacy index

Combined gross enrolment ratio3 (1998–99)

Combined enrolment index

Per capita Income4 (Rs) (constant prices, 1993–94) 1998–99

Real dist. GDP per capita in PPP

Real dist. GDP per capita (Rank)

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

74.21

80.14

0.801

100.83

1.008

18,127

3328.87

2

2. Kancheepuram

69.26

77.61

0.776

75.32

0.753

24,553

4372.82

1

3. Thiruvallur

67.38

76.54

0.765

78.76

0.788

10,197

1816.06

18

4. Cuddalore

68.87

71.85

0.719

80.88

0.809

8359

1488.71

24

5. Villupuram

65.07

64.85

0.649

73.65

0.737

6813

1213.38

29

6. Vellore

65.55

73.07

0.731

88.09

0.881

12,527

2231.02

8

7. Tiruvannamalai

66.57

68.22

0.682

79.73

0.797

7033

1252.56

28

8. Salem

65.24

65.72

0.657

77.93

0.779

11,805

2102.44

11

9. Namakkal

66.22

67.66

0.677

83.17

0.832

10,661

1898.69

15

10. Dharmapuri

61.83

59.23

0.592

69.83

0.698

12,047

2145.54

9

11. Erode

69.18

65.51

0.655

83.63

0.836

12,902

2297.81

6

12. Coimbatore

69.30

76.95

0.770

83.84

0.838

16,585

2953.74

3

13. Nilgiris

69.19

81.44

0.814

79.89

0.799

11,937

2125.95

10

14. Trichy

67.52

79.16

0.792

83.86

0.839

11,008

1960.49

13

15. Karur

68.10

68.74

0.687

81.98

0.820

10,711

1907.60

14

16. Perambalur

62.08

65.29

0.653

80.38

0.804

9129

1625.85

20

17. Thanjavur

64.38

76.07

0.761

84.06

0.841

8164

1453.99

25

18. Tiruvarur

66.00

76.90

0.769

84.07

0.841

7594

1352.47

27

19. Nagapattinam

66.36

76.89

0.769

81.44

0.814

10,488

1867.88

17

20. Pudukkotai

65.53

71.66

0.717

75.29

0.753

8362

1489.25

23

21. Madurai

62.15

78.65

0.787

92.15

0.922

13,698

2439.58

4

22. Theni

62.67

72.01

0.720

88.55

0.886

9989

1779.01

19

23. Dindigul

64.64

69.83

0.698

82.49

0.825

12,751

2270.92

7

24. Ramnad

65.18

73.05

0.731

82.46

0.825

8523

1517.92

21

25. Virudhunagar

66.59

74.23

0.742

77.57

0.776

11,760

2094.42

12

26. Sivagangai

67.65

72.66

0.727

85.1

0.851

7902

1407.32

26

27. Tirunelveli

65.79

76.97

0.770

87.94

0.879

10,526

1874.65

16

28. Thoothukudi

68.26

81.96

0.820

93.16

0.932

13,420

2390.06

5

29. Kanniyakumari

72.65

88.11

0.881

89.41

0.894

8461

1506.88

22

66.74

73.47

0.735

83.15

0.832

11,775

2097.09

STATE

Sources: 1. Vital Events Survey conducted by DANIDA Health Project (1997). 2. Census, 1991. 3. School Education Department, Chennai. 4. Department of Economics and Statistics, Chennai.



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TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

A1.2—HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX S.no.

1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

Districts

2 Chennai Kancheepuram Thiruvallur Cuddalore Villupuram Vellore Tiruvannamalai Salem Namakkal Dharmapuri Erode Coimbatore Nilgiris Trichy Karur Perambalur Thanjavur Nagapattinam Tiruvarur Pudukkotai Madurai Theni Dindigul Ramnad Virudhunagar Sivagangai Tirunelveli Thoothukudi Kanniyakumari STATE

LEB index

Education index

Income index

Value

HDI Rank

3

4

5

6

7

0.820 0.738 0.706 0.731 0.668 0.676 0.693 0.671 0.687 0.614 0.736 0.738 0.737 0.709 0.718 0.618 0.656 0.689 0.683 0.676 0.619 0.628 0.661 0.670 0.693 0.711 0.680 0.721 0.794 0.696

0.870 0.768 0.773 0.749 0.678 0.781 0.721 0.698 0.728 0.628 0.716 0.792 0.809 0.807 0.732 0.703 0.787 0.784 0.793 0.729 0.832 0.775 0.741 0.762 0.753 0.768 0.806 0.857 0.885 0.767

0.580 0.631 0.484 0.451 0.417 0.518 0.422 0.508 0.491 0.512 0.523 0.565 0.510 0.497 0.492 0.465 0.447 0.489 0.435 0.451 0.533 0.480 0.521 0.454 0.508 0.441 0.489 0.530 0.453 0.508

0.757 0.712 0.654 0.644 0.587 0.658 0.612 0.626 0.636 0.584 0.658 0.699 0.685 0.671 0.647 0.596 0.630 0.654 0.637 0.618 0.661 0.628 0.641 0.629 0.651 0.640 0.658 0.703 0.711 0.657

Real GDP per capita (PPP$) rank minus HDI rank 8

1 2 12 16 28 11 26 24 20 29 10 5 6 7 15 27 21 13 19 25 8 23 17 22 14 18 9 4 3

1 –1 6 8 1 –3 2 –13 –5 –20 –4 –2 4 6 –1 –7 4 4 8 –2 –4 –4 –10 –1 –2 8 7 1 19

Source: State Planning Commission, Chennai, 2001.

A1.3—GENDER DEVELOPMENT INDEX : INCOME INDEX S.no.

Districts

Real dist. GDP per capita in PPP$

1

2

3

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Chennai Kancheepuram Thiruvallur Cuddalore Villupuram Vellore Tiruvannamalai Salem Namakkal Dharmapuri Erode Coimbatore Nilgiris Trichy

3228.37 4372.82 1816.06 1488.71 1213.38 2231.02 1252.56 2102.44 1898.69 2145.54 2297.81 2953.74 2125.95 1960.42

Real GDP per capita in PPPs Female Male 4 1815.66 2430.18 1011.07 821.58 670.85 1224.36 687.66 1196.51 1058.18 1214.77 1278.07 1653.09 1157.45 1073.90

Adjusted income Female Male

5

6

7

4570.51 6262.06 2596.16 2146.55 1746.40 3234.80 1815.39 2943.57 2711.56 3018.37 3287.88 4201.31 3107.18 2847.83

0.484 0.533 0.386 0.352 0.318 0.418 0.322 0.414 0.394 0.417 0.425 0.468 0.409 0.396

0.638 0.691 0.544 0.512 0.477 0.580 0.484 0.565 0.551 0.569 0.583 0.624 0.574 0.559

Equally distributed income index 8 0.551 0.602 0.453 0.418 0.383 0.487 0.388 0.479 0.460 0.482 0.493 0.536 0.478 0.465 (Contd...)



APPENDIX TABLES

143

(Table A1.3 Contd.) S.no. 1 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

Districts 2 Karur Perambalur Thanjavur Nagapattinam Tiruvarur Pudukkotai Madurai Theni Dindigul Ramnad Virudhunagar Sivagangai Tirunelveli Thoothukudi Kanniyakumari STATE

Real dist. GDP per capita in PPP$ 3

Real GDP per capita in PPPs Female Male 4

1907.60 1625.85 1453.99 1867.88 1352.47 1489.25 2439.58 1779.01 2270.92 1517.92 2094.42 1407.32 1874.65 2390.06 1506.88 2097.09

1040.91 888.71 788.56 1016.08 736.73 810.53 1351.66 983.89 1252.95 818.67 1140.58 758.69 1006.82 1278.73 820.86 1157.16

Adjusted income Female Male

5

6

7

2781.75 2366.75 2133.44 2732.38 1975.66 2177.39 3503.97 2559.73 3275.19 2240.00 3060.33 2077.73 2778.54 3556.68 2201.17 3024.19

0.391 0.365 0.345 0.387 0.333 0.349 0.435 0.382 0.422 0.351 0.406 0.338 0.385 0.425 0.351 0.409

0.555 0.528 0.511 0.552 0.498 0.514 0.594 0.541 0.582 0.519 0.571 0.506 0.555 0.596 0.516 0.569

Equally distributed income index 8 0.460 0.433 0.413 0.456 0.400 0.417 0.503 0.449 0.490 0.420 0.476 0.407 0.456 0.498 0.419 0.477

Source: State Planning Commission, Chennai, 2001.

A1.4—GENDER VS HUMAN DEVELOPMENT RANKS S.no. Districts 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

2 Chennai Kancheepuram Thiruvallur Cuddalore Villupuram Vellore Tiruvannamalai Salem Namakkal Dharmapuri Erode Coimbatore Nilgiris Trichy Karur Perambalur Thanjavur Nagapattinam Tiruvarur Pudukkotai Madurai Theni Dindigul Ramnad Virudhunagar Sivagangai Tirunelveli Thoothukudi Kanniyakumari STATE

GDI value

GDI rank

HDI value

HDI rank

3

4

5

6

0.776 0.710 0.651 0.643 0.582 0.655 0.608 0.625 0.631 0.582 0.656 0.697 0.686 0.671 0.641 0.592 0.629 0.652 0.633 0.615 0.661 0.628 0.638 0.626 0.649 0.635 0.656 0.703 0.708 0.654

Source: State Planning Commission, Chennai, 2001.

1 2 13 15 28 11 26 24 20 29 10 5 6 7 16 27 21 12 19 25 8 22 17 23 14 18 9 4 3

0.757 0.712 0.654 0.644 0.587 0.658 0.612 0.626 0.636 0.584 0.658 0.699 0.685 0.671 0.647 0.596 0.630 0.654 0.637 0.618 0.661 0.628 0.641 0.629 0.651 0.640 0.658 0.703 0.711 0.657

1 2 12 16 28 11 26 24 20 29 10 5 6 7 15 27 21 13 19 25 8 23 17 22 14 18 9 4 3

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TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

A2 Economy Profile A2.1—INTER-STATE ECONOMY PROFILE, MAJOR STATES Indicators 1

Ref. Year 2

India

Tamil Nadu

A.P.

3

4

5

Kerala Karnataka 6

7

Gujarat

Haryana

8

9

M.P. Maharashtra 10

11

Punjab

W.B.

12

13

NSDP at current prices (Rs in crs)1

1996–97

1,102,645

82,465

81,643 40,819

63,342

75,164 31,386

65,676

161,470

39,511 73,976

NSDP at constant (1993–94) prices (Rs in crs)1

1996–97

858,234

66,754

61,928 28,189

49,358

61,457 23,665

53,301

124,642

31,321 57,979

1996–97

27.7

18.3

30.6

24.2

30.7

21.4

38.4

31.6

18.1

44.1

30.0

1996–97

16.5

23.7

13.6

11.6

15.7

27.1

19.2

16.5

24.1

13.4

14.1

1996–97

55.8

58.0

55.8

64.2

53.6

51.5

42.4

51.9

57.8

42.5

55.9

Per capita income at current prices (in Rs)1

1996–97

11,554

13,985

11,242 13,089

12,729

16,366 16,729

8757

18,488

17,530

9827

Per capita income at constant (1993–94) prices (in Rs)1

1996–97

8987

11,320

8527

9039

9919

13,382 12,614

7107

14,271

13,896

7702

1980–81 to 1990–91

5.55

5.38

5.65

3.57

5.29

5.08

6.43

4.56

6.02

5.32

4.71

Post reform period

1991–92 to 1997–98

6.89

6.22

5.03

5.83

5.29

9.57

5.02

6.17

8.01

4.71

6.91

Growth of per capita gross GDP2 Pre-reform period

1980–81 to 1990–91

3.03*

3.87

3.34

2.19

3.28

3.08

3.86

2.08

3.58

3.33

2.39

Post reform period

1991–92 to 1997–98

4.02*

4.95

3.45

4.52

3.45

7.57

2.66

3.87

6.13

2.80

5.04

Population in poverty (30 day recall)2 – number (in lakhs) – as % to total population

1999–2000 2602.50 26.10

130.48 21.12

119.01 15.77

41.04 12.72

104.40 20.04

67.89 14.07

17.34 8.74

298.54 37.43

227.99 25.02

People in poverty (%) 1999–2000 (30 day recall)2 – Urban – Rural

23.62 27.09

22.11 20.55

26.63 11.05

20.27 9.38

25.25 17.38

15.59 13.17

9.99 8.27

38.44 37.06

26.81 23.72

5.75 6.35

14.86 31.85

No. of persons employed per 1000 persons (usual status)3 Rural 55th Round Urban 1999–2000

417 337

513 393

542 348

387 373

487 366

499 345

349 314

462 319

484 346

410 353

349 350

No. of persons unemployed per 1000 persons (usual status)3 Rural 55th Round Urban 1999–2000

7 18

11 17

5 15

41 48

4 13

3 7

3 9

2 12

9 23

8 11

12 30

NSDP 1 – Agriculture as % to NSDP – Industry as % to NSDP – Services as % to NSDP

Growth of gross GDP2 Pre-reform period

14.49 213.49 6.16 27.02

(Contd...)



APPENDIX TABLES

145

(Table A2.1 Contd.) Indicators 1

Ref. Year 2

India

Tamil Nadu

A.P.

Kerala Karnataka

Gujarat

Haryana

3

4

5

6

20.71*

14.88

18.54

8.7

8.47

M.P. Maharashtra

Punjab

W.B.

7

8

9

12

13

24.10

16.27

15.93

17.65

17.27

11.56

32.33

21.47

5.45

8.33

8.43

7.29

6.72

4.94

6.55

6.52

5.39

10

11

Debt as percentage of GSDP4

1996–97

Tax–GDP ratio4

Ave.1994/95 to 1996/97

% share of devt. expenditure in total expenditure5

1996–97

69.5

73.3

79.5

64.7

72.6

73.2

54.4

76.2

72.8

58.1

72.9

Per capita plan expenditure (in Rs)2

1997–98

608

675

501

906

896

846

694

447

890

904

376

Plan expendfiture as % of SDP2

ave.1987–88 to 1997–98

4.50*

4.60

4.28

4.99

6.49

4.51

3.94

4.97

3.97

3.94

2.70

367.30*

407.00

392.00 386.50

423.50

483.40 522.50

275.80

491.20

445.50 253.10

177.20*

165.90

141.00

212.10

155.70

164.50 396.10

109.50

178.90

391.30 123.80

3.97*

4.12

3.63

4.80

4.25

3.72

3.30

3.75

3.32

3.91

3.79

61.1

64.1

62.4

73.3

63.3

61.6

64.1

55.5

65.5

67.7

62.8

1999

70

52

66

14

58

63

68

91

48

53

52

1999 1999

8.7 26.1

8.0 19.3

8.2 21.7

6.4 18.0

7.7 22.3

7.9 25.4

7.7 26.8

10.6 30.7

7.5 21.1

7.4 21.5

7.1 20.7

65.38 75.85 54.16

73.47 82.33 64.55

61.11 70.85 51.17

90.92 94.20 87.86

67.04 76.29 57.45

69.97 80.50 58.60

68.59 79.25 56.31

64.11 76.80 50.28

77.27 86.27 67.51

69.95 75.63 63.55

69.22 77.58 60.22

1.93

1.06

1.30

0.90

1.59

2.03

2.47

2.18

2.04

1.80

1.64

Revenue expenditure— Per capita devt. 1995–96 expenditure [Rs At 1980–81 prices)6 Per capita non-devt. 1995–96 expenditure— (Rs At 1980–81 prices)6 Public Expenditure 1997–98 on Education and Health as % to NSDP5 Human Development7 Life Expectancy at Birth ( years) Infant Mortality Rate (per ‘000) Death Rate (per ‘000) Birth Rate (per ‘000) Literacy Rate (%)8 Persons Male Female

1993–97

2001

Population Growth (%)8 Annual Average 1991–2001 exponential growth

Note: *All States. Source: 1. Central Statistical Organization, Delhi, 2. Union Planning Commission, 3. National Sample Survey, 4. Eleventh Finance Commission, 5. Reserve Bank of India, 6. Ninth Plan GOI, 7. Economic Survey, 8. Census 2001

146



TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

A3 Demographic Profile A3.1—INTER-STATE—DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE—MAJOR STATES Indicators

India

Tamil Nadu

A.P.

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

3287

130

275

39

192

196

44

443

1991

846,303

55,859

66,508 29,099

44,977

41,310

16,464 66,181

78,937

20,282 68,078

2001

1,027,015

62,111

75,728 31,839

52,734

50,597

21,083 60,385* 96,752

24,289 80,221

1 Area (in ’000 sq. kms)1 Population (in

Kerala Karnataka

Gujarat Haryana

M.P. Maharashtra

Punjab

W.B.

10

11

12

308

50

89

’000)1

Density (popn per sq. kms)1 1991

267

429

242

749

235

211

372

158

257

403

767

2001

324

478

275

819

275

258

477

196

314

482

904

1971 to 1981

24.66

17.50

23.10

19.34

26.75

27.67

28.75

25.27

24.54

23.89

23.17

1981 to 1991

23.86

15.39

24.20

14.32

21.12

21.19

27.41

27.24

25.73

20.81

24.73

1991 to 2001

21.34

11.19

13.86

9.42

17.25

22.48

28.06

24.34

22.57

19.76

17.84

1981

934

977

975

1032

963

942

870

941

937

879

911

1991

927

974

972

1036

960

934

865

912

934

882

917

2001

933

986

978

1058

964

921

861

920

922

874

934

Total

138,223

10,712

10,592 2887

7369

3060

3251

9627

8758

5743

16,081

a. Rural

112,343

8428

8759

2352

5645

1899

2675

7522

5552

4562

13,606

b. Urban

25,880

2284

1833

535

1724

1161

576

2104

3206

1180

2475

16.3

19.1

15.9

9.9

16.4

7.4

19.8

14.5

11.1

28.3

23.6

3.5

2.1

2.7

1.7

2.8

3.1

3.7

4.2

2.9

2.9

3.0

a) Males

23.5

26.1

23.1

27.5

26.0

23.3

25.2

20.8

24.4

25.0

26.0

b) Females

18.4

20.3

17.3

22.1

19.3

19.6

17.9

16.6

18.8

21.1

19.3

a) Males

25.0

26.4

23.6

28.1

26.1

23.9

23.1

22.0

24.9

20.5

25.9

b) Females

20.0

20.5

18.1

22.1

19.6

20.2

18.4

17.4

19.3

21.1

19.2

Work participation rate by residence, 1991 1

37.46

43.31

45.05

31.43

41.99

40.23

31.00

42.82

42.96

30.88

32.19

Decadal popn growth (%)1

Sex ratio1

Scheduled caste popn 1991 (in 000’s)2

c. proportion to total popn. (%) Total fertility rate (TFR)3 1994 Mean age at marriage 19811

1992–934

Note: *Excludes the population of Chhatisgarh. Source: 1. Census of India, 1981,1991 and 2001. 2. Census of India, Series-1, Paper-II of 1992. 3. Year book 1995–96, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. 4. National Family Health Survey, 1992–93.

APPENDIX TABLES



147

A3.2—DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE—TAMIL NADU Districts

Area (in sq.kms)

1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

Chennai Kancheepuram Thiruvallore Cuddalore Villupuram Vellore Tiruvannamalai Salem Namakkal Dharmapuri Erode Coimbatore Nilgiris Trichy Karur Perambalur Ariyalur Thanjavur Thiruvarur Nagapattinam Pudukkotai Madurai Theni Dindigul Ramnad Virudhunagar Sivagangai Tirunelveli Thoothukudi Kanniyakumari Tamil Nadu

Notes:

2 174 4433 3424 3678 7217 6077 6191 5220 3429 9622 8209 7469 2549 11,0961 NA NA NA 3397 2161 2716 4651 65652 NA 6058 4232 4288 4086 6810 4621 1685 130,058

Population (in ‘000s) 1991 2001 3 3841 2415 2239 2123 2756 3026 2043 2574 1323 2429 2320 3508 710 2197 854 451 636 2054 1100 1378 1327 2400 1049 1761 1119 1565 1103 2502 1456 1600 55,859

Density (per sq. km) 1991 2001

Decadal popn growth (%) 1971 to 1981 to 1991 to 1981 1991 2001

4

5

6

7

8

9

4216 2870 2739 2281 2944 3483 2182 2993 1496 2833 2574 4224 765 2389 933 487 694 2205 1165 1487 1452 2562 1095 1919 1183 1752 1151 2801 1566 1670 62,111

22077 545 654 582 380 498 330 493 386 252 283 470 279 499 284 258 328 605 508 507 285 686 342 291 271 365 263 367 315 950 429

24231 647 800 626 406 573 352 573 436 294 314 566 300 542 311 278 358 649 538 548 312 733 357 317 287 409 275 411 339 992 478

27.04 28.23 30.45 16.48 15.89 17.79 17.15 13.67 17.69 19.03 15.11 18.79 27.56 15.13 10.1 12.4 11.45 16.02 12.91 13.43 22.11 18.07 14.65 11.9 21.36 16.45 12.42 11.62 11.73 16.43 17.5

17.24 26.14 31.53 16.13 16.08 15.14 14.4 13.43 12.79 21.61 12.17 14.65 12.7 15.57 12.87 17.92 11.16 11.13 12.04 11.68 14.72 17.51 12.98 12.54 12.11 16.71 10.72 12.53 7.8 12.43 15.39

9.76 18.84 22.35 7.43 6.83 15.09 6.80 16.28 13.08 16.66 10.94 20.4 7.69 8.76 9.32 7.97 9.06 7.38 5.92 7.95 9.43 6.75 4.33 8.99 5.73 11.92 4.32 11.97 7.54 4.34 11.19

1Figure

relating to composite district Trichy, Karur, Perambalur and Ariyalur. relating to composite district Madurai and Theni. Source: Census of India, 1981, 1991 and Paper 1 of 2001. 2Figure

A3.3—TAMIL NADU—SEX RATIO Sex ratio (No. of females per 1000 males)1 All age groups 0–6 age group

S.no. Districts

1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Chennai Kancheepuram Thiruvallore Cuddalore Villupuram Vellore Tiruvannamalai Salem

Mean age at Marriage, 19912

1981

1991

2001

1991

2001

Male

Female

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

934 972 953 972 972 979 979 939

934 962 957 967 969 978 983 925

951 961 970 985 983 997 996 929

968 961 954 938 969 937 952 826

27.5 26.33 NA 26.24 NA 26.2 25.3 25.75

21.8 20.73 NA 204 NA 20.3 19.7 19.85

962 9703 NA 9704 NA 962 964 8495

(Contd...)



148

TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

(Table A3.3 Contd.) Sex ratio (No. of females per 1000 males)1 All age groups 0–6 age group

S.no. Districts 1981

1991

2001

1991

2001

Male

Female

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

896 878 936 951 990 949 923 945 950 950 974 960 965 927 893 929 964 962 946 952 953 967 939

NA 25 26.7 27.3 26.9 26.56 NA NA NA 26.97 NA NA 26.3 26.38 NA 26 25.7 25.6 26.5 26.3 26.4 28.7 26.4

NA 19 20.5 21.4 22 20.96 NA NA NA 21.27 NA NA 21.3 21.18 NA 20.7 21.1 20.9 21.6 21.9 22.2 23.8 20.5

1 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

Namakkal Dharmapuri Erode Coimbatore Nilgiris Trichy Karur Perambalur Ariyalur Thanjavur Thiruvarur Nagapattinam Pudukkotai Madurai Theni Dindigul Ramnad Virudhunagar Sivagangai Tirunelveli Thoothukudi Kanniyakumari STATE

Mean age at Marriage, 19912

969 959 956 950 957 981 996 999 975 988 984 992 1007 972 974 980 1030 1002 1046 1038 1055 985 977

960 942 958 952 983 982 999 975 975 996 987 993 1005 964 964 976 1011 994 1033 1034 1051 991 974

967 938 971 959 1015 1000 1010 1007 1007 1020 1013 1014 1015 978 979 986 1033 1011 1035 1042 1049 1013 985

NA 905 929 966 968 9556 NA NA NA 9687 NA NA 976 9188 NA 934 960 946 958 955 964 970 948

Notes: NA: Figure not available. 3Figure relating to composite district Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur. 4Figure relating to composite district Cuddalore and Villupuram. 5Figure relating to composite district Salem and Namakkal. 6Figure relating to composite district Trichy, Karur, Perambalur and Ariyalur. 7Figure relating to composite district Thanjavur, Nagapattinam and Tiruvarur. 8Figure relating to composite district Madurai and Theni. Sources: 1Census of India, 1981, 1991 and Paper 1 of 2001. 2‘Singulate Mean Age at Marriage, Nuptiality Indices in India’, International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai. *National Family Health Survey, 1992–3.

A3.4—TAMIL NADU—POPULATION OF SCS AND STS (in ’00s) Scheduled Castes S.no.

Districts 1

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Chennai Kancheepuram1 Thiruvallore Cuddalore2 Villupuram Vellore Tiruvannamalai Salem3 Namakkal

Scheduled Tribes

Total

Rural

Urban

% to total population

Total

Rural

Urban

% to total population

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

5297 3121 NA 1037 NA 1473 245 1143 NA

13.79 25.97 NA 27.13 NA 20.73 21.46 16.7 NA

79 129 NA 30 NA 35 15 11 NA

0.21 1.24 NA 1.19 NA 1.65 3.04 3.49 NA

5297 12,084 NA 13,233 NA 6273 4384 6508 NA

0 8963 NA 12,196 NA 4800 4139 5365 NA

79 579 NA 580 NA 498 621 1361 NA

0 450 NA 550 NA 463 606 1350 NA

(Contd...)



APPENDIX TABLES

149

(Table A3.4 Contd.) Scheduled Castes S.no.

Districts 1

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

Dharmapuri Erode Coimbatore Nilgiris Trichy4 Karur Perambalur Ariyalur Thanjavur5 Thiruvarur Nagapattinam Pudukkotai Madurai6 Theni Dindigul Ramnad Virudhunagar Sivagangai Tirunelveli Thoothukudi Kanniyakumari STATE

Scheduled Tribes

Total

Rural

Urban

% to total population

Total

Rural

Urban

% to total population

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

12 12 33 75 38 NA NA NA 48 NA NA 4 57 NA 15 11 20 9 34 18 5 690

1.96 0.83 0.75 0.53 0.68 NA NA NA 0.22 NA NA 0.06 0.37 NA 0.54 0.14 0.19 0.11 0.36 0.22 0.33 1.03

3474 3981 5752 2146 7921 NA NA NA 10,955 NA NA 2232 5036 NA 3417 2066 2889 1728 4477 2501 769 107,123

3278 3404 3385 1008 6784 NA NA NA 10,080 NA NA 2064 3946 NA 3041 1868 2359 1498 3531 1913 659 84,281

196 577 2367 1138 1137 NA NA NA 875 NA NA 168 1090 NA 376 198 530 230 946 588 110 22,842

14.31 17.16 16.4 30.22 19.14 NA NA NA 24.17 NA NA 16.82 14.6 NA 19.41 18.06 18.46 16.02 17.89 17.18 4.8 19.18

477 192 261 251 283 NA NA NA 98 NA NA 8 127 NA 95 16 30 12 90 32 52 5742

465 180 228 176 245 NA NA NA 50 NA NA 4 70 NA 80 5 10 3 56 14 47 5052

Notes: NA: Figure not available. 1Figure relating to composite district Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur. 2Figure relating to composite district Cuddalore and Villupuram. 3Figure relating to composite district Salem and Namakkal. 4Figure relating to composite district Trichy, Karur, Perambalur and Ariyalur. 5Figure relating to composite district Thanjavur, Nagapattinam and Tiruvarur. 6Figure relating to composite district Madurai and Theni.

A3.5—TAMIL NADU—WORK PARTICIPATION RATES BY RESIDENCE 1981 Total S.no. Districts

1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Chennai Kancheepuram1 Thiruvallore Cuddalore Villupuram2 Vellore Tiruvannamalai Salem3 Namakkal Dharmapuri Erode Coimbatore

1991

Rural

Urban

Total

Rural

Urban

Main Main & Main Main & Main Main & Main Main & Main Main & Main Main & Workers Marginal Workers Marginal Workers Marginal Workers Marginal Workers Marginal Workers Marginal workers workers workers workers workers workers 2 27.9 35.3 NA 38.45 NA 36.7 41.88 45.53 NA 41.71 49.68 44.01

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

28.31 37.81 NA 41.78 NA 39.36 45.95 47.93 NA 44.5 51.78 45.08

– 38.95 NA 40.46 NA 39.78 43.46 48.87 NA 42.81 52.75 52.09

– 42.63 NA 44.3 NA 43.23 47.95 51.97 NA 45.85 55.24 53.76

27.9 29.58 NA 27.68 NA 29.78 29.79 37.33 NA 31.14 38.8 36.08

28.31 30.26 NA 28.29 NA 30.67 30.68 37.99 NA 31.44 39.52 36.55

30.5 36.36 NA 40.2 NA 37.93 43.19 46.28 NA 44.07 49.67 44.34

30.54 38.06 NA 43.68 NA 40.42 45.64 49.25 NA 47.6 52.3 45.13

– 41.13 NA 42.28 NA 41.7 45.07 49.76 NA 45.26 53.39 51.67

– 43.9 NA 46.26 NA 45.01 47.79 53.26 NA 49.07 56.59 53.11

30.5 30.49 NA 29.07 NA 29.82 29.27 37.8 NA 32.77 38.32 37.54

30.54 30.89 NA 29.86 NA 30.54 29.72 39.49 NA 33.6 39.23 37.87

(Contd...)



150

TAMIL NADU HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT

(Table A3.5 Contd.) 1981 Total S.no. Districts

1 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

Nilgiris Trichy4 Karur Perambalur Ariyalur Thanjavur5 Thiruvarur Nagapattinam Pudukkotai Madurai6 Theni Dindigul Ramnad Virudhunagar Sivagangai Tirunelveli Thoothukudi Kanniyakumari STATE

1991

Rural

Urban

Total

Rural

Urban

Main Main & Main Main & Main Main & Main Main & Main Main & Main Main & Workers Marginal Workers Marginal Workers Marginal Workers Marginal Workers Marginal Workers Marginal workers workers workers workers workers workers 2 38.14 41.19 NA NA NA 36.39 NA NA 36.26 40.62 NA 45.25 36.23 47.82 35.05 41.64 38.53 27.62 39.31

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

38.85 43.96 NA NA NA 39.06 NA NA 41.12 42.14 NA 47.13 41.69 50.01 38.86 44.19 40.6 29.04 41.73

40.81 44.95 NA NA NA 38.76 NA NA 37.69 47.7 NA 49.24 38.52 51.46 38.05 45.15 42.9 27.35 43.2

31.48 48.53 NA NA NA 41.92 NA NA 43.22 50.02 NA 51.53 45.17 53.98 43.05 48.05 45.62 28.93 46.48

35.35 30.54 NA NA NA 28.51 NA NA 26.92 31.57 NA 30.77 27.68 41.46 26.54 34.05 32.97 28.88 50.84

36.1 36.03 NA NA NA 29.55 NA NA 27.42 32.07 NA 31.16 28.71 42.67 27 35.83 32.94 29.57 51.25

39.57 43.53 NA NA NA 37.63 NA NA 38.94 42.17 NA 47.28 39.67 47.92 39.3 44.21 39.62 29 40.82

40.67 46.39 NA NA NA 40.58 NA NA 44.25 43.99 NA 49.12 45.43 50.08 46.11 47.18 41.59 30.5 43.31

42.83 47.88 NA NA NA 40.08 NA NA 40.67 49.45 NA 49.24 42.89 52.21 43.06 48.31 44.91 29.12 45.07

44.28 51.52 NA NA NA 43.61 NA NA 46.78 51.95 NA 53.29 49.85 54.76 51.78 51.64 47.58 30.7 48.49

36.29 31.51 NA NA NA 29.38 NA NA 28.69 33.17 NA 33.23 28.13 40.74 29.08 35.38 32.08 28.41 52.62

37.03 32.24 NA NA NA 30.38 NA NA 29.14 34.16 NA 33.82 29.6 42.25 30.69 37.56 33.05 29.52 52.78

Notes: NA: Figure not available. 1Figure relating to composite district Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur. 2Figure relating to composite district Cuddalore and Villupuram. 3Figure relating to composite district Salem and Namakkal. 4Figure relating to composite district Trichy, Karur, Perambalur and Ariyalur. 5Figure relating to composite district Thanjavur, Nagapattinam and Tiruvarur. 6Figure relating to composite district Madurai and Theni. Source: Census of India, 1981 and 1991.

A4 Health Profile A4.1—HEALTH PROFILE—TAMIL NADU BY RESIDENCE Birth Rate1

S.no. Districts

I Chennai Kancheepuram Thiruvallur Cuddalore Villupuram Vellore Tiruvannamalai Salem Namakkal Dharmapuri Erode Coimbatore Nilgiris Trichy Karur Perambalur3 Ariyalur Thanjavur Tiruvarur Nagapattinam Pudukkotai Madurai Theni Dindigul Ramanad Virudhunagar Sivagangai Tirunelveli Thoothukudi Kanniyakumari STATE

Still Birth Rate2

Infant Mortality Rate

MMR2

Rural

Urban

Combined

Rural

Urban

Combined

Rural

Urban

Combined

Rural

Urban

Combined

Rural

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

0.00 18.80 19.30 20.50 20.80 19.70 20.10 21.60 17.70 26.70 16.40 18.00 18.50 19.60 16.80 21.10 NA 19.80 19.40 19.60 21.70 21.20 21.40 20.80 21.10 19.70 19.80 18.50 17.80 17.70 19.90

17.40 17.00 17.40 18.30 16.60 17.50 18.30 18.10 16.00 18.70 15.70 15.70 12.60 16.50 15.60 0.00 NA 15.60 16.80 17.50 17.40 17.40 16.80 17.10 17.60 14.70 16.20 18.50 16.60 15.10 17.00

17.40 18.30 18.70 20.20 20.60 19.20 19.90 20.60 17.40 26.10 16.30 17.10 17.30 18.60 16.70 21.10 NA 19.00 19.00 19.30 21.30 19.50 20.30 20.20 20.70 18.40 19.30 18.50 17.50 17.30 19.20

0.00 30.40 35.90 41.30 49.60 53.80 43.60 83.70 53.70 84.10 45.30 35.70 43.00 54.40 52.40 57.20 NA 43.20 35.10 37.80 40.50 56.70 70.90 52.20 53.80 40.90 39.20 40.80 45.80 24.60 49.80

14.30 17.00 16.40 23.60 19.30 22.60 25.70 40.20 22.10 15.20 27.70 34.90 18.60 16.70 20.00 0.00 NA 20.50 21.10 19.40 26.60 24.70 28.80 28.60 22.80 23.50 17.10 35.00 19.40 12.50 22.00

14.30 27.30 30.30 38.70 48.30 47.80 41.70 73.30 49.20 80.70 42.90 35.40 39.40 39.30 49.10 57.20 NA 39.60 33.50 35.50 39.30 44.50 62.20 48.10 50.80 37.20 38.70 43.20 41.00 22.90 43.40

0.00 7.00 13.80 21.80 19.00 20.90 11.90 28.40 28.50 17.60 17.30 20.60 21.80 10.40 18.20 19.60 NA 22.40 21.20 14.20 24.20 13.80 22.30 20.00 14.40 24.70 16.30 22.30 15.60 8.90 18.40

6.00 6.70 8.90 4.60 7.00 3.30 5.90 13.20 5.10 9.10 12.20 17.50 4.80 17.00 7.50 0.00 NA 6.80 9.40 11.50 5.10 15.90 6.40 14.40 5.90 18.00 4.30 9.40 9.60 3.30 9.50

6.00 7.00 12.40 18.30 18.50 17.60 11.30 24.80 25.20 17.20 16.60 19.50 19.40 12.10 17.10 19.60 NA 19.90 19.80 13.90 22.70 14.60 19.00 18.30 13.60 23.30 15.00 18.50 14.50 8.10 16.30

0.00 1.00 1.00 2.50 1.70 1.10 1.50 0.90 1.20 2.00 0.80 1.50 2.90 2.00 1.70 3.00 NA 0.50 3.30 2.60 1.20 0.90 2.00 1.90 1.30 2.70 2.00 2.00 2.30 1.40 1.60

0.60 1.70 0.00 1.50 0.60 0.60 0.00 2.10 1.70 3.00 1.20 1.20 0.00 2.50 0.70 0.00 NA 0.00 1.10 1.10 1.10 2.10 0.00 1.70 0.50 2.00 1.80 2.40 1.80 0.70 1.20

0.00 5.70 7.10 7.20 8.20 9.00 8.70 8.20 8.70 9.40 7.90 5.80 6.00 7.80 7.10 9.20 NA 8.10 8.20 7.50 7.60 8.40 8.90 8.60 8.10 7.80 8.90 7.30 6.90 5.90 7.80

4.40 4.90 3.70 5.10 5.10 6.00 6.10 6.20 4.20 4.10 5.00 5.60 3.00 5.70 5.30 0.00 NA 6.20 5.40 6.90 5.50 6.30 5.60 5.60 4.90 6.00 4.20 6.10 4.20 3.70 5.10

4.40 5.50 6.10 6.90 8.10 8.30 8.50 7.70 8.00 9.10 7.50 5.70 5.40 7.10 6.90 9.20 NA 7.70 7.80 7.50 7.40 7.50 8.10 8.10 7.70 7.30 8.30 7.00 6.40 5.50 7.10

16 0.60 1.10 0.70 2.30 1.70 1.00 1.40 1.20 1.30 2.00 0.90 1.40 2.50 2.10 1.60 3.00 NA 0.40 3.00 2.40 1.20 1.30 1.50 1.90 1.20 2.80 2.00 2.10 2.20 1.30 1.50

✦ 151

Notes: NA: Figure not available 1per 1000 population. 2per 1000 live births. 3Figure relating to composite district Perambalur and Ariyalur. Source: DANIDA—Tamil Nadu Area Health Care Project, Phase III, Estimated Vital Rates for 1998.

Urban Combined

APPENDIX TABLES

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

Death Rate1

152

A4.2—HEALTH PROFILE—TAMIL NADU BY GENDER

Chennai Kancheepuram Thiruvallur Cuddalore Villupuram Vellore Tiruvannamalai Salem Namakkal Dharmapuri Erode Coimbatore Nilgiris Trichy Karur Perambalur3 Ariyalur Thanjavur Tiruvarur Nagapattinam Pudukkotai Madurai Theni Dindigul Ramanad Virudhunagar Sivagangai Tirunelveli Thoothukudi Kanniyakumari STATE

Male

Female

Combined

Male

Female

Combined

Male

Female

Combined

Male

Female

Combined

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

17.20 19.10 19.30 20.50 20.90 19.60 20.40 21.60 17.90 28.80 16.80 17.10 17.70 19.50 17.70 21.90 NA 19.90 19.10 19.90 21.70 20.00 20.20 20.50 20.60 19.20 20.10 19.00 18.10 17.50 19.60

17.60 17.80 18.10 19.90 20.20 18.80 19.40 19.80 18.90 25.80 15.70 17.20 16.90 17.60 15.70 20.30 NA 18.00 18.90 18.60 20.90 19.00 20.40 19.90 20.80 17.80 18.50 18.00 17.00 17.10 18.70

17.40 18.30 18.70 20.20 20.60 19.20 19.90 20.60 17.40 26.10 16.30 17.10 17.30 18.60 16.70 21.10 NA 19.00 19.00 19.30 21.30 19.50 20.30 20.20 20.70 18.40 19.30 18.50 17.50 17.30 19.20

4.90 6.40 7.20 7.80 9.10 9.40 9.60 8.20 8.90 9.20 8.50 6.70 6.40 8.30 8.20 10.20 NA 9.00 8.90 8.50 8.30 8.50 8.70 8.50 8.50 8.00 9.00 8.10 7.40 6.40 8.00

3.80 4.80 5.00 5.90 7.00 7.30 7.30 7.10 7.20 9.00 6.50 4.70 4.30 5.90 5.70 8.10 NA 6.50 6.80 6.40 6.50 6.50 7.50 7.70 7.00 6.60 7.50 5.90 5.30 4.70 6.20

4.40 5.50 6.10 6.90 8.10 8.30 8.50 7.70 8.00 9.10 7.50 5.70 5.40 7.10 6.90 9.20 NA 7.70 7.80 7.50 7.40 7.50 8.10 8.10 7.70 7.30 8.30 7.00 8.40 5.50 7.10

15.80 28.80 30.60 40.40 46.60 47.90 37.50 48.90 42.30 53.30 41.10 39.20 46.80 42.20 49.10 55.10 NA 42.60 36.40 35.60 38.50 42.20 49.40 40.20 55.30 35.80 31.70 37.10 44.50 25.80 40.10

12.80 25.60 29.90 36.80 50.20 47.70 46.30 102.30 59.60 111.20 45.00 31.50 34.90 44.40 49.20 59.60 NA 36.30 30.50 35.40 40.20 47.00 75.20 58.30 46.40 38.80 42.00 41.60 37.40 20.00 46.90

14.30 27.30 30.30 38.70 48.30 47.80 41.70 73.30 49.20 80.70 42.90 35.40 39.40 43.20 49.10 57.20 NA 39.60 33.50 35.50 39.30 44.50 62.20 48.10 50.80 37.20 38.70 39.30 41.00 22.90 43.40

6.00 9.20 14.00 20.50 16.50 17.30 9.70 20.80 26.80 14.20 14.80 20.60 19.90 17.70 15.20 23.70 NA 18.10 20.50 15.00 25.50 13.80 18.50 18.50 13.30 24.80 15.20 14.00 14.70 9.50 16.30

6.00 4.50 10.80 18.10 20.50 17.80 13.10 29.50 23.40 20.40 18.50 18.40 18.90 19.40 19.30 15.00 NA 21.80 19.20 12.80 19.80 15.80 19.60 18.00 13.80 21.50 14.80 10.00 14.30 6.70 16.40

6.00 7.00 12.40 19.30 18.50 17.60 11.30 24.80 25.20 17.20 16.60 19.50 19.40 18.50 17.10 19.60 NA 18.90 18.80 13.90 22.70 14.80 19.00 18.30 13.60 23.30 15.00 12.10 14.50 8.10 16.30

Notes: NA: Figure not available. 1per 1000 population. 2per 1000 live births. 3Figure relating to composite district Perambalur and Ariyalur. Source: DANIDA—Tamil Nadu Area Health Care Project, Phase III, Estimated Vital Rates for 1998.

TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.



I

SBR2

IMR2

Death Rate1

Birth Rate1

S.no. Districts



APPENDIX TABLES

153

A4.3—INTER-STATE HEALTH PROFILE Components

India

Tamil Nadu

Andhra Pradesh

2

3

4

1

Kerala Karnataka

Gujarat Haryana Madhya Maharashtra Punjab West Pradesh Bengal

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

18.30

23.10

26.90

28.80

32.10

23.50

23.70

23.40

Crude birth rate(CBR) 1 Rural

28.00

19.90* 22.80

Urban

21.00

17.00* 20.90

18.00

19.40

21.90

23.20

23.00

20.40

18.50

15.20

Combined

26.40

19.20* 22.30

18.20

22.00

25.30

27.60

30.60

22.30

22.40

21.30 7.70

Crude death rate

(CDR)1

Rural

9.70

7.80*

9.70

6.50

8.90

8.50

8.50

11.80

8.80

8.10

Urban

6.60

5.10*

6.00

6.20

5.60

6.30

6.80

7.80

5.60

6.30

7.10

Combined

9.00

7.10*

8.80

6.40

7.90

7.80

8.10

11.20

7.60

7.70

7.50

Infant mortality rate (IMR)2 Rural

77.00

50.00* 75.00

15.00

70.00

71.00

72.00

103.00

58.00

58.00

56.00

Urban

45.00

22.00* 38.00

17.00

25.00

46.00

58.00

56.00

32.00

40.00

41.00

Combined

72.00

43.00* 66.00

16.00

58.00

64.00

69.00

97.00

49.00

54.00

53.00

Rural

22.20

12.30

17.60

4.20

18.20

22.50

24.40

28.00

15.50

17.00

17.00

Urban

14.30

10.60

13.20

4.90

8.70

16.00

19.80

16.50

11.70

11.70

8.80

Combined

21.10

11.90

16.70

4.60

16.20

20.80

23.50

26.50

14.40

15.70

15.10

Rural

38.00

36.60

43.50

6.30

38.00

38.40

32.20

51.20

28.80

24.50

29.50

Urban

20.30

22.60

21.40

6.50

14.30

16.70

19.40

24.10

17.80

14.90

18.60

Combined

34.80

32.10

38.60

6.30

31.60

32.20

29.90

48.00

25.00

22.50

27.50

% of infant deaths to total deaths

Early neonatal mortality rate (ENNMR)2

Neonatal mortality rate (NNMR)2 Rural

50.50

42.80

54.40

7.20

45.80

49.50

42.50

68.20

37.60

31.80

39.90

Urban

26.20

29.00

27.70

8.40

17.70

26.70

28.80

33.20

21.10

18.10

25.90

Combined

46.10

38.40

48.40

7.50

38.20

43.00

40.00

64.00

31.70

29.00

37.30

26.50

15.50

16.10

3.90

17.10

19.20

27.70

31.30

18.50

22.60

18.10

Post-natal mortality rate (PNMR)2 Rural Urban

19

11.4

9.70

7.00

6.80

19.40

30.50

30.40

10.30

19.70

17.20

Combined

25.10

14.20

14.70

4.70

14.30

19.30

28.20

23.70

15.60

22.00

17.90

49.40

63.10

58.00

41.80

54.30

54.00

44.70

49.70

49.70

42.20

52.70

% of early neonatal deaths to infant deaths Rural Urban

45.10

56.50

56.30

38.10

57.10

36.20

33.50

42.90

55.80

37.20

45.40

Combined

48.30

60.50

58.50

39.20

54.50

50.40

43.30

49.50

50.90

41.70

51.90

Rural

46.30

47.20

52.50

17.30

51.70

42.30

44.50

59.40

39.80

35.40

40.10

Urban

29.10

35.40

34.70

18.10

26.70

20.20

30.10

34.20

26.10

21.30

29.80

Combined

43.20

43.40

48.50

17.50

45.00

36.10

41.90

56.40

34.90

32.50

38.20

Prenatal mortality rate (PNMR)2

(Contd...)

154



TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

(Table A4.3 Contd.) Components

India

Tamil Nadu

Andhra Pradesh

2

3

4

1

Kerala Karnataka 5

6

Gujarat Haryana Madhya Maharashtra Punjab West Pradesh Bengal 7

8

9

10

11

12

Still birth rate (SBR)2 Rural

8.60

11.00

9.40

11.10

14.20

4.10

12.70

8.60

11.30

11.20

10.90

Urban

9.00

13.10

13.60

11.70

12.60

3.60

10.60

10.40

8.40

6.50

11.40

Combined

8.70

11.70

10.30

11.30

13.80

4.00

12.40

8.80

10.20

10.20

11.00

Rural

106.00

67.00

91.00

18.00

81.00

89.00

102.00

142.00

74.00

71.00

79.00

Urban

64.00

46.00

52.00

21.00

34.00

64.00

90.00

83.00

42.00

45.00

55.00

Combined

99.00

60.00

83.00

19.00

69.00

82.00

100.00

135.00

64.00

65.00

75.00

Under-5 mortality rate (U5 MR)3

% of infant deaths to under-5 Deaths Rural

72.40

90.20

79.80

73.00

77.80

76.00

68.90

72.00

78.10

76.10

73.10

Urban

72.10

84.90

73.20

75.80

72.60

71.90

66.90

73.10

74.00

88.40

79.50

Combined

73.70

88.20

78.50

75.40

77.30

74.60

68.00

71.90

75.20

78.00

72.90

Notes:

*Danida Tamil Nadu Area Health Care Project—Phase III Estimated Vital Rates for 1998. CBR and CDR—per 1000 populaton. IMR, ENMR etc. per 1000 live births. Source: 1. Sample Registration System (SRS), 1998 11998 (P), 21997 31996.

A5 Education Profile A5.1—EDUCATION PROFILE—MAJOR STATES Indicator

India

Tamil Nadu

Andhra Pradesh

1

2

3

4

5

6

52.2 64.1 39.3

62.7 73.8 51.3

44.1 55.1 32.7

89.8 93.7 86.2

56.0 67.3 44.3

Primary 1993–94 1997–98

81.9 89.7

100.1 108.5

75.9 89.5

97.3 90.0

Middle 1993–94 1997–98

54.2 58.5

86.9 93.6

42.7 45.7

39.6

15.1

54.1 69.3

Literacy rate All, 1991 Male, 1991 Female, 1991

Kerala Karnataka

Gujarat Haryana Madhya Maharashtra Punjab West Pradesh Bengal 7

8

9

10

11

12

61.3 73.1 48.6

55.8 69.1 40.5

44.2 58.4 28.8

64.9 76.6 52.3

58.5 65.7 50.4

57.7 67.8 46.6

100.0 104.6

103.6 115.7

77.6 83.9

88.6 102.3

94.9 112.9

84.0 81.6

83.1 92.2

95.7 95.4

59.1 67.6

66.7 68.4

60.8 65.9

52.8 64.9

67.4 86.3

63.3 65.0

44.7 47.1

45.7

–9.00*

33.5*

27.8*

14.9*

23.3

22.6

23.6

49.9

30.0

73.4

–0.4

57.1

60.3

30.9

50.4

41.4

28.4

69.1+

61.1

74.1

25.8

66.4

70.0

46.3

67.7

59.8

48.4

83.5

GER

Drop out rate Classes I–V 1997–98 (Provisional) Classes I–VIII 1997–98 (Provisional) Classes I–X 1997–98 (Provisional)

(Contd...)



APPENDIX TABLES

155

(Table A5.1 Contd.) Indicator

India

Tamil Nadu

Andhra Pradesh

1

2

3

4

54.6

85.0

46.3

112.6

59.1

36.3

63.2

25.1

111.6

25.0

37.2

19.7

40 36 30 34

37 42 38 40

49 45 32 32

Retention rate Enrolment in Class I–V as percentage to Class I, 1993 Enrolment in Class I–VIII as percentage to Class I, 1993 Enrolment in Class I–X as percentage to Class I, 1993 Pupil–Teacher Ratio (a) Primary, 1993–94 (b) Middle, 1993–94 (c) Sec., 1993–94 (d) Hr. Sec., 1993–94

Kerala Karnataka 5

6

Gujarat Haryana Madhya Maharashtra Punjab West Pradesh Bengal 7

8

9

10

11

12

65.8

78.7

61.3

71.0

72.8

46.1

35.9

42.6

66.1

32.1

48.7

56.0

25.5

79.2

26.3

29.0

39.8

22.9

33.3

42.8

13.8

31 30 30 29

39 54 29 37

36 41 29 32

47 40 37 36

40 29 27 36

37 38 31 36

42 23 29 31

43 34 38 38

Notes: *Figures have been taken from 6th All India Educational Survey, 1993. +1996–7 figures. All figures in percentages. Sources: Literacy Rate:1991 Census data. GER and Drop out rate: (1) 6th All India Educational Survey 1993, (2) Annual Report 1998–9, Ministry of HRD, GOI. Retention Rate and Pupil–Teacher Ratio: 6th All India Educational Survey, 1993.

A5.2—LITERACY RATE Literacy Rate Tamil Nadu/ Districts 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

Chennai Kancheepuram Thiruvallur Cuddalore Villupuram Vellore Tiruvannamalai Salem Namakkal Dharmapuri Erode Coimbatore Nilgiris Trichy Karur Perambalur Ariyalur Thanjavur

All

Male

SC Literacy Rate Female 1991 2001

1991

2001

1991

2001

2

3

4

5

6

81.6 66.5 66.2 58.6 48.4 60.9 53.1 52.8 54.4 46.0 53.8 66.4 71.7 68.7 56.1 51.8 49.0 66.1

80.1 77.6 76.5 71.9 64.7 73.1 68.2 65.7 67.7 59.2 65.5 77.0 81.4 79.2 68.7 65.9 64.9 76.1

87.9 77.1 77.0 71.5 60.9 72.9 66.7 63.5 66.7 57.2 65.5 76.5 81.8 79.5 69.6 64.7 63.2 77.3

84.7 84.8 84.6 82.8 76.0 82.7 80.1 75.3 78.0 68.8 75.5 83.8 89.6 87.2 80.4 77.7 77.9 85.5

74.9 55.5 54.9 45.2 35.4 48.6 39.3 41.3 41.7 34.2 41.6 55.7 61.5 57.7 42.6 38.6 34.5 55.0

Rural 1991

Urban 1991

All 1991

Male 1991

Female 1991

7

8

9

10

11

12

75.3 70.2 68.2 60.9 53.2 63.5 56.3 55.6 57.0 49.1 55.3 69.8 73.4 71.2 57.3 54.3 52.0 67.0

0.0 55.61 NA 48.22 NA 55.4 50.2 47.13 NA 43.3 47.6 54.5 67.0 54.14 NA NA NA 62.15

81.6 79.41 NA 77.12 NA 72.5 74.1 68.43 NA 71.4 73.1 77.1 76.5 80.84 NA NA NA 79.15

67.57 51.851 NA 56.282 NA 37.49 43.35 40.533 NA 39.24 31.28 38.05 63.97 47.824 NA NA NA 47.735

76.20 58.48 63.591 39.771 NA NA 67.472 44.972 NA NA 49.71 24.80 55.88 30.52 51.623 .28.843 NA NA 50.24 27.70 39.92 22.28 46.79 29.12 75.03 52.90 60.714 34.864 NA NA NA NA NA NA 60.335 34.915 (Contd...)



156

TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

(Table A5.2 Contd.) Literacy Rate Tamil Nadu/ Districts 1 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

Tiruvarur Nagapattinam Pudukkotai Madurai Theni Dindigul Ramnad Virudhunagar Sivagangai Tirunelveli Thoothukudi Kanniyakumari STATE

All

Male

SC Literacy Rate Female 1991 2001

1991

2001

1991

2001

2

3

4

5

6

66.2 65.8 57.6 69.1 60.3 56.7 61.7 62.9 63.0 65.6 73.0 82.1 62.7

76.9 76.9 72.0 78.7 72.0 69.8 73.1 74.2 72.7 77.0 82.0 88.1 73.5

77.5 77.0 71.8 79.9 72.7 69.2 74.7 75.7 76.9 77.5 82.0 85.7 73.8

85.6 85.6 83.2 87.2 82.5 80.3 83.0 84.6 83.7 85.9 88.7 90.9 82.3

54.7 54.4 43.6 57.9 47.5 43.9 48.8 50.2 49.6 54.2 64.6 78.4 51.3

Rural 1991

Urban 1991

All 1991

Male 1991

Female 1991

7

8

9

10

11

12

68.4 68.4 60.9 69.9 61.4 59.3 63.6 64.1 62.1 68.5 75.6 85.4 64.6

NA NA 53.8 55.86 NA 51.0 57.0 55.7 56.5 67.3 61.1 80.8 54.6

NA NA 80.1 79.26 NA 77.3 78.0 74.7 80.6 75.2 81.1 88.4 78.0

NA NA 48.52 45.286 NA 39.83 46.05 43.48 49.27 48.91 57.28 77.33 46.74

NA NA 63.36 57.926 NA 52.11 59.50 56.65 63.23 61.08 68.97 83.02 58.36

NA NA 33.69 32.386 NA 27.31 32.53 30.27 35.80 37.45 45.88 71.69 34.89

Notes: NA: Figure not available. 1Figure relating to composite district Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur. 2Figure relating to composite district Cudallore and Villupuram. 3Figure relating to composite district Salem and Namakkal. 4Figure relating to composite district Trichy, Karur, Perambalur and Ariyalur. 5Figure relating to composite district Thanjavur, Tiruvarur and Nagapattinam. 6Figure relating to composite district Madurai and Theni. All figures in percentages. Sources: Literacy rate (All, Male, Female)—Census 1991 and 2001(Provisional figure), Director of Census, Chennai, 2001. Literacy rate (Rural, Urban and SC Literacy Rate), Census 1991, Director of Census.

A5.3—GROSS ENROLMENT RATE AND DROP OUT RATE (1998–99) Gross Enrolment Rate Tamil Nadu/Districts 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Chennai Kancheepuram Thiruvallur Cuddalore Villupuram Vellore Tiruvannamalai Salem Namakkal Dharmapuri Erode Coimbatore Nilgiris Trichy Karur Perambalur

Drop out Rate

Primary

Middle

Secondary

Hr. Sec.

Primary

Middle

Secondary

Hr. Sec.

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

129.72 89.85 89.09 103.25 85.86 108.46 99.67 101.72 101.94 86.68 113.66 114.40 105.07 108.29 106.94 103.501

98.19 84.45 77.78 91.71 86.47 93.86 92.19 84.58 81.42 73.33 86.14 94.12 75.96 84.02 72.69 94.781

85.28 58.50 81.94 55.67 70.70 72.42 51.87 53.14 78.94 57.93 59.95 49.32 75.74 73.10 76.57 50.961

47.58 37.20 48.56 21.17 18.05 33.30 27.76 25.20 37.87 20.62 26.36 29.16 29.99 27.93 33.81 24.991

13.74 14.83 14.83 15.14 14.82 14.92 15.03 14.33 14.33 15.09 14.21 14.11 14.11 14.42 14.43 14.421

39.74 42.72 37.96 40.39 40.39 35.88 38.66 23.65 21.65 38.09 37.72 36.00 36.45 32.14 32.12 32.141

55.24 55.20 55.21 46.52 60.23 60.85 61.57 58.74 58.74 60.24 58.05 57.43 57.74 57.21 57.21 57.211

69.65 81.89 81.89 86.38 85.15 82.93 83.39 80.57 80.57 84.38 83.41 80.09 83.26 80.06 80.06 80.061 (Contd...)



APPENDIX TABLES

157

(Table A5.3 Contd.) Gross Enrolment Rate Tamil Nadu/Districts

17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

Drop out Rate

Primary

Middle

Secondary

Hr. Sec.

Primary

Middle

Secondary

Hr. Sec.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Ariyalur Thanjavur Tiruvarur Nagapattinam Pudukkotai Madurai Theni Dindigul Ramnad Virudhunagar Sivagangai Tirunelveli Thoothukudi Kanniyakumari STATE

NA 112.80 110.89 111.19 102.45 114.50 112.33 105.17 101.55 103.69 105.48 110.94 111.62 111.66 105.21

NA 88.10 94.97 84.81 86.68 100.40 91.22 97.47 96.49 85.89 96.28 90.60 99.33 93.54 89.25

NA 68.66 54.19 54.52 46.87 84.89 73.89 55.93 69.50 45.71 72.30 82.65 82.10 76.24 66.53

NA 21.19 30.25 28.52 20.43 27.10 35.95 25.09 20.39 24.16 23.86 28.28 45.77 46.97 30.33

NA 14.09 15.03 14.39 14.74 14.33 14.33 14.47 14.71 15.15 14.40 14.10 14.13 13.53 14.52

NA 32.19 32.19 32.19 37.43 35.30 35.30 35.10 35.10 37.77 36.56 33.27 35.58 30.06 35.23

NA 59.24 57.40 57.40 57.63 57.02 57.02 61.87 59.53 61.84 57.24 60.60 60.96 57.55 58.01

NA 81.94 83.36 83.36 82.83 78.59 78.59 86.29 82.44 84.50 82.44 85.07 81.25 72.88 81.49

Notes: NA: Figure not available. 1Figure relating to composite district Perambalur and Ariyalur. All figures in percentages. Source: GER and Drop out rate: Director of School Education, Chennai.

A5.4—PUPIL–TEACHER RATIO AND ACCESS TO SCHOOLING Pupil–Teacher Ratio Primary

Middle

1993–94 1998–99

Sec.

1993–94

1998–99

Hr.Sec.

1993–94 1993–94

Tamil Nadu/ Districts

1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Chennai Kancheepuram Thiruvallur Cuddalore Villupuram Vellore Tiruvannamalai Salem Namakkal Dharmapuri Erode Coimbatore Nilgiris Trichy

Access to schooling % of Rural Habitations covered primary school/ section up to a distance of 1 km 1993–94

middle school/ section up to a distance of 3 km 1993–94

High school/ section up to a distance of 5 km 1993–94

Hr.Sec. school/ section up to a distance of 8 km 1993–94

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

27 431 NA 34 50 38 37 382 NA 56 34 29 26 373

42 46 41 40 41 30 33 30 31 41 34 46 35 33

37 471 NA 44 57 43 52 482 NA 50 40 34 30 403

45 37 32 35 41 35 38 29 31 45 26 35 46 30

33 451 NA 43 39 40 46 402 NA 55 46 38 33 363

37 491 NA 41 48 40 56 422 NA 51 42 34 32 423

0.00 99.911 NA 99.41 100.00 99.94 100.00 99.852 NA 99.83 99.22 100.00 100.00 100.003

0.00 84.901 NA 92.01 83.19 92.17 84.27 91.052 NA 82.06 82.01 90.79 92.43 87.853

0.00 77.731 NA 90.03 81.48 91.07 82.96 90.802 NA 81.53 79.82 86.82 91.14 83.953

0.00 71.251 NA 86.12 78.59 87.82 81.14 89.062 NA 72.02 80.95 86.70 86.16 75.413 (Contd...)



158

TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

(Table A5.4 Contd.) Pupil–Teacher Ratio Primary

Middle

1993–94 1998–99

Sec.

1993–94

1998–99

Hr.Sec.

1993–94 1993–94

Tamil Nadu/ Districts

1 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

Karur Perambalur Ariyalur Thanjavur Tiruvarur Nagapattinam Pudukkotai Madurai Theni Dindigul Ramnad Virudhunagar Sivagangai Tirunelveli Thoothukudi Kanniyakumari STATE

Access to schooling % of Rural Habitations covered

2

3

4

5

6

7

NA NA NA 395 NA 36 45 406 NA 34 41 38 33 30 34 34 37

30 314 NA 34 42 45 54 51 40 29 37 32 38 37 32 38 38

NA NA NA 445 NA 46 55 456 NA 45 43 37 39 35 35 30 42

30 334 NA 36 41 43 46 33 31 35 32 34 40 32 43 24 36

NA NA NA 325 NA 37 48 286 NA 39 51 33 36 29 30 30 38

NA NA NA 425 NA 39 46 396 NA 36 43 33 33 33 33 34 40

primary school/ section up to a distance of 1 km 1993–94

middle school/ section up to a distance of 3 km 1993–94

High school/ section up to a distance of 5 km 1993–94

Hr.Sec. school/ section up to a distance of 8 km 1993–94

8

9

10

11

NA NA NA 90.005 NA 94.40 78.30 91.476 NA 82.22 77.65 88.58 84.40 92.22 87.73 99.26 87.78

NA NA NA 90.315 NA 92.31 74.69 88.316 NA 70.18 74.64 88.08 82.39 87.65 84.06 99.45 85.04

NA NA NA 94.725 NA 99.69 100.00 99.786 NA 96.55 99.88 99.73 99.87 99.77 100.00 98.43 99.43

NA NA NA 90.995 NA 85.88 73.17 84.616 NA 71.00 71.18 87.69 80.54 87.97 83.07 99.24 81.88

Notes: NA: Figure not available. 1Figure relating to composite district Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur. 2Figure relating to composite district Salem and Namakkal. 3Figure relating to composite district Trichy, Karur, Perambalur and Ariyalur. 4Figure relating to composite district Permablur and Ariyalur. 5Figure relating to composite district Thanjavur and Thiruvarur. 6Figure relating to composite district Madurai and Theni. All figures in percentages. Source: Pupil–Teacher Ratio: (1) 6th All India Educational Survey 1993 and (2) Director of School Education, Chennai. Access to schooling: 6th All India Educational Survey 1993.

A5.5—AVAILABILITY OF ANCILLARY FACILITIES IN SCHOOLS (Percentage) Drinking water facility

Urinal facility

S. Tamil Nadu/ no. Districts

Primary 1993–94

Middle 1993–94

Secondary 1993–94

Hr. Sec. 1993–94

Primary 1993–94

Middle 1993–94

Secondary 1993–94

Hr. Sec. 1993–94

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

76.25 66.141 NA 26.74 37.02 60.39

74.19 74.651 NA 44.55 54.01 66.99

87.95 72.161 NA 64.36 60.00 79.31

86.59 96.001 NA 89.29 74.29 94.12

83.50 11.101 NA 9.04 11.80 20.97

85.25 31.991 NA 33.18 33.80 41.03

92.77 55.691 NA 50.50 45.16 70.11

99.28 88.001 NA 83.93 61.43 86.55

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Chennai Kancheepuram Thiruvallur Cuddalore Villupuram Vellore

(Contd...)



APPENDIX TABLES

159

(Table A5.5 Contd.) Drinking water facility

Urinal facility

S. Tamil Nadu/ no. Districts

Primary 1993–94

Middle 1993–94

Secondary 1993–94

Hr. Sec. 1993–94

Primary 1993–94

Middle 1993–94

Secondary 1993–94

Hr. Sec. 1993–94

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

41.98 75.042 NA 36.46 60.36 67.55 60.15 78.643 NA NA NA 78.014 NA 68.70 66.67 61.805 NA 60.05 65.64 79.35 63.48 73.53 72.51 67.68 62.34

53.11 82.472 NA 55.03 73.98 80.20 67.86 80.803 NA NA NA 89.574 NA 86.01 68.82 81.625 NA 74.18 74.84 88.31 76.82 84.85 87.10 73.42 75.02

76.25 77.142 NA 62.50 71.19 76.33 78.05 78.423 NA NA NA 80.774 NA 86.39 72.73 86.015 NA 78.95 57.63 85.06 68.89 83.33 85.29 84.57 77.08

90.74 94.402 NA 93.10 89.23 97.40 80.85 97.393 NA NA NA 97.224 NA 92.94 88.37 95.215 NA 96.30 85.71 94.19 98.00 99.14 97.70 93.94 92.98

7.20 9.572 NA 4.13 39.30 25.96 39.33 12.073 NA NA NA 31.864 NA 26.87 5.52 20.695 NA 17.25 10.16 21.21 11.93 41.11 37.53 78.66 19.97

15.25 31.962 NA 23.67 78.06 57.43 60.71 38.413 NA NA NA 63.044 NA 62.97 25.81 68.655 NA 52.11 39.62 65.58 43.05 79.80 77.78 93.04 51.95

58.13 56.192 NA 50.00 72.03 71.98 73.17 59.353 NA NA NA 75.004 NA 77.51 51.14 84.975 NA 68.42 57.63 74.71 60.00 85.42 77.94 95.68 68.36

81.48 89.602 NA 77.59 89.23 94.16 80.85 89.543 NA NA NA 95.834 NA 96.47 95.35 89.045 NA 96.30 85.71 88.37 86.00 95.69 97.70 98.99 90.62

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

Tiruvannamalai Salem Namakkal Dharmapuri Erode Coimbatore Nilgiris Trichy Karur Perambalur Ariyalur Thanjavur Tiruvarur Nagapattinam Pudukkotai Madurai Theni Dindigul Ramnad Virudhunagar Sivagangai Tirunelveli Thoothukudi Kanniyakumari STATE

Notes: NA: Figure not available. 1Figure relating to composite district Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur. 2Figure relating to composite district Salem and Namakkal. 3Figure relating to composite district Trichy, Karur, Perambalur and Ariyalur. 4Figure relating to composite district Thanjavur and Thiruvarur. 5Figure relating to composite district Madurai and Theni. All figures in percentages. Source: Ancillary facilities in schools: 6th All India Educational Survey 1993.

A5.5 Contd... (Percentage) Lavatory facility (1993–4)

Separate lavatory for girls (1993–4)

S. Tamil Nadu/ no. Districts

Primary

Middle

Secondary

Hr. Sec.

Primary

Middle

Secondary

Hr. Sec.

1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

80.25 7.571 NA 9.60 4.11 13.86 2.74

86.18 23.141 NA 24.17 21.60 34.94 7.34

97.99 52.161 NA 47.52 37.42 58.62 41.88

90.94 88.501 NA 78.57 57.14 82.35 74.07

70.05 15.691 NA 19.43 18.12 25.64 6.21

77.11 38.041 NA 26.73 25.81 45.98 30.00

64.49 74.001 NA 69.64 45.71 64.71 57.41

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Chennai Kancheepuram Thiruvallur Cuddalore Villupuram Vellore Tiruvannamalai

61.75 4.741 NA 8.00 2.90 9.75 1.71

(Contd...)



160

TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

(Table A5.5 Contd.) (Percentage) Lavatory facility (1993–94)

Separate lavatory for girls (1993–94)

S. Tamil Nadu/ no. Districts

Primary

Middle

Secondary

Hr. Sec.

Primary

Middle

Secondary

Hr. Sec.

1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

4.782 NA 2.25 44.36 17.55 29.31 7.453 NA NA NA 12.814 NA 10.24 3.13 13.165 NA 5.95 4.48 12.93 6.58 18.76 20.82 56.40 12.57

21.132 NA 10.65 72.96 40.59 35.71 26.633 NA NA NA 36.964 NA 29.45 17.20 40.005 NA 28.64 30.82 45.45 26.49 56.31 55.20 64.56 35.96

47.622 NA 38.16 65.25 60.87 65.85 51.443 NA NA NA 62.824 NA 67.46 43.18 69.955 NA 55.26 40.68 74.71 57.78 80.21 72.06 85.80 60.35

80.802 NA 62.07 90.77 91.56 70.21 84.973 NA NA NA 87.504 NA 92.94 86.05 80.825 NA 94.44 88.57 88.37 84.00 94.83 83.91 94.95 85.51

2.592 NA 1.23 27.28 11.20 23.14 5.233 NA NA NA 9.094 NA 6.68 1.29 8.555 NA 3.35 3.59 10.51 3.60 10.33 12.60 32.93 8.23

14.952 NA 8.28 56.63 27.72 32.14 21.013 NA NA NA 32.174 NA 23.03 13.44 32.435 NA 22.07 24.53 42.21 21.19 39.90 43.37 34.81 27.55

36.672 NA 24.34 59.32 51.21 57.32 43.173 NA NA NA 45.514 NA 52.66 32.95 61.665 NA 43.42 30.51 66.67 46.67 71.88 50.00 71.60 47.83

65.602 NA 37.93 70.77 79.22 53.19 69.933 NA NA NA 69.444 NA 78.82 74.42 65.075 NA 79.63 74.29 74.42 78.00 79.31 68.97 88.89 69.56

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

Salem Namakkal Dharmapuri Erode Coimbatore Nilgiris Trichy Karur Perambalur Ariyalur Thanjavur Tiruvarur Nagapattinam Pudukkotai Madurai Theni Dindigul Ramnad Virudhunagar Sivagangai Tirunelveli Thoothukudi Kanniyakumari STATE

Notes: NA: Figure not available. 1Figure relating to composite district Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur. 2Figure relating to composite district Salem and Namakkal. 3Figure relating to composite district Trichy, Karur, Perambalur and Ariyalur. 4Figure relating to composite district Thanjavur and Thiruvarur. 5Figure relating to composite district Madurai and Theni. All figures in percentages. Source: Ancillary facilities in schools: 6th All India Educational Survey 1993.

A6 Domestic Product Profile A6.1—GROSS DISTRICT DOMESTIC PRODUCT (AT CURRENT AND CONSTANT (1993–94) PRICES) (Rs in lakhs) S.no. Districts

1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

2 Chennai Kanchipuram1 Thiruvallur1 Cuddalore2 Villupuram2

GDDP at Current Prices

GDDP at Constant Prices

1993–94

1994–95

1995–96

1996–97

1993–94

1994–95

1995–96

1996–97

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

643,816 639,718

775,851 808,242

906,532 9,121,451

643,816 639,719

720,807 760,751

781,156 810,355

343,091

202,329 202,124

222,663 210,409

1,046,212 5,298,631 533,746 245,502 258,912

343,091

192,484 194,647

198,025 191,411

842,348 428,390 428,459 193,219 203,830 (Contd...)



APPENDIX TABLES

161

(Table A6.1 Contd.) (Rs in lakhs) S.no. Districts

1

2

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

GDDP at Current Prices 1993–94

1994–95

1995–96

1996–97

1993–94

1994–95

1995–96

1996–97

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

342,389 146,181 493,193

453,885 150,160 580,391

287,284 124,729 442,323

325,275 140,559 458,039

346,154 139,950 508,852

250,329 308,540 642,551 78,107 461,327

281,604 342,511 724,400 91,232 540,850

469,268 193,733 505,713 189,822 299,818 434,342 833,714 111,034 379,918 116,201 137,827

201,212 257,974 521,781 71,300 397,062

239,903 295,829 615,041 73,107 443,914

249,146 303,254 632,883 78,168 468,709

375,492 153,750 403,289 147,345 238,354 346,282 675,074 89,992 302,977 96,410 137,750

202,978

225,591

167,929

196,955

203,123

245,622 116,544 429,809

239,931 121,238 484,264

191,114 96,814 353,501

235,346 110,555 406,116

218,866 104,429 420,431

194,312 200,243 100,084 95,338 286,529 224,183 133,425 6,940,231

214,219 226,522 104,654 92,306 329,044 258,697 163,470 7,876,718

159,008 175,093 85,741 82,898 244,122 181,666 115,092 5,783,268

179,879 188,166 92,891 93,850 270,179 213,193 125,978 6,573,466

183,264 197,055 87,237 80,157 285,337 221,653 140,470 6,850,084

Vellore 287,284 Tiruvannamalai 124,729 Salem3 442,323 Namakkal3 Dharmapuri 201,212 Erode 257,974 Coimbatore 521,781 Nilgiris 71,300 Tiruchirapalli4 397,062 Karur4 Perambalur4 Ariyalur4 Thanjavur5 167,929 Tiruvarur5 Nagapattinam5 191,114 Pudukkottai 96,814 Madurai6 353,501 Theni6 Dindigul 159,008 Virudhunagar 175,093 Ramanathapuram 85,741 Sivagangai 82,898 Tirunelveli 244,122 Thoothukudi 181,666 Kanniyakumari 115,092 STATE 5,783,268

Notes:

GDDP at Constant Prices

234,956 132,644 171,847 161,944 416,217 177,943 241,559 268,451 135,781 115,947 381,414 278,185 188,848 9,191,360

188,355 105,138 136,857 125,985 336,657 140,837 195,585 216,627 104,298 92,417 302,596 219,402 148,445 7,376,160

1Figure

relating to composite district Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur. relating to composite district Cuddalore and Villupuram. 3Figure relating to composite district Salem and Namakkal. 4Figure relating to composite district Trichy, Karur, Perambalur and Ariyalur. 5Figure relating to composite district Thanjavur, Tiruvarur and Nagapattinam. 6Figure relating to composite district Madurai and Theni. Source: Department of Economics and Statistics, Government of Tamil Nadu, 2000. 2Figure

A6.2—PER CAPITA INCOME AT CURRENT AND CONSTANT PRICES Per capita income at current prices S.no. Districts 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

2 Chennai Kanchipuram Thiruvallur1 Cuddalore Villupuram2 Vellore Tiruvannamalai Salem Namakkal3

(in Rs)

Per capita income at constant prices

1993–94

1994–95

1995–96

1996–97

1993–94

1994–95

1995–96

1996–97

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

14,440 11,749

17,225 14,455

20,060 16,314

14,440 11,749

16,111 13,861

17,344 14,635

6137

8031 6466 9741 6366 10,987

8766 6616 12,973 6429 12,801

23,044 23,075 15,755 9544 8101 13,191 8255 16,548 12,453

6137

7737 6253 9335 6135 10,240

7911 6067 9860 6035 11,274

18,682 18,924 12,951 7587 6402 10,635 6567 13,283 9724

8282 5483 9950

8282 5483 9950

(Contd...)



162

TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

(Table A6.2 Contd.) S.no. Districts

1 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

Per capita income at current prices 1993–94

1994–95

1995–96

1996–97

1993–94

1994–95

1995–96

1996–97

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

2 Dharmapuri Erode Coimbatore Nilgiris Tiruchirapalli Karur4 Perambalur4 Ariyalur4 Thanjavur Tiruvarur5 Nagapattinam5 Pudukkottai Madurai Theni6 Dindigul Virudhunagar Ramanathapuram Sivagangai Tirunelveli Thoothukudi Kanniyakumari STATE

Notes:

Per capita income at constant prices

7351 9931 12,891 8855 8472

8926 11,747 15,636 9581 9694

9995 12,920 17,546 11,114 11,301

10,559 16,225 19,930 13,390 14,634 11,609 11,040

7351 9931 12,891 8855 8472

8661 11,300 15,167 9011 9403

8906 11,478 15,407 9567 9836

8475 12,993 16,363 10,943 11,761 9769 11,189

7060

8485

9288

7060

8249

8403

7134 6525 9021

9119 7783 10,885

8799 7949 12113

7134 6525 9021

8749 7410 10,334

8073 6883 10,563

8050 9783 6726 6836 8641 10,865 6432 9073

9714 10,999 7763 7764 10,098 13,236 7387 10,743

10,588 12,350 7980 7412 11,403 15,062 8951 12,096

9630 9361 12,960 10,535 16,554 11895 11,841 14,484 10,325 9276 13,111 16,157 10,266 13,985

8050 9783 6726 6836 8641 10,865 6432 9073

9041 10,433 7217 7702 9537 12,711 6994 10,257

9098 10,790 6687 6467 9909 12,975 7725 10,573

7746 7445 10,341 8244 13,483 9458 9667 11,826 7954 7436 10,429 12,858 8096 11,320

1Figure

relating to composite district Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur. relating to composite district Cuddalore and Villupuram. 3Figure relating to composite district Salem and Namakkal. 4Figure relating to composite district Trichy, Karur, Perambalur and Ariyalur. 5Figure relating to composite district Thanjavur, Tiruvarur and Nagapattinam. 6Figure relating to composite district Madurai and Theni. Source: Department of Economics and Statistics, Government of Tamil Nadu, 2000. 2Figure

A6.3—SHARE OF DISTRICT DOMESTIC PRODUCT TO STATE DOMESTIC PRODUCT Percentage to State Income S.no.

1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Districts

2 Chennai Kanchipuram Thiruvallur1 Cuddalore Villupuram2 Vellore Tiruvannamalai Salem Namakkal3 Dharmapuri Erode

Current Prices

Constant Prices

1993–94

1996–97

1993–94

1996–97

3

4

5

6

11.13 11.06

11.38 5.76 5.81 2.67 2.82 5.11 2.11 5.50 2.07 3.26 4.73

11.13 11.06

11.42 5.81 5.81 2.62 2.76 5.09 2.08 5.47 2.00 3.23 4.69

5.93 4.97 2.16 7.65 3.48 4.46

5.93 4.97 2.16 7.65 3.48 4.46

(Contd...)

APPENDIX TABLES



163

(Table A6.3 Contd.) Percentage to State Income S.no.

Districts

1 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

Current Prices 1993–94

1996–97

1993–94

1996–97

3

4

5

6

2 Coimbatore Nilgiris Tiruchirapalli Karur4 Perambalur4 Ariyalur4 Thanjavur Tiruvarur5 Nagapattinam5 Pudukkottai Madurai Theni6 Dindigul Virudhunagar Ramanathapuram Sivagangai Tirunelveli Thoothukudi Kanniyakumari STATE

Notes:

Constant Prices

9.02 1.23 6.87

9.07 1.21 4.13 1.26 1.50

9.02 1.23 6.87

9.15 1.22 4.11 1.31 1.87

2.90

2.56 1.44 1.87 1.76 4.53 1.94 2.63 2.92 1.48 1.26 4.15 3.03 2.05 100.00

2.90

2.55 1.43 1.86 1.71 4.56 1.91 2.65 2.94 1.41 1.25 4.10 2.97 2.01 100.00

3.30 1.67 6.11 2.75 3.03 1.48 1.43 4.22 3.14 1.99 100.00

3.30 1.67 6.11 2.75 3.03 1.48 1.43 4.22 3.14 1.99 100.00

1Figure

relating to composite district Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur. relating to composite district Cuddalore and Villupuram. 3Figure relating to composite district Salem and Namakkal. 4Figure relating to composite district Trichy, Karur, Perambalur and Ariyalur. 5Figure relating to composite district Thanjavur, Tiruvarur and Nagapattinam. 6Figure relating to composite district Madurai and Theni. Source: Department of Economics and Statistics, Government of Tamil Nadu, 2000. 2Figure

A6.4—ESTIMATES OF GROSS DISTRICT DOMESTIC PRODUCTS AT CURRENT PRICES (Sectoral Shares)

S.no. Districts

1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

2 Chennai Kancheepuram Thiruvallur1 Cuddalore Villupuram2 Vellore Tiruvannamalai Salem Namakkal3

1993–94

1996–97

Sectoral contribution (% share)

Sectoral Contribution (% share)

Primary

Secondary

Tertiary

Total

Primary

Secondary

Tertiary

Total

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

1.06 14.91 NA 46.29

31.57 48.52 NA 16.24

67.37 36.57 NA 37.47

100.00 100.00 NA 100.00

21.42 46.08 30.41

36.95 19.97 34.90

41.63 33.94 34.69

100.00 100.00 100.00

1.07 10.68 10.53 39.24 36.65 20.41 36.40 18.53 42.18

26.73 43.46 55.25 22.48 15.36 34.79 22.73 41.72 18.58

72.20 45.86 34.22 38.28 47.99 44.79 40.87 39.75 39.24

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 (Contd...)



164

TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

(Table A6.4 Contd.)

S.no. Districts

1 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

2 Dharmapuri Erode Coimbatore Nilgiris Trichy Karur4 Perambalur4 Ariyalur5 Thanjavur Tiruvarur6 Nagapattinam Pudukkottai Madurai Theni7 Dindigul Virudhunagar Ramanathapuram Sivagangai Tirunelveli Thoothkudi Kanniyakumari STATE

1993–94

1996–97

Sectoral contribution (% share)

Sectoral Contribution (% share)

Primary

Secondary

Tertiary

Total

Primary

Secondary

Tertiary

Total

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

38.04 33.51 12.68 35.22 30.99

28.54 26.89 49.05 21.11 26.95

33.42 39.60 38.28 43.67 42.06

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

31.00 26.86 11.18 30.99 17.22 28.08 31.54

24.74 29.89 45.69 19.64 36.09 27.62 13.97

44.26 43.26 43.13 49.37 46.69 44.30 54.49

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

36.08

16.58

47.34

100.00

43.81 40.35 22.17

11.18 19.16 25.92

45.00 40.49 51.91

100.00 100.00 100.00

35.07 16.59 42.15 35.42 25.59 24.33 33.75 25.06

23.36 43.32 13.87 21.88 35.24 33.75 19.15 31.67

41.57 40.09 43.98 42.69 39.17 41.92 47.10 43.27

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

29.04 27.37 36.87 33.10 15.19 29.08 27.54 10.49 33.48 21.90 15.33 20.74 30.57 19.69

12.77 22.57 9.44 22.21 27.17 18.15 23.22 43.84 16.38 22.55 40.26 33.35 18.94 31.66

58.18 50.06 53.70 44.69 57.64 52.78 49.25 45.67 50.14 55.55 44.41 45.91 50.49 48.65

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

Notes: NA: Figure not available. 1Figure relating to composite districts Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur. 2Figure relating to composite districts Cuddalore and Villupuram. 3Figure relating to composite districts Salem and Namakkal. 4Figure relating to composite districts Trichy, Karur, Perambalur and Ariyalur. 5Figure relating to composite districts Thanjavur, Tiruvarur and Nagapattinam. 6Figure relating to composite districts Perambalur and Ariyalur. 7Figure relating to composite districts Madurai and Theni. Source: Department of Economics and Statistics, Government of Tamil Nadu, 2000.

A6.5—SECTOR-WISE GROWTH OF GROSS DISTRICT DOMESTIC PRODUCT AT CONSTANT (1993–94) PRICES (Percentage) Annual Average Growth Rate 1993–94 to 1996–97 S.no. 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Districts 2 Chennai Kancheepuram Thiruvallur1 Cuddalore Villupuram2 Vellore Tiruvannamalai

Primary

Secondary

Tertiary

Total

3

4

5

6

3.82 –3.54

4.23 11.99

11.88 13.50

9.39 10.39

–2.37

11.49

10.85

5.13

6.49 –0.97

7.45 11.73

12.51 14.87

9.37 7.37 (Contd...)

APPENDIX TABLES



165

(Table A6.5 Contd.) (Percentage) Annual Average Growth Rate 1993–94 to 1996–97 S.no.

Districts

1 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

2 Salem Namakkal3 Dharmapuri Erode Coimbatore Nilgiris Tirchy Karur4 Perambalur4 Ariyalur4 Thanjavur Tiruvarur5 Nagapattinam Pudukkottai Madurai Theni6 Dindigul Virudhunagar Ramanathapuram Sivagangai Tirunelveli Thoothukudi Kanniyakumari STATE

Notes:

Primary

Secondary

Tertiary

Total

3

4

5

6

–0.54

8.30

13.42

7.62

–2.25 1.52 10.38 5.64 4.53

4.24 14.40 6.53 6.10 12.35

16.87 14.58 13.39 11.38 13.82

6.25 10.46 9.15 8.19 10.66

–2.35

–1.97

11.79

4.38

0.08 2.07 6.55

23.50 16.20 8.77

14.54 14.69 14.06

8.90 9.76 10.66

–1.34 –6.32 –2.24 –4.10 –9.71 1.11 3.12 –0.46

7.39 7.75 14.63 5.58 12.24 8.81 10.48 8.78

13.86 12.66 14.35 13.82 13.19 10.75 12.15 13.11

7.24 7.37 7.27 4.64 7.44 6.77 8.88 8.52

1Figure

relating to composite districts Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur. relating to composite districts Cuddalore and Villupuram. 3Figure relating to composite districts Salem and Namakkal. 4Figure relating to composite districts Trichy, Karur, Perambalur and Ariyalur. 5Figure relating to composite districts Thanjavur, Tiruvarur and Nagapattinam. 6Figure relating to composite districts Madurai and Theni. Source: Department of Economics and Statistics, Government of Tamil Nadu, 2000. 2Figure

A6.6—ESTIMATES OF POVERTY IN TAMIL NADU, 1993–94 S.no. Districts

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Chennai Kancheepuram Thiruvallur1 Cuddalore Villupuram2 Vellore Tiruvannamalai Salem Namakkal3 Dharmapuri Erode

Percentage of Population below Poverty Line Rural

Rank

Urban

Rank

State

Rank

23.38

10

31.58 33.62

6 7

31.58 27

15 11

51.3

21

48.58

15

50.91

22

29.63 41.41 26.59

15 18 13

53.84 49.68 40.54

19 17 11

36.55 42.15 30.14

16 17 12

26.61 17.86

14 4

27.73 21.81

3 1

26.7 18.32

9 1 (Contd...)



166

TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

(Table A6.6 Contd.) S.no. Districts

12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

Coimbatore Nilgiris Trichy Karur4 Perambalur Ariyalur Thanjavur Tiruvarur5 Nagapattinam Pudukkottai Madurai Theni6 Dindigul Viruthunagar Ramanathapuram Sivagangai Tirunelveli Thoothukudi Kanniyakumari STATE

Notes:

Percentage of Population below Poverty Line Rural

Rank

Urban

Rank

State

Rank

24.36 17.64 20.79

11 3 7

27.84 27.75 27.47

5 4 2

25.77 21.24 21.59

5 3 4

18.4

5

52.22

18

30.73

14

15.55 23.35 25.6

1 9 12

36.71 48.24 37.62

8 14 9

20.21 26.9 30.35

2 10 13

47.04 20.04 16.7 20.97 34.58 37.44 48.55 28.93

19 6 2 8 16 17 20

42.8 38.76 60.71 43.03 56.53 62.66 48.82 38.63

12 10 21 13 20 22 16

46.28 26.21 25.86 26.63 44.1 47.02 48.59 31.66

19 7 6 8 18 20 21

1Figure

relating to composite districts Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur. relating to composite districts Cuddalore and Villupuram. 3Figure relating to composite districts Salem and Namakkal. 4Figure relating to composite districts Trichy, Karur, Perambalur and Ariyalur. 5Figure relating to composite districts Thanjavur and Tiruvarur. 6Figure relating to composite districts Madurai and Theni. Source: Department of Economics and Statistics, Government of Tamil Nadu, 2000. 2Figure

A6.7—DISTRICT DOMESTIC PRODUCT SERIES Per Capita Income, Growth Rate and Sectoral Contribution

S.no. 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Districts 2 Chennai Kancheepuram Thiruvallur1 Cuddalore Villupuram2 Vellore Tiruvannamalai Salem Namakkal3 Dharmapuri Erode Coimbatore

Per capita income (Rs) 1996–97

Growth Rate DDP % 1993–97

Primary

Sectoral Contribution (% share) 1996–97 Secondary

Tertiary

3

4

5

6

7

23,044 23,075 15,755 9544 8101 13,191 8255 16,548 12,453 10,559 16,225 19,930

9.39 10.39

1.07 10.68 10.53 39.24 36.65 20.41 36.40 18.53 42.18 31.00 26.86 11.18

26.73 43.46 55.25 22.48 15.36 34.79 22.73 41.72 18.58 24.74 29.89 45.69

72.20 45.86 34.22 38.28 47.99 44.79 40.87 39.75 39.24 44.26 43.26 43.13

5.13 9.37 7.37 7.62 6.25 10.46 9.15

(Contd...)

APPENDIX TABLES



167

(Table A6.7 Contd.)

S.no. 1 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

Districts 2 Nilgiris Tiruchirapalli Karur4 Perambalur4 Ariyalur5 Thanjavur Tiruvarur Nagapattinam Pudukkottai Madurai Theni6 Dindigul Virudhunagar Ramanathapuram Sivagangai Tirunelveli Thoothukudi Kanniyakumari STATE

Per capita income (Rs) 1996–97

Growth Rate DDP % 1993–97

Primary

Sectoral Contribution (% share) 1996–97 Secondary

Tertiary

3

4

5

6

7

13,390 14,634 11,609 11,040

8.19 10.66

30.99 17.22 28.08 31.54

19.64 36.09 27.62 13.97

49.37 46.69 44.30 54.49

9630 9361 12,960 10,535 16,554 11,895 11,841 14,484 10,325 9276 13,111 16,157 10,266 13,985

4.38

29.04 27.37 36.87 33.10 15.19 29.08 27.54 10.49 33.48 21.90 15.33 20.74 30.57 19.69

12.77 22.57 9.44 22.21 27.17 18.15 23.22 43.84 16.38 22.55 40.26 33.35 18.94 31.66

58.18 50.06 53.70 44.69 57.64 52.78 49.25 45.67 50.14 55.55 44.41 45.91 50.49 48.65

8.90 9.76 10.66 7.24 7.37 7.27 4.64 7.44 6.77 8.88 8.52

Notes: 1Figure relating to composite districts Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur. 2Figure relating to composite districts Cuddalore and Villupuram. 3Figure relating to composite districts Salem and Namakkal. 4Figure relating to composite districts Trichy, Karur, Perambalur and Ariyalur. 5Figure relating to composite districts Perambalur and Ariyalur. 6Figure relating to composite districts Thanjavur and Tiruvarur. 7Figure relating to composite districts Madurai and Theni. Source: Department of Economics and Statistics, Government of Tamil Nadu, 2000.

A7 Housing Profile A7.1—DISTRICT-WISE HOUSING UNITS BY NUMBER OF ROOMS PER HOUSING UNIT—RURAL (in lakhs) Occupied Housing Units by Number of Rooms S.no. 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Districts 2 Chennai Kancheepuram Thiruvallur Cuddalore Villupuram Vellore Tiruvannamalai Salem Namakkal Dharmapuri

Total Housing Units

One

Two

Three

Four

Five

Six and above

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

5.531

3.171

1.671

0.411

0.191

0.051

0.041

8.812

5.482

2.62

0.482

0.162

0.042

0.032

4.31 3.86 7.123

2.64 2.35 4.123

1.12 1.12 2.173

0.3 0.24 0.543

0.17 0.1 0.193

0.04 0.02 0.053

0.03 0.02 0.043

4.56

2.72

1.3

0.33

0.14

0.04

0.03 (Contd...)



168

TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

(Table A7.1 Contd.) Occupied Housing Units by Number of Rooms S.no.

Districts

1 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

2 Erode Coimbatore Nilgiris Trichy Karur Perambalur Ariyalur Thanjavur Tiruvarur Nagapattinam Pudukkotai Madurai Theni Dindigul Virudhunagar Ramnad Sivagangai Tirunelveli Thoothukudi Kanniyakumari STATE

Notes:

Total Housing Units

One

Two

Three

Four

Five

Six and above

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

4.74 4.18 0.8 7.234

2.69 2.06 0.27 5.124

1.49 1.47 0.26 1.534

0.38 0.44 0.13 0.374

0.11 0.14 0.06 0.144

0.3 0.04 0.04 0.044

0.2 0.03 0.03 0.024

7.885

5.485

1.755

0.455

0.135

0.035

0.025

2.33 4.56

1.64 2.56

0.41 1.446

0.1 0.376

0.03 0.136

0.01 0.036

0.01 0.026

3.34 2.37 1.98 1.83 4.09 2.05 2.75 43.19

2.16 1.15 1.09 1.16 1.57 0.79 0.57 22.86

0.19 0.23 0.19 0.13 0.69 0.31 0.62 4.28

0.06 0.06 0.05 0.03 0.23 0.11 0.38 1.67

0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.08 0.03 0.2 0.86

0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.05 0.02 0.18 0.65

0.87 0.89 0.62 0.47 1.46 0.78 0.79 13.05

1Figure

relating to composite district Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur. relating to composite district Cuddalore and Villupuram. 3Figure relating to composite district Vellore and Tiruvannamalai. 4Figure relating to composite district Salem and Namakkal. 5Figure relating to composite district Trichy, Karur, Perambalur and Ariyalur. 6Figure relating to composite district Thanjavur, Tiruvarur and Nagapattinam. 7Figure relating to Composite district Madurai and Theni. Source: Census of India, 1991. 2Figure

A7.2—DISTRICT-WISE HOUSING UNITS BY NUMBER OF ROOMS PER HOUSING UNIT—URBAN (in lakhs) Occupied Housing Units by Number of Rooms S.no. 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Districts 2 Chennai Kancheepuram Thiruvallur Cuddalore Villupuram Vellore Tiruvannamalai Salem Namakkal Dharmapuri Erode Coimbatore

Total Housing Units

One

Two

Three

Four

Five

Six and above

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

7.6 4.211 NA 1.512 NA 1.71 0.45 2.553 NA 0.47 1.37 4.02

3.25 1.621 NA 0.652 NA 0.69 0.22 1.23 NA 0.18 0.56 1.43

2.38 1.411 NA 0.472 NA 0.55 0.14 0.863 NA 0.17 0.47 1.39

1.09 0.671 NA 0.242 NA 0.24 0.05 0.33 NA 0.07 0.21 0.69

0.54 0.331 NA 0.12 NA 0.14 0.02 0.123 NA 0.03 0.08 0.28

0.18 0.11 NA 0.022 NA 0.04 0.01 0.043 NA 0.01 0.03 0.11

0.15 0.071 NA 0.012 NA 0.04 0.01 0.033 NA 0.01 0.02 0.1 (Contd...)

APPENDIX TABLES



169

(Table A7.2 Contd.) Occupied Housing Units by Number of Rooms S.no.

Districts

1 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

Total Housing Units

One

Two

Three

Four

Five

Six and above

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

0.75 2.34 NA NA NA 2.025 NA NA 0.37 2.986 NA 0.79 1.36 0.45 0.61 1.72 1.34 0.54 23.55

0.25 1.134 NA NA NA 1.165 NA NA 0.19 1.426 NA 0.38 0.66 0.22 0.3 0.56 0.46 0.12 9.47

0.25 0.714 NA NA NA 0.565 NA NA 0.1 0.986 NA 0.25 0.43 0.13 0.18 0.52 0.4 0.14 7.5

0.15 0.284 NA NA NA 0.185 NA NA 0.04 0.356 NA 0.1 0.16 0.05 0.07 0.37 0.26 0.13 3.68

0.05 0.114 NA NA NA 0.085 NA NA 0.02 0.136 NA 0.04 0.06 0.02 0.03 0.15 0.12 0.07 1.65

0.03 0.044 NA NA NA 0.025 NA NA 0.01 0.056 NA 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.61

2 Nilgiris Trichy Karur Perambalur Ariyalur Thanjavur Tiruvarur Nagapattinam Pudukkotai Madurai Theni Dindigul Ramnad Virudhunagar Sivagangai Tirunelveli Thoothukudi Kanniyakumari STATE

Notes:

0.02 0.034 NA NA NA 0.025 NA NA – 0.046 NA 0.01 0.02 – 0.01 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.53

1Figure

relating to composite district Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur. relating to composite district Cuddalore and Villupuram. 3Figure relating to composite district Vellore and Tiruvannamalai. 4Figure relating to composite district Salem and Namakkal. 5Figure relating to composite district Trichy, Karur, Perambalur and Ariyalur. 6Figure relating to composite district Thanjavur, Tiruvarur and Nagapattinam. 7Figure relating to composite district Madurai and Theni. Source: Census of India, 1991. 2Figure

A8 Drinking Water, Electricity and Sanitation Profile A8.1—SAFE DRINKING WATER AND ELECTRICITY (TOTAL, RURAL AND URBAN) % of households having access to S.no.

1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Districts

2 Chennai Kancheepuram Thiruvallore Cuddalore Villupuram Vellore Tiruvannamalai Salem Namakkal

Safe Drinking Water

Electricity

Total

Rural

Urban

Total

Rural

Urban

3

4

5

6

7

8

71.01 53.391

61.421

71.01 42.441

83.42 61.601

– 49.731

83.42 77.431

73.232

71.742

84.062

47.182

43.182

70.672

65.54 41.53 58.483

63.81 62.54 53.173

70.13 65.85 74.143

57.97 51.51 55.333

50.35 48.96 48.243

77.19 77.78 75.693 (Contd...)



170

TAMIL NADU HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT

(Table A8.1 Contd.) % of households having access to S.no.

Districts

1 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

2 Dharmapuri Erode Coimbatore Nilgiris Trichy Karur Perambalur Ariyalur Thanjavur Nagapattinam Tiruvarur Pudukkotai Madurai Theni Dindigul Ramanathapuram Virudhunagar Sivagangai Tirunelveli Thoothukudi Kanniyakumari STATE

Notes:

Safe Drinking Water

Electricity

Total

Rural

Urban

Total

Rural

Urban

3

4

5

6

7

8

60.64 62.58 76.85 63.08 72.124

59.40 57.65 69.18 60.72 69.384

68.11 80.17 85.04 67.50 81.264

45.13 53.43 65.65 55.13 48.224

41.89 47.05 51.91 51.85 39.784

78.72 75.91 79.85 58.67 74.354

81.635

82.515

78.585

43.235

36.465

68.815

48.70 83.966

46.43 80.756

60.67 88.936

38.89 55.616

33.62 41.566

74.86 77.186

75.79 31.60 76.94 56.15 70.74 69.03 40.24 66.60

73.63 27.53 72.55 51.80 63.23 61.72 32.73 64.27

87.75 52.70 84.61 67.27 88.29 81.90 80.12 74.28

44.07 41.56 57.10 44.86 62.31 58.41 53.80 54.74

37.72 33.33 46.84 35.71 55.85 48.78 48.73 44.49

70.89 73.33 74.26 72.13 77.33 73.13 77.78 94.08

1Figure

relating to composite district Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur. relating to composite district Cuddalore and Villupuram. 3Figure relating to composite district Salem and Namakkal. 4Figure relating to composite district Trichy, Karur, Perambalur and Ariyalur. 5Figure relating to composite district Thanjavur, Tiruvarur and Nagapattinam. 6Figure relating to composite district Madurai and Theni. Source: Census of India, 1991. 2Figure

A8.2—PERCENTAGE OF HOUSEHOLDS WITH ACCESS TO TOILETS AND SAFE DRINKING WATER AND ELECTRICITY % of households having access to S.no.

1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Districts

2 Chennnai Kancheepuram Thiruvallur Cuddalore Villupuram Vellore Tiruvannamalai Salem Namakkal

Toilets

Safe Drinking Water and Electricity

Total

Rural

Urban

Total

Rural

Urban

3

4

5

6

7

8

82.37 61.051 NA 50.932 NA 60.82 49.56 39.373 NA

59.45 30.801 NA 35.312 NA 39.32 33.41 33.683 NA

30.441 NA 31.272 NA 33.41 31.66 25.743 NA

59.45 31.061 NA 58.712 NA 54.21 48.29 55.703 NA

82.37 31.211 NA 10.852 NA 21.76 8.63 14.263 NA

– 8.571 NA 3.912 NA 5.87 3.94 5.413 NA

(Contd...)

APPENDIX TABLES



171

(Table A8.2 Contd.) % of households having access to S.no.

1 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

Districts

2 Dharmapuri Erode Coimbatore Nilgiris Trichy Karur Perambalur Ariyalur Thanjavur Tiruvarur Nagapattinam Pudukkotai Madurai Theni Dindigul Ramanathapuram Virudhunagar Sivagangai Tirunelveli Thoothukudi Kanniyakumari STATE

Toilets

Safe Drinking Water and Electricity

Total

Rural

Urban

Total

Rural

Urban

3

4

5

6

7

8

11.23 17.97 31.43 25.83 17.184 NA NA NA 17.585 NA NA 11.93 27.146 NA 14.33 11.19 12.41 15.35 18.85 22.33 34.35 23.12

6.18 8.50 7.94 14.44 5.984 NA NA NA 8.715 NA NA 4.78 7.626 NA 6.32 3.59 4.30 3.90 8.10 6.39 29.09 7.16

57.87 51.09 55.72 38.93 51.964 NA NA NA 52.975 NA NA 55.95 56.956 NA 49.37 43.33 27.06 49.18 43.72 46.79 61.30 70.39

28.83 33.33 51.52 41.03 35.124 NA NA NA 34.815 NA NA 20.45 47.066 NA 34.87 16.46 45.04 24.59 46.13 43.07 25.61 37.79

26.08 25.76 35.19 42.39 27.374 NA NA NA 30.205 NA NA 15.97 33.376 NA 28.13 11.17 34.79 17.48 36.62 31.84 17.82 28.88

52.72 60.50 68.88 46.79 59.534 NA NA NA 52.395 NA NA 44.53 67.456 NA 62.32 37.96 63.83 45.94 69.12 62.36 65.21 56.91

Notes: NA: Figure not available. 1Figure relating to composite district Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur. 2Figure relating to composite district Cuddalore and Villupuram. 3Figure relating to composite district Salem and Namakkal. 4Figure relating to composite district Trichy, Karur, Perambalur and Ariyalur. 5Figure relating to composite district Thanjavur, Tiruvarur and Nagapattinam. 6Figure relating to composite district Madurai and Theni. Source: Census of India, 1991.

A8.3—PERCENTAGE OF HOUSEHOLDS WITH ACCESS TO ELECTRICITY AND TOILETS AND ALL 3 FACILITIES % of households having access to S.no.

1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Districts

2 Chennai Kancheepuram Thiruvallur Cuddalore Villupuram Vellore Tiruvannamalai Salem Namakkal

Electricity and Toilets

All 3 facilities

Total

Rural

Urban

Total

Rural

Urban

3

4

5

6

7

8

78.65 59.751 NA 50.042 NA 59.52 48.29 38.053 NA

56.29 12.011 NA 8.152 NA 13.94 4.87 9.613 NA

78.65 30.291 NA 10.092 NA 20.57 7.89 13.333 NA

7.791 NA 3.302 NA 5.34 3.37 4.503 NA

4.351 NA 2.272 NA 3.48 1.82 2.673 NA

56.29 21.811 NA 42.032 NA 40.07 30.73 29.033 NA (Contd...)



172

TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

(Table A8.3 Contd.) % of households having access to S.no.

1 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

Districts

2 Dharmapuri Erode Coimbatore Nilgiris Trichy Karur Perambalur Ariyalur Thanjavur Nagapattinam Tiruvarur Pudukkotai Madurai Theni Dindigul Ramanathapuram Virudhunagar Sivagangai Tirunelveli Thoothukudi Kanniyakumari STATE

Electricity and Toilets

All 3 facilities

Total

Rural

Urban

Total

Rural

Urban

3

4

5

6

7

8

10.14 16.67 29.72 24.36 16.144 NA NA NA 16.455 NA NA 11.15 25.806 NA 13.32 10.70 11.80 14.34 17.73 21.24 30.79 21.84

5.26 7.39 6.94 13.72 4.984 NA NA NA 7.715 NA NA 4.32 6.456 NA 5.09 3.05 3.39 3.28 7.32 5.88 25.09 6.21

54.83 49.56 53.46 36.09 50.844 NA NA NA 50.415 NA NA 55.66 55.376 NA 48.33 42.43 26.72 47.58 42.40 45.08 59.62 55.57

6.56 12.25 25.45 20.51 12.164 NA NA NA 12.615 NA NA 6.32 22.066 NA 11.38 5.35 10.19 9.02 15.49 17.99 27.44 15.57

3.29 4.22 5.27 11.22 3.594 NA NA NA 6.195 NA NA 2.16 4.676 NA 3.89 1.52 2.97 1.64 5.86 4.41 8.00 3.95

37.96 40.82 46.75 29.41 39.114 NA NA NA 37.565 NA NA 33.40 47.996 NA 41.97 22.33 23.01 31.17 38.34 39.82 48.44 40.48

Notes: NA: Figure not available. 1Figure relating to composite district Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur. 2Figure relating to composite district Cuddalore and Villupuram. 3Figure relating to composite district Salem and Namakkal. 4Figure relating to composite district Trichy, Karur, Perambalur and Ariyalur. 5Figure relating to composite district Thanjavur, Tiruvarur and Nagapattinam. 6Figure relating to composite district Madurai and Theni. Source: Census of India, 1991.

A9 Deprivation Profile A9.1—PERCENTAGE OF HOUSEHOLDS HAVING NONE OF THE 3 FACILITIES AND THOSE WITHOUT ACCESS TO TOILETS S.no.

1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

% of households having access to none of the 3 facilities

Districts

2 Chennai Kancheepuram Thiruvallur Cuddalore Villupuram Vellore Tiruvannamalai Salem

% of households without access to toilets

Total

Rural

Urban

Total

Rural

Urban

3

4

5

6

7

8

3.99 14.891 NA 13.992 NA 14.72 18.28 18.83

18.941 NA 16.272 NA 19.18 20.02 23.983

3.99 10.621 NA 3.662 NA 5.71 4.96 5.73

17.63 68.791 NA 89.152 NA 78.24 91.37 85.743

91.431 NA 96.092 NA 94.13 96.06 94.593

17.63 38.951 NA 49.072 NA 39.18 50.44 60.633 (Contd...)

APPENDIX TABLES



173

(Table A9.1 Contd.)

S.no.

1 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

% of households having access to none of the 3 facilities

Districts

2 Namakkal Dharmapuri Erode Coimbatore Nilgiris Trichy Karur Perambalur Ariyalur Thanjavur Tiruvarur Nagapattinam Pudukkotai Madurai Theni Dindigul Virudhunagar Ramanathapuram Sivagangai Tirunelveli Thoothukudi Kanniyakumari STATE

% of households without access to toilets

Total

Rural

Urban

Total

Rural

Urban

3

4

5

6

7

8

NA 21.97 15.85 7.2 20.32 13.644 NA NA NA 8.785 NA NA 31.9 6.286 NA 14 10.64 42.3 23.24 13.34 14.25 27.44 15.99

NA 24.77 20.75 13.77 29.68 17.864 NA NA NA 11.075 NA NA 35.4 10.956 NA 16.17 15.06 49.57 30.12 17.19 21.58 33.45 19.8

NA 6.16 4.52 4.02 18.86 3.754 NA NA NA 4.615 NA NA 7.6 0.776 NA 3.34 3.66 10.45 6.48 3.46 5.55 6.65 16.73

NA 88.77 82.03 68.57 74.17 82.824 NA NA NA 82.425 NA NA 88.07 72.866 NA 85.67 88.81 87.59 84.65 81.15 77.67 65.65 76.88

NA 93.82 91.50 92.06 85.56 94.024 NA NA NA 91.295 NA NA 95.22 92.386 NA 93.68 96.41 95.70 96.10 91.90 93.61 70.91 92.84

NA 42.13 48.91 44.28 61.07 48.044 NA NA NA 47.035 NA NA 44.05 43.056 NA 50.63 56.67 72.94 50.82 56.28 53.21 38.70 29.61

Notes: NA: Figure not available. 1Figure relating to composite district Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur. 2Figure relating to composite district Cuddalore and Villupuram. 3Figure relating to composite district Salem and Namakkal. 4Figure relating to composite district Trichy, Karur, Perambalur and Ariyalur. 5Figure relating to composite district Thanjavur, Tiruvarur and Nagapattinam. 6Figure relating to composite district Madurai and Theni. Source: Census of India, 1991.

A10. Gender Disparities Profile A10.1—FEMALE POPULATON AND SEX RATIO S.no.

1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Female Population (in lakhs)

Districts

2 Chennai Kancheepuram Thiruvallur Cuddalore Villupuram Vellore Tiruvannamalai

Female Population as % of male

Sex ratio females per 1000 males

1981

1991

2001

1981

1991

2001

1981

1991

2001

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

15.83 17.681 NA 20.712 NA 21.843 NA

18.55 22.791 NA 23.962 NA 14.96 10.13

20.55 14.15 13.49 11.32 14.59 17.39 10.88

95.1 97.2 97.0 98.5 98.3 99.7 99.6

934 9571 NA 9722 NA 9793 NA

934 962 957 967 969 978 983

93.4 95.71 NA 97.22 NA 97.93 NA

93.4 96.21 95.7 96.7 96.9 97.8 98.3

951 972 970 985 983 997 996 (Contd...)



174

TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

(Table A10.1 Contd.)

S.no.

1 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

Female Population (in lakhs)

Districts

Sex ratio females per 1000 males

1981

1991

2001

1981

1991

2001

1981

1991

2001

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

16.764 NA 9.78 10.11 14.91 3.08 17.935 NA NA NA 20.26 NA NA 5.8 22.397 NA NA 16.879 NA NA 18.2510 NA 7.06 239.2

18.844 NA 11.78 11.35 17.11 3.53 20.525 NA NA NA 22.586 NA NA 6.65 16.938 NA 8.69 5.75 7.81 5.48 12.71 7.46 7.97 275.59

14.41 7.35 13.71 12.68 20.68 3.85 11.95 4.69 2.44 3.48 11.13 5.86 7.49 7.31 12.67 5.41 9.53 6.01 8.81 5.85 14.29 8.02 8.4 308.2

95.04 NA 96.0 95.6 95.0 95.7 98.55 NA NA NA 98.86 NA NA 100.5 97.57 NA NA 102.49 NA NA 104.410 NA 98.5 97.7

92.5 96 94.2 95.8 95.2 98.3 98.2 99.9 97.5 97.5 99.6 98.7 99.3 100.5 96.4 96.4 97.6 101.1 96.4 103.3 103.4 105.1 99.1 97.4

92.9 96.7 93.8 97.1 95.9 101.5 100.0 101.0 100.7 100.7 102.0 101.3 101.4 101.5 97.8 97.9 98.6 103.3 101.1 103.5 104.2 104.9 101.3 98.6

9504 NA 960 956 950 957 9855 NA NA NA 9886 NA NA 1005 9757 NA NA 10249 NA NA 104410 NA 985 977

925 960 942 958 952 983 982 999 975 975 996 987 993 1005 964 964 976 1011 964 1033 1034 1051 991 974

2 Salem Namakkal Dharmapuri Erode Coimbatore The Nilgiris Trichy Karur Perambalur Ariyalur Thanjavur Tiruvarur Nagapattinam Pudukkotai Madurai Theni Dindigul Ramanathapuram Virudhunagar7 Sivagangai9 Tirunelveli Thoothukudi Kanniyakumari STATE

Female Population as % of male

929 967 938 971 959 1015 1000 1010 1007 1007 1020 1013 1014 1015 978 979 986 1033 1011 1035 1042 1049 1013 986

Notes: NA: Figure not available. 1Figure relating to composite district Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur. 2Figure relating to composite district Cuddalore and Villupuram. 3Figure relating to composite district Vellore and Tiruvannamalai. 4Figure relating to composite district Salem and Namakkal. 5Figure relating to composite district Trichy, Karur, Perambalur and Ariyalur. 6Figure relating to composite district Thanjavur, Thiruvarur and Nagapattinam. 7Figure relating to composite district Madurai, Theni, Dindigul and Virudunagar. 8Figure relating to composite district Madurai and Theni. 9Figure relating to composite district Ramanathapuram and Sivagangai. 10Figure relating to composite district Tiruneleli and Thoothukudi. Source: Socio-cultural Tables, Census 1981, 1991; Census 2001 (Provisional).

A10.2—FEMALE LITERACY, 1991 S.no. Districts

1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

2 Chennai Kancheepuram Thiruvallore Cuddalore Villupuram Vellore

Female Literacy, 1991 %

Gap in male and female literacy, 1991

Ratio of male to female literacy

Female literacy as % of male

Total

Rural

Urban

Total

Rural

Urban

1991

2001

1991

2001

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

84.9 70.81 NA 67.92 NA 63.3

3 21.91 NA 25.92 NA 24.3

0 25.81 NA 27.42 NA 27.3

13 16.71 NA 17.92 NA 18.4

1.04 1.401 NA 1.652 NA 1.50

1.12 1.21 1.24 1.36 1.43 1.30

96.59 71.601 NA 60.522 NA 66.67

88.92 82.78 80.63 73.54 69.93 76.85

84.9 55.21 NA 39.72 NA 48.6

0 42.51 NA 34.32 NA 41.6

(Contd...)

APPENDIX TABLES



175

(Table A10.2 Contd.) S.no. Districts

1 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

2 Tiruvannamalai Salem Namakkal Dharmapuri Erode Coimbatore Nilgiris Trichy Karur Perambalur Ariyalur Thanjavur Tiruvarur Nagapattinam Pudukkotai Madurai Theni6 Dindigul Ramanathapuram Virudhunagar Sivagangai Tirunelveli Thoothukudi Kanniyakumari STATE

Female Literacy, 1991 %

Gap in male and female literacy, 1991

Ratio of male to female literacy

Female literacy as % of male

Total

Rural

Urban

Total

Rural

Urban

1991

2001

1991

2001

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

63.6 58.33 NA 62.8 63.1 68.1 67.8 72.84 NA NA NA 70.85 NA NA 71.4 70.8 NA 68.5 69.1 64.5 71.9 64.9 74.8 85.4 69.6

27.4 23.13 NA 23 23.9 20.8 20.3 24.54 NA NA NA 22.45 NA NA 28.2 23 NA 25.3 26.1 25.5 27.2 23.3 17.6 7.3 22.5

28.4 24.63 NA 23.6 25.3 24 23.5 27.44 NA NA NA 24.35 NA NA 30 28 NA 27.3 28.2 28.4 30.5 24.2 20.3 7.7 24.4

20.9 19.73 NA 16.7 19.5 17.4 17 15.84 NA NA NA 16.55 NA NA 17.4 16.6 NA 17.3 17.8 20.3 17.3 20.8 12.9 5.9 16.5

1.70 1.563 NA 1.67 1.57 1.37 1.33 1.504 NA NA NA 1.415 NA NA 1.65 1.42 NA 1.58 1.54 1.51 1.55 1.43 1.27 1.09 1.44

1.42 1.35 1.37 1.40 1.37 1.20 1.22 1.22 1.40 1.43 1.50 1.28 1.25 1.25 1.37 1.25 1.34 1.35 1.31 1.32 1.35 1.25 1.17 1.06 1.28

58.92 64.243 NA 59.79 63.51 72.81 75.18 66.624 NA NA NA 70.985 NA NA 60.72 70.40 NA 63.44 65.11 66.31 64.63 69.94 78.59 91.48 69.51

70.26 73.90 73.11 71.35 73.20 83.27 81.88 81.65 71.25 69.85 66.77 78.35 79.87 79.84 73.23 80.16 74.44 73.86 76.60 75.79 74.22 79.75 85.31 93.95 78.40

39.3 41.53 NA 34.2 41.6 55.7 61.5 48.94 NA NA NA 54.85 NA NA 43.6 54.7 NA 43.9 48.7 50.2 49.7 54.2 64.6 78.4 51.3

35.9 34.53 NA 31.2 34.7 42.4 55.3 40.34 NA NA NA 49.95 NA NA 38.9 41.7 NA 37.3 43.1 41.6 41.7 49.3 57.6 76.9 42.8

Notes: NA: Figure not available. 1Figure relating to composite district Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur. 2Figure relating to composite district Cuddalore and Villupuram. 3Figure relating to composite district Salem and Namakkal. 4Figure relating to composite district Trichy Karur Perambalur and Ariyalur. 5Figure relating to composite district Thanjavur, Thiruvarur and Nagapattinam. 6Figure relating to composite district Madurai and Theni. Source: Director of Census, 1991, Chennai; Census, 2001(Provisional).

A10.3—ENROLMENT OF GIRLS IN PRIMARY SCHOOL AND MARRIED WOMEN PER 1000 PERSONS S.no

1

Districts

2

1. Chennai 2. Kancheepuram

Enrolment of girls in primary school as % of enrolment of boys 1998–99

Enrolment of girls in primary school as % of enrolment of boys 1997–98

Married women (between 15 and 44) per 1000 persons 1981 1991

3

4

5

128.35

93.21

348.7

363.9

73.96

75.38

212.71

356.31

6

3. Thiruvallore

72.68

93.75

NA

NA

4. Cuddalore

94.36

86.57

356.32

360.22 (Contd...)



176

TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

(Table A10.3 Contd.)

S.no

1

Districts

2

5. Villupuram

Enrolment of girls in primary school as % of enrolment of boys 1998–99

Enrolment of girls in primary school as % of enrolment of boys 1997–98

3

4

94.54

Married women (between 15 and 44) per 1000 persons 1981 1991 5

6

78.07

NA

NA 343.6

105.12

99.39

342.93

7. Tiruvannamalai

95.33

77.40

NA

349.5

8. Salem

70.53

79.91

369.34

386.44

9. Namakkal

71.43

87.01

NA

NA

10. Dharmapuri

91.87

89.59

351.7

375.2

11. Erode

94.19

93.71

363.0

378.0

12. Coimbatore

96.95

119.70

364.9

371.1

13. Nilgiris

97.23

92.48

337.7

351.3

341.95

356.75

6. Vellore

14. Trichy

95.63

126.74

15. Karur

98.60

70.29

NA

NA

16. Perambalur

86.136

67.966

NA

NA

NA

NA

342.67

350.37

17. Ariyalur

NA

NA

18. Thanjavur

98.78

96.51

19. Tiruvarur

97.12

122.05

NA

NA

20. Nagapattinam

98.10

114.74

NA

NA

21. Pudukkotai

96.31

79.70

329.3

333.8

76.10

333.28

346.79

22. Madurai

95.02

23. Theni

95.06

88.41

NA

NA

24. Dindigul

93.80

68.96

NA

357.9

25. Ramnad

91.81

130.47

321.910

243.3

100.57

67.47

NA

466.1

26.

Virudhunagar8

27.

Sivagangai10

99.99

65.24

NA

324.8

28. Tirunelveli

95.10

50.40

303.611

314.7

29. Thoothukudi

94.83

53.29

NA

302.9

30. Kanniyakumari

94.18

125.63

274.8

287.3

94.36

86.09

319.1

352.3

STATE

Notse: NA: Figure not available. 1Figure relating to composite district Kancheepuram, Thiruvallur. 2Figure relating to composite district Cuddalore and Villupuram. 3Figure relating to composite district Vellore and Tiruvannamalai. 4Figure relating to composite district Salem and Namakkal. 5Figure relating to composite district Trichy, Karur, Perambalur and Ariyalur. 6Figure relating to composite district Perambalur and Ariyalur. 7Figure relating to composite district Thanjavur, Tiruvarur and Nagapattinam. 8Figure relating to composite district Madurai, Theni, Dindigul and Virudhunagar. 9Figure relating to composite district Madurai and Theni. 10Figure relating to composite district Ramanathapuram and Sivagangai. 11Figure relating to composite district Tirunelveli and Thoothukudi. Source: School Education Department, Government of Tamil Nadu.

APPENDIX TABLES

A10.4—VICTIMS OF MOLESTATION AND RAPE, 1991, 1996 S.no.

Districts

1

2

Victims of Molestation and Rape 1991 1996 3

4

1. Chennai

26

11

2. Kancheepuram

12

13

3. Thiruvallur

14

17

4. Cuddalore

20

21

5. Villupuram

13

16

6. Vellore

15

14

7. Tiruvannamalai

14

11

8. Salem

31

181

9. Namakkal

NA

NA

10. Dharmapuri

10

13

11. Erode

5

12

12. Coimbatore

15

8

13. Nilgiris

1

3

14. Trichy

142

92

15. Karur

NA

NA

16. Perambalur

NA

NA

17. Ariyalur

NA

NA

18. Thanjavur

83

12

19. Tiruvarur

NA

1

20. Nagapattinam

6

22

21. Pudukkotai

3

8

22. Madurai

234

22

23. Theni

NA

4

24. Dindigul

22

16

25. Ramanathapuram

20

5

26. Virudhunagar

11

17

27. Sivagangai

6

7

28. Tirunelveli

34

25

29. Thoothukudi

17

12

30. Kanniyakumari STATE

4

10

268

300

Notes: NA: Figure not available. 1Figure relating to composite district Salem and Namakkal. 2Figure relating to composite district Trichy, Karur, Perambalur and Ariyalur. 3Figure relating to composite district Thanjavur and Tiruvarur. 4Figure relating to composite district Madurai and Theni. Source: Director General of Police, Chennai.



177



178

TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

A10.5—MARRIED MALES AND FEMALES (1981, 1991), PERCENTAGE OF MARRIED FEMALES OF AGES 15–19 AND PERCENTAGE OF WIDOWS IN FEMALE POPULATION Married S.no.

Districts

1981 Male

% Married females of age 15–19 yrs

% of widows in female population

Female

1981

1991

1981

1991

6

7

8

9

10

1991 Female

Male

( in lakhs) 1

2

3

4

5

1. Chennai

6.93

6.94

8.76

8.89

21.4

13.6

8.7

7.8

2. Kancheepuram

7.661

7.661

10.281

10.591

27.51

18.81

10.21

9.01

NA

NA

NA

NA

31.22

23.42

9.92

0.02 NA

3. Thiruvallur

NA

NA

NA

NA

4. Cuddalore

8.842

9.192

10.812

11.492

5. Villupuram

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

6. Vellore

9.253

9.443

6.64

6.81

34.33

24.8

10.63

9.8

7. Tiruvannamalai

NA

NA

4.53

4.83

NA

25.3

NA

9.1

8. Salem

7.924

8.054

9.584

9.984

30.54

27.14

9.84

9.14

9. Namakkal

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

10. Dharmapuri

4.2

4.39

5.53

5.88

29.6

32.7

8.5

6.6

11. Erode

4.87

4.89

5.86

6.11

20.6

18.6

9.8

9.3

12. Coimbatore

6.71

6.73

8.48

8.69

16.0

14.8

9.3

8.7

13. Nilgiris

1.32

1.28

1.61

1.61

19.4

10.5

7.8

7.6

14. Trichy

7.715

7.95

9.395

10.015

21.05

17.65

11.55

9.65

15. Karur

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

16. Perambalur

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

17. Ariyalur

NA

NA

18. Thanjavur

8.376

8.796

19. Tiruvarur

NA

NA

NA 9.796 NA

NA 10.596 NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

19.66

12.46

10.86

9.56

NA

NA

NA

NA

20. Nagapattinam

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

21. Pudukkotai

2.33

2.46

2.76

3.03

16.1

12.3

10.0

8.3

22. Madurai

9.477

9.657

7.678

7.918

21.07

17.18

9.97

9.28

23. Theni

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

24. Dindigul

NA

NA

4.06

4.25

NA

17.6

NA

9.0

25. Ramathapuram

6.819

7.179

2.479

2.67

16.69

11.79

10.19

7.39

26. Virudhunagar7

NA

NA

3.49

3.64

NA

16.3

NA

9.3

27.

Sivagangai9

NA

NA

2.33

2.6

NA

10.2

NA

7.8

28. Tirunelveli

7.2110

7.5410

5.39

5.64

12.210

9.3

10.610

9.8

29. Thoothukudi

NA

NA

3.05

3.22

NA

8.1

NA

9.7

30. Kanniyakumari STATE

2.65

2.68

3.26

3.36

4.9

3.3

8.4

7.8

102.27

104.77

65.75

68.56

22.8

17.8

10.0

8.8

Notes: NA: Figure not available. 1Figure relating to composite district Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur. 2Figure relating to composite district Cuddalore and Villupuram. 3Figure relating to composite district Vellore and Tiruvannamalai. 4Figure relating to composite district Salem and Namakkal. 5Figure relating to composite district Trichy, Karur, Perambalur and Ariyalur. 6Figure relating to composite district Thanjavur, Tiruvarur and Nagapattinam. 7Figure relating to composite district Madurai,Theni, Dindigul and Virudhunagar 8Figure relating to composite district Madurai and Theni 9Figure relating to composite district Ramnad and Sivagangai 10Figure relating to composite district Tirunelveli and Thoothukudi. Source: Socio-cultural Tables, Census, 1981, 1991.

APPENDIX TABLES



179

A11 Ageing Profile 1991 A11.1—ELDERLY POPULATION IN THOUSAND AND AS PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL POPULATION AND ELDERLY SEX RATIO S.no.

Districts

Elderly Popn.(60+) (in ’000)

Elderly Sex ratio No. of females per 1000 males

% of elderly population to the total population

Male

Female

Total

Rural

Urban

Total

Male

Female

Total

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

1. Chennai

129

128

257



1001

1001

3.35

3.32

6.67

2. Kancheepuram1

157

152

309

963

985

973

3.36

3.23

6.59

1

2

3. Thiruvallur

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

4. Cuddalore2

184

144

328

758

934

782

3.77

2.94

6.71

5. Villupuram

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

6. Vellore

110

112

222

977

1102

1010

3.65

3.69

7.34

7. Tiruvannamalai

864

4.15

3.56

7.71

84

73

157

849

1009

Salem3

170

150

320

863

934

880

4.38

3.86

8.24

9. Namakkal

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

8.

10. Dharmapuri

92

76

168

821

987

834

3.81

3.17

6.98

11. Erode

115

102

217

867

950

882

4.96

4.38

9.34

12. Coimbatore

149

134

283

884

912

896

4.25

3.83

8.08

13. Nilgiris

20

18

38

880

1025

947

2.75

2.59

5.34

14. Trichy4

165

152

317

889

1014

918

3.99

3.68

7.67

15. Karur

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

16. Perambalur

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

17. Ariyalur

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

18. Thanjavur5

177

157

334

863

988

891

3.90

3.47

7.37

19. Tiruvarur

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

20. Nagapattinam

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

48

46

94

938

1024

950

3.63

3.50

7.13

22. Madurai6

21. Pudukkotai

124

122

246

984

975

980

3.61

3.54

7.15

23. Theni

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

70

60

130

859

886

864

3.95

3.41

7.36

24. Dindigul 25. Ramnad

41

39

80

936

1004

949

3.64

3.46

7.10

26. Virudhunagar

57

56

113

1037

928

996

3.66

3.61

7.27

27. Sivagangai

44

44

88

987

1137

1022

4.03

4.11

8.14

28. Tirunelveli

101

106

207

1039

1052

1043

4.06

4.27

8.33

60

62

122

1020

1018

1019

4.15

4.21

8.36

29. Thoothukudi 30. Kanniyakumari STATE

67

65

132

948

1061

967

4.20

3.99

8.19

2164

1998

4162

896

986

923

3.87

3.58

7.45

Notes: NA: Figure not available. 1Figure relating to composite district Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur. 2Figure relating to composite district Cuddalore and Villupuram. 3Figure relating to composite district Salem and Namakkal. 4Figure relating to composite district Trichy, Karur, Perambalur and Ariyalur. 5Figure relating to composite district Thanjavur, Nagapattinam and Tiruvarur. 6Fi gure relating to composite district Madurai and Theni. Sources: Census of India, 1991; ‘Tamil Nadu State District Profile, 1991’, December 1998.



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TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

A11.2—PROPORTION OF ELDERLY BY RESIDENCE AND SEX S.no.

1

Districts

2

1. Chennai 2.

Kancheepuram1

Total

Rural

Persons

Male

Female

Persons

Male

Female

Persons

Male

Female

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

6.7

6.5

7.0





6.7

6.5

7.0

7.0

6.9

6.2

6.1

6.4

NA

NA

NA

6.2

6.3

6.2

6.6

6.6

6.7

3. Thiruvallur

NA

NA

NA

Cuddalore2

6.7

7.4

6.0

5. Villupuram

NA

NA

NA

6. Vellore

7.3

7.2

7.5

4.

Urban

NA 6.8 NA 7.7

– 7.0 NA 7.6 NA 7.7

NA 5.9 NA 7.7

NA

NA

NA

6.6

6.1

6.9

7. Tiruvannamalai

7.7

8.2

7.2

7.8

8.4

7.2

6.8

6.7

6.9

8. Salem3

8.2

8.4

8.0

8.7

9.1

8.4

6.9

7.0

6.8

9. Namakkal

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

10. Dharmapuri

6.9

7.3

6.5

7.1

7.5

6.5

6.0

5.8

6.1

11. Erode

9.4

9.7

9.0

10.0

10.6

9.6

7.0

7.1

7.0

NA

NA

NA

12. Coimbatore

8.1

8.3

7.8

9.3

9.8

9.0

6.9

7.0

6.8

13. Nilgiris

5.3

5.5

5.2

5.5

5.9

5.3

5.2

5.0

5.3

14. Trichy4

7.7

7.9

7.4

7.9

8.3

7.4

6.9

6.8

7.1

15. Karur

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

16. Perambalur

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

17. Ariyalur

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

18. Thanjavur5

7.4

7.7

7.0

19. Tiruvarur

NA

NA

NA

20. Nagapattinam

NA

NA

NA

21. Pudukkotai

7.1

7.3

6.9

7.1 7.2

22. Madurai6

7.1

7.1

7.2

23. Theni

NA

NA

NA

24. Dindigul

7.4

7.8

6.9

7.3

7.8

6.8

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA 7.5

7.3 7.1 NA 8.0

NA

NA

NA

7.6

7.6

7.5

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

6.8

7.2

7.1

7.3

7.2

7.0

7.0

7.2

NA

NA

NA

6.7

7.0

6.4

NA 7.1

25. Ramnad

7.1

7.2

6.8

7.2

7.6

6.9

6.3

6.3

6.4

26. Virudhunagar

7.3

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.3

7.5

6.9

7.2

6.8

27. Sivagangai

8.2

8.2

8.1

8.5

8.7

8.2

7.3

6.8

7.8

28. Tirunelveli

8.3

8.2

8.3

8.4

8.4

8.4

8.1

7.9

8.1

29. Thoothukudi

8.4

8.5

8.2

9.3

9.5

9.0

7.1

7.2

7.2

30. Kanniyakumari

8.2

8.4

8.1

8.2

8.4

8.1

8.2

8.1

8.5

7.5

7.6

7.3

7.8

8.2

7.4

6.9

6.7

6.9

STATE

Notes: NA: Figure not available. 1Figure relating to composite district Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur. 2Figure relating to composite district Cuddalore and Villupuram. 3Figure relating to composite district Salem and Namakkal. 4Figure relating to composite district Trichy, Karur, Perambalur and Ariyalur. 5Figure relating to composite district Thanjavur, Nagapattinam and Tiruvarur. 6Fi gure relating to composite district Madurai and Theni. Sources: Census of India, 1991; ‘Tamil Nadu State District Profile, 1991’, December 1998.

APPENDIX TABLES



A11.3—DEPENDENCY RATIO AND AGED WORK PARTICIPATION RATE S.no.

Districts

1

2

1. Chennai 2.

Kancheepuram1

Dependency Ratio

Aged Work Participation Rate

Young

Old

Total

Total

Male

Female

3

4

5

6

7

8

491

103

539

16.81

30.19

3.45

528

109

637

32.21

49.31

14.62

3. Thiruvallur

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

Cuddalore2

570

113

684

44.28

62.60

20.85

4.

5. Villupuram

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

6. Vellore

560

124

684

36.82

56.28

17.55

7. Tiruvannamalai

603

134

737

45.55

63.31

25.01

8. Salem3

450

131

580

45.14

60.95

27.17

9. Namakkal

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

10. Dharmapuri

606

120

726

45.10

61.77

25.09

11. Erode

394

144

538

46.59

64.03

26.83

12. Coimbatore

391

122

503

34.74

50.46

17.19

13. Nilgiris

450

82

532

23.79

34.82

12.13

Trichy4

477

123

600

44.07

60.36

26.32

14.

15. Karur

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

16. Perambalur

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

17. Ariyalur

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

18. Thanjavur5

495

119

614

43.22

65.08

18.69

19. Tiruvarur

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

20. Nagapattinam

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

21. Pudukkotai

548

118

666

41.53

60.73

21.31

22. Madurai6

509

116

625

39.35

54.82

23.56

23. Theni

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

24. Dindigul

476

118

594

46.13

60.81

29.13

25. Ramnad

576

120

696

46.43

62.8

29.19

26. Virudhunagar

520

119

639

48.56

61.4

35.67

27. Sivagangai

524

135

656

46.60

64.40

29.18

28. Tirunelveli

530

139

669

42.41

58.18

27.29

29. Thoothukudi

537

141

678

41.84

58.63

25.38

30. Kanniyakumari

491

134

625

29.34

50.82

7.11

501

121

623

39.89

57.05

21.31

STATE

Notes: NA: Figure not available. 1Figure relating to composite district Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur. 2Figure relating to composite district Cuddalore and Villupuram. 3Figure relating to composite district Salem and Namakkal. 4Figure relating to composite district Trichy, Karur, Perambalur and Ariyalur. 5Figure relating to composite district Thanjavur, Nagapattinam and Tiruvarur. 6Figure relating to composite district Madurai and Theni. Sources: Census of India, 1991; ‘Tamil Nadu State District Profile, 1991’, December 1998.

181



182

TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

A11.4—OLD AGE PENSION SCHEMES IN TAMIL NADU, OAP, DALP, DPHP, DWP AND DDWP (No. of 60+ Elderly OAP Beneficiaries in Tamil Nadu) (1999–2000) S.no.

Districts

OAP* (Normal)

DALP*

DPHP*

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Total

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12,467

30,763

43,230

5

4

9

78

47

125

8085

10,533

18,618

1636

1832

3468

234

145

379

3. Thiruvallore

4895

10,151

15,046

1225

1377

2602

158

125

283

4. Cuddalore

5638

7675

13,313

1296

1828

3124

118

114

232

5. Villupuram

9662

6044

15,706

2885

2023

4908

0

0

0

6. Vellore

8960

14,999

23,959

3742

6882

10624

116

71

187

7. Tiruvannamalai

9118

13,494

22,612

2987

4319

7306

54

75

129

8. Salem

8684

15,669

24,353

1418

2009

3427

228

132

360

9. Namakkal

2817

8442

11,259

557

1098

1655

0

0

0

10. Dharmapuri

9093

9188

18,281

3664

3482

7146

74

88

162

1

2

1. Chennai 2. Kancheepuram

11. Erode

4124

6771

10,895

855

1331

2186

92

98

190

12. Coimbatore

4633

8490

13,123

731

1118

1849

81

73

154

13. Nilgiris

912

1116

2028

242

474

716

28

31

59

14. Trichy

4899

7182

12,081

2272

3570

5842

21

6

27

15. Karur

2937

2405

5342

1201

982

2183

26

22

48

3157

6516

9673

1268

2237

3505

50

47

97

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

16.

Perambalur1

17. Ariyalur 18. Thanjavur

9389

8876

18,265

920

575

1495

52

67

119

19. Tiruvarur

4326

4225

8551

712

633

1345

20

12

32

20. Nagapattinam

5056

2723

7779

957

262

1219

0

0

0

21. Pudukkotai

3843

6032

9875

548

1067

1615

15

26

41

22. Madurai

5162

17,839

23,001

632

1787

2419

48

36

84

23. Theni

1766

3835

5601

190

383

573

4

6

10

24. Dindigul

2215

7368

9583

423

1194

1617

28

20

48

25. Ramanathapuram

2715

4812

7527

752

1108

1860

30

30

60

26. Virudhunagar

3382

5833

9215

735

1579

2314

30

8

38

27. Sivagangai

2859

5796

8655

561

526

1087

44

87

131

28. Tirunelveli

4994

9406

14,400

716

644

1360

240

155

395

29. Toothukudi

2871

6320

9191

459

2080

2539

0

0

0

30. Kanniyakumari

1729

2801

4530

241

497

738

33

39

72

150,388

245,304

395,692

33,830

46,901

80,731

1902

1560

3462

STATE

(Contd...)

APPENDIX TABLES



183

(Table A11.4 Contd.) (1999–2000) S.no.

1

Districts

2

1. Chennai

DWP*

DDWP*

Total Elderly Beneficiaries Male

Female

Total

12

13

14

15

16

1301

23

12,550

32,138

44,688

2. Kancheepuram

159

0

9955

12,669

22,624

3. Thiruvallore

467

106

6278

12,226

18,504

4. Cuddalore

754

19

7052

10,390

17,442

0

0

12,547

8067

20,614

3599

96

12,818

25,647

38,465

683

1856

12,159

20,427

32,586

1598

255

10,330

19,663

29,993

5. Villupuram 6. Vellore 7. Tiruvannamalai 8. Salem 9. Namakkal

27

0

3374

9567

12,941

10. Dharmapuri

425

318

12,831

13,501

26,332

11. Erode

784

571

5071

9555

14,626

12. Coimbatore

616

203

5445

10,500

15,945

13. Nilgiris

118

54

1182

1793

2975

14. Trichy

511

23

7192

11,292

18,484

15. Karur

559

170

4164

4138

8302

352

56

4475

9208

13,683

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

18. Thanjavur

841

93

10,361

10,452

20,813

19. Tiruvarur

487

18

5058

5375

10,433

16.

Perambalur1

17. Ariyalur

20. Nagapattinam

0

0

6013

2985

8998

21. Pudukkotai

0

19

4406

7144

11,550

22. Madurai

6103

350

5842

26,115

31,957

23. Theni

157

547

1960

4928

6888

24. Dindigul

481

0

2666

9063

11,729

25. Ramanathapuram

470

63

3497

6483

9980

26. Virudhunagar

134

53

4147

7607

11,754

27. Sivagangai

203

0

3464

6612

10,076

28. Tirunelveli

506

175

5950

10,886

16,836

29. Toothukudi 30. Kanniyakumari STATE

0

0

3330

8400

11,730

511

66

2003

3914

5917

21846

5134

186,120

320,745

506,865

Notes: NA: Figure not available. *OAP—Old Age Pensioners. DALP—Destitute Agricultural Labourer Pensioners. DPHP—Destitute Physically Handicapped Pensioners. DWP—Destitute Widows Pensioners. DDWP—Destitute Deserted Wives Pensioners. 1Figure relating to composite district Perambalur and Ariyalur. Source: District Collectors of Tamil Nadu.

184



TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

Chapter

 8

Technical Notes

A. Computing Human Development Index The methodology followed by the State for computing the Human Development Index for the districts is broadly the same as the one adopted by UNDP. The HDI is a composite index, covering the following three dimensions of living standards: Dimensions 1. Attainment in longevity

Variables Life expectancy at birth

2. Educational attainment

a) Adult literacy rate b) Combined enrolment ratio (primary, secondary and tertiary)

3. Command over resources

Real per capita income

Longevity as an indicator of human development captures several aspects of welfare, because of its close correlation with nutrition, health and other biological and social achievements. Educational attainment is measured by a combination of adult literacy rate with two-thirds weight and combined primary, secondary and tertiary enrolment ratio with one-third weight. The standard of living is measured by real GDP per capita expressed in purchasing power parity dollars (PPP$). The minimum and maximum values fixed for the construction of the index by UNDP are as follows: Minimum

Maximum

: :

25 years 0 per cent

85 years 100 per cent

• Combined gross enrolment ratio : • Real GDP per capita (PPP$) :

0 per cent $ 100

100 per cent $ 40,000

• Life expectancy at birth • Adult literacy rate

In this paper, we attempt to construct the HDI for the districts in Tamil Nadu to evaluate the outcome of the development process. The sources of data at the district level for computing the values of index are given below. Data Sources (i) The Life expectancy at birth for the year 1997 for all the 29 Districts was based on the Vital Events Survey conducted by DANIDA—Health Project. (ii) Combined gross enrolment ratio for primary, middle, high and higher secondary schools as adjusted by

TECHNICAL NOTES



185

the school age population has been worked out by the Department of Economics and Statistics using the data furnished by Education Department. Literacy rate according to the 1991 Census is adopted for calculating educational attainment. The Educational attainment is measured by a combination of literacy (2001 Census) (two-thirds weight) and combined GER for primary, middle, high and higher secondary levels adjusted to the school age population (one-third weight) (1998–9). (iii) The district-wise income estimates (new series at 1993–4 prices) for the year 1998–9, estimated by the Department of Economics and Statistics have been used for computing income index. Methodology The methodology for computing the HDI is as follows. For constructing the index, minimum and maximum values have been fixed for each of the indicators as discussed below. The index for each component of the HDI, is defined as: Index =

Actual X i value – minimum X i value Maximum X i value – minimum X i value

The HDR value of the jth district (Ij) for the ith variable is defined as the average of these variables. The HDR assigns equal weight to each of the three dimensions included in the development index, as each component is equally important for a meaningful evaluation of an individual’s well-being. Ij = ÂIij /3

i = 1, 2, 3 j = 1 to 29 districts

Minimum and Maximum Values To construct the HDI for the districts in Tamil Nadu, we have established the following minimum and maximum values for each of these indicators. • Life Expectancy at Birth

:

25 years and 85 years

• Literacy rate • Combined gross enrolment ratio

: :

0 per cent and 100 per cent 0 per cent and 100 per cent

Actual value – 25 85 – 25 Education Index = (2 ¥ literacy rate index + 1 ¥ combined enrolment ratio index)/3 Life Expectancy Index =

Determination of Income Band The construction of the income index is a little more complex. Over the years, the HDR has used a particular formula, known as Atkin’s formula. The basic approach in the treatment of income has been driven by the fact that achieving a respectable level of human development does not require unlimited income. To reflect this, income has been discounted in calculating the HDI by using the formula: W(y) = y*+ 2(y*1/2)+3(y*1/3)+4(y*1/4)+5(y*1/5)+6(y*1/6)+7[(40,000–6y*)1/7] The main problem with this formula is that it discounts the income above the threshold level very heavily, penalizing countries in which income exceeds the threshold level. In many cases, income loses its relevance as a proxy for all dimensions of human development other than a long and healthy life and knowledge. In HDR 1999, a thorough review of the treatment of income in the HDI was done, based on the work of Anand and Sen. This refinement in the treatment of income attempts to rectify this problem by putting the methodology on a more solid analytical foundation. The income is treated by using the following formula.

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TA M I L N A D U H U M A N D E V E L O P M E N T R E P O R T

W(y) =

log y – log ymin log ymin – log ymax

The advantages of using the formula are: (i) it does not discount income as severely as the formula used earlier; (ii) it discounts all income, not just the income above a certain level (threshold level); and (iii) Middle income countries are not penalized unduly as income rises further in these countries and they will continue to receive recognition for their increasing income as a potential means for further development. For the computation of the income index for the districts, per capita district GDP has been converted to its PPP$ equivalent by taking the ratio of per capita district GDP to that of the country in rupees and multiplying this by the per capita GDP for the country in PPP$ ($ 1670 for 1997). Per capita GDP for Tamil Nadu (1996–7) constant prices = Rs 11,320 (Directorate of Economics and Statistics) Per capita GDP for India (1996–7) at constant prices = Rs 9376.90 (GOI) Per capita GDP for India (1997) in PPP$ = $ 1670 (HDR 1999)

Real District GDP per capita in PPP$ = Then Income Index will be =

District PC GDP in Rs ¥ Per capita GDP for India in PPP$ PC GDP of India in RS Log (Real District GDP) – Log 100 Log 40,000 – Log 100

Illustration of the HDI Methodology: We choose Tamil Nadu to illustrate the steps for calculating the HDI: Life expectancy index

66.74 – 25 = 0.696 85 – 25 Literacy index

73.47 – 0 = 0.735 100 – 0 Combined gross enrolment ratio

83.15 – 0 = 0.832 100 – 0 Education index = 2/3 (literacy index) + 1/3 (combined gross enrolment ratio) = 2/3 (0.735) + 1/3 (0.832) = 0.767 Adjusted real GDP Per capita (PPP$) index Log 2097.09 – Log 100 = 0.508 Log 40,000 – Log 100

Human Development Index for Tamil Nadu = (0.696 + 0.767 + 0.508)/3 = 1.971/3 = 0.657

B. Computing Gender–Related Development Index The GDI uses the same variables as the HDI but adjusts the average achievement of each district in life expectancy, educational attainment and income in accordance with disparities in the achievement between women and men. In other words, GDI is simply HDI discounted or adjusted downwards for gender inequality. The discounting is

TECHNICAL NOTES



187

done with respect to aversion to gender inequality. Moderate gender aversion is represented in the index by the epsilon (e) which takes the value of 2 in the construction of the GDI. The epsilon is the harmonic mean of male and female values. Computation of the GDI is based on computation of the equally distributed index of life expectancy at birth, the equally distributed index of educational attainment and the equally distributed index of income. The GDI is the average of these three equally distributed indices and takes a value between 0 and 1. The UNDP has selected maximum and minimum values for life expectancy, taking into account the fact that women tend to live longer than men. For women, the maximum value is taken as 87.5 years and the minimum value 27.5 years, for men the corresponding values are 82.5 years and 22.5 years. The same maximum and minimum values are used in computing the GDI at the district level. Variables for the educational attainment index include the combined literacy rate with two-thirds weight and the combined enrolment ratio (primary, middle, high and higher secondary) with one-third weight as in the case of the HDI. Each of these indices has a maximum value of 100 and a minimum value of 0. Calculating the index for income is fairly complex. For computing the income index, female and male shares in earned income are arrived at from data about the ratio of the average female wage to the average male wage and the female and male percentages of economically active population above the age of 15. Before the income index is calculated, the average adjusted real GDP percapita of a district is discounted on the basis of disparities in female and male shares of earned income in proportion to female and male shares of the population. In this paper, we attempt to construct the GDI for the districts in Tamil Nadu to evaluate the average achievement of each district in accordance with disparities in achievement between women and men. The sources of data at the district level for computing the values of index are the same as those used in computing HDI. Illustration of the GDI Methodology Computation of the GDI for Tamil Nadu is shown below. The value of inequality aversion e is taken as 2. Percentage share of total population Female 49.263

Male 50.737

Source: Census, 1991

Male 66.38

Source: Danida (1997)

Male 73.8

Source: Census, 1991

Male 85.61

Source: Education Department, 1998–9

Male 60.8

Source: NSSO (50th round)

Male Rs 57.22

Source: DES (1998–9)

Life expectancy at birth (years) Female 70.54 Combined literacy rate (%) Female 51.3 Combined gross enrolment ratio Female 80.60 Share in economically active population Female 39.2 Agricultural wage rates Female Rs 33.55 STEP ONE Computing the equally distributed life expectancy index Female (70.54–27.50)/(87.50–27.50) = 0.717 Male

(66.38–22.50)/(82.50–22.50) = 0.731

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The equally distributed life expectancy index: [(Female population share) x (Female life expectancy index)1–e + (Male population share) x (Male life expectancy index) 1–e]1–e = [ 0.4926 (0.717)-1 + 0.5074 (0.731)–1]–1 = 0.724 STEP TWO Computing the equally distributed educational attainment index Combined literacy index Female Male

(64.55 – 0) = 0.646 (100 – 0) 82.33– 0 = 0.823 100 – 0

Combined gross enrolment ratio Female

80.60 – 0 = 0.806 100 – 0

Male

85.61 – 0 = 0.856 100 – 0

Educational attainment index = 2/3 (Combined literacy index) + 1/3 (Combined enrolment index) Female = 2/3 (0.646) + 1/3 (0.806) = 0.699 Male = 2/3 (0.823) + 1/3 (0.856)

= 0.834

The equally distributed educational attainment index = [(female population share) x (female educational attainment index)1–e + (male population share) x (male educational attainment index)1–e]1–e = [0.4926 (0.699)-1 + 0.5074 (0.834)–1]–1 = 0.762 STEP THREE Computing the equally distributed income index: Calculating the index for income is fairly complex. Values of per capita GDP (PPP$) for women and men are calculated from the female share (sf) and male share (sm) of earned income. These shares, in turn, are estimated from the ratio of the female wage (w f) to the male wage (wm) and the percentage shares of women (ea f) and men (ea m) in the economically active population. When the data on the wage ratio are not available, a value of 75 per cent is used. The estimates of female and male per capita income (PPP$) are treated in the same way as income is treated in the HDI and then used to compute the equally distributed income index. Percentage shares of economically active population: Female

39.2

Male

60.8

United Nations Development Programme adopts the ratio of female non-agricultural wage to male nonagricultural wage. As Tamil Nadu is an agrarian State with two-thirds of the population depending on the agricultural sector, here we use the ratio of female agricultural wage to male agricultural wage. Female agricultural wage Male agricultural wage

= Rs 33.55 = Rs 57.22

TECHNICAL NOTES



189

Ratio of female agricultural wage to male agricultural wage = w f/wm = 0.586 Percentage share of women in economically active population (eaf) = 39.2 Percentage share of men in economically active population (eam) = 60.8 a. Computing proportional income share Female share of wage bill (sf)

(W f /Wm ) ¥ ea f = [W / W ) ¥ ea ] + ea f m f m 0.586 ¥ 39.2 (0.586 ¥ 39.2) + 60.8 = 22.971/83.771 = 0.274 =

Total GDP (PPP$) of a district/State (y) has to be decided between women and men according to sf, total GDP (PPP$) share of income to women is given by (sf x y) and the total GDP (PPP$) to men by [y–(sf x y)]. Per capita GDP (PPP$) of women is yf yf = (0.274 x 1302526.67)/308.42 Per capita GDP (PPP$) of men is ym ym = (1302526.67–356892.31)/312.69

= = = =

sf x Y/Nf, where Nf is the total female population. 356892.31/308.42 = 1157.16 [Y–(sf x Y)]/Nm, where Nm is the total male population. 945634.36/312.69 = 3024.19

Treating income the same way as in the construction of HDI, the adjusted income for women W (yf) is given by: W (yf) = =

log y f – log ymin log ymin – log ymax

Log 1157.16 – Log 100 Log 40,000 – Log 100

= (3.063–2)/(4.602–2) = 1.063/2.602 = 0.409 The adjusted income for men W (ym) is given by: W (ym) = =

log y m – log ymin log ymin – log ymax

log 3024.19 – log 100 log 40,000 – log 100

= (3.481–2)/(4.602–2) = 1.481/2.602 = 0.569 b. Computing the equally distributed income index: For computing the equally distributed income index, the weighing parameter (e = 2) is applied. [(Female population share) x (Adjusted Female per capita GDP in PPP$) 1–e + (Male population share) x (Adjusted Male per capita GDP in PPP$)1–e]1/1–e = [0.493 x (0.409)-1 + 0.507 x (0.569)–1 ]–1 = [(0.493 x 2.445) + (0.507 x 1.757)]–1 = (1.205 + 0.891)–1 = (2.096)–1 = 0.477 STEP FOUR The GDI = 1/3 (Equally distributed LEB + Equally distributed educational attainment index + Equally distributed income index) = 1/3 (0.724 + 0.762 + 0.477) = 0.654

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TAMIL NADU HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT

C. Estimates of State/District Domestic Product—Methodology After the publication of the National Income Committee reports in the early 1950s, State income estimation received greater attention. In l957, the Central Statistical Organization (CSO) set up a working group of State income to undertake technical examination of the estimates of State income prepared by State Statistical Agencies from time to time, to make recommendations on the data gaps which could be filled to improve those estimates and to generally provide a standard set of concepts, definitions and methodology for the estimation of SDP. The development of State income statistics has been guided mainly by the deliberations of this group. The group examined the estimates prepared by most of the States and made detailed suggestions for improving the estimates and achieving inter-state comparability. The group laid down standard methodology for estimation of income in different sectors. The third important development in the estimation of national/state income was the appointment of a Committee of Regional Accounts (RAC) by the Government of India in l972. This committee was expected to suggest the levels at which accounts should be prepared—State, district or other regions—and to suggest measures for building up of such accounts for the region based on data availability. In the final report submitted by the committee in September such as l976, the RAC felt that while an accounting framework can be recommended for the State, there was little point in recommending it for regions smaller than States such as districts. Only the disaggregation of domestic product for the commodity producing sectors was suggested for areas smaller than States: otherwise for the purpose of recommended accounts, the region has been considered co-terminus with the geographical boundary of a State. The RAC’s recommendations giving broad guidelines for preparation of SDP at current and constant prices received greater attention as they were considered detailed and sufficient. However, action on estimating district domestic product was not pursued in a sustained manner by the States.

What is Domestic Product? Domestic Product is an unduplicated total monetary values of products generated in various kinds of economic activities during a given period, that is, it is the gross value of output minus intermediate inputs. It is a comprehensive concept in that it covers all goods and services produced by the residents, irrespective of whether they are marketed or not, that is, exchanged for money or bartered or produced for own use. Imputed values of own-use products and services such as rentals of owner occupied buildings are included. Gross domestic product is thus essentially a product concept to measure the production of goods and services, but in common parlance it is also accepted as an income concept because it is equivalent to value added, which is the summation of incomes of factors of production, land, labour, capital and entrepreneurship, that help to produce output.

Current and Constant Prices With inflation as a common feature in the modern economy, the increase in value of any product or income measure can be to that extent a money illusion. In order to determine the real worth of the purchasing power of income, any income (or product) measure has to be based on unchanged prices of commodities and services from a base period and thus arrive at the measure in real terms. There are norms for the choice of the base period such as that it be a normal year and that it should not be a remote year which fails to capture the structural changes occurring in the economy. Gross domestic product is measured by economic activity or by sectors at current and constant prices. The estimates of value added are arrived at separately for commodity producing sectors and other sub sectors and sectors, at the prices prevailing in the year of estimation as well as those prevailing in the base year.

Estimation Procedure Gross domestic product is estimated by economic activity by sectors as per International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC). A complex set of methods is employed by the CSO to measure GDP generated in each sector.

TECHNICAL NOTES



191

Both production and income approaches are adopted, the criteria being essentially the nature of data availablity. In certain cases like labour intensive kutcha construction, the expenditure method is adopted. The sectors which have been amenable to the production approach are Agriculture and Allied activities, Forestry and Logging, Fishing, Mining and Quarrying and Registered Manufacturing. Income method or some variant of it is adopted in respect of the following sectors: unregistered manufacturing; electricity, gas and water supply; transport, storage and communication; trade, hotels and restaurants; real estates, dwelling and other business services; public administration; and defence and other services. The procedure for estimation of domestic product for different sectors is briefly explained below: [CFC—Consumption of Fixed Capital FISIM—Financial Intermediator Services Indirectly Measured GVA—Gross value Added GVO—Gross Value of Output ASI—Annual Survey of Industries] 1. Agriculture and Allied Activities: District-wise production and prices are available for major commodities. For some of the commodities CFC, FISIM and inputs for which State level estimates alone are available, the value is allocated to districts on the basis of suitable indicators, viz., area, irrigated area and GVO of the district. 2. Forestry and Logging: State estimates are allocated to districts on the basis of district-wise area under forests. Regarding fuelwood, district-wise rural and urban population is used for estimation. 3. Fishing: District-wise production and prices of marine and inland fish are used in the estimates. Inputs, FISIM and CFC at State level is allocated to the district on the basis of GVO. 4. Mining and Quarrying: District-wise mineral production and value are used in the district income estimates of this Sector. Input rates available at State level are used at District level also. FISIM, CFC at State level is distributed among the districts on the basis of district-wise GVA. 5. Manufacturing Registered: District-wise GVA available for the district (ASI), FISIM and CFC are distributed among the districts on the basis of GVA of the districts. 6. Manufacturing Unregistered: State income is allocated to the districts on the basis of workforce. FISIM and CFC at State level are distributed among the districts on the basis of district GVA. 7. Electricity, Gas and Water Supply: The estimated income of the State is apportioned to districts on the basis of workforce. State level FISIM and CFC are apportioned to districts on the basis of GVA. 8. Construction: State income estimates are allocated to the districts with reference to the workforce. FISIM and CFC of the State are allocated on the basis of GVA of the district. 9. Trade, Hotels and Restaurants: Income at State level is allocated to the districts on the basis of workforce and gross trading income. FISIM and CFC relating to the State is allocated to districts on the basis of district-wise GVA.

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10. Transport by Other Means: State level estimates are allocated to districts on the basis of district-wise workforce, district-wise number of vehicles and Gross Trading Income (GTI). FISIM and CFC are allocated to districts on the basis of GVA (districts). 11. Storage: State GVA is allocated to the districts on the basis of district workforce. FISIM and CFC are distributed to districts on the basis of district-wise GVA. 12. Real Estate, Ownership of Dwellings and Business Services.: Estimated income from real estate and business service are allocated to the districts on the basis of districtwise workforce. Estimated income from dwellings is allocated to districts on the basis of district-wise number of residential buildings. FISIM and CFC are apportioned to the districts with reference to district-wise GVA. 13. Railways, Communication and Banking and Insurance: State income is allocated to the districts on the basis of district-wise workforce. 14. Public Administration: State level estimates are alocated to the districts on the basis of workforce. 15. Other Services: State level estimates are allocated to the districts with reference to workforce. FISIM and CFC are apportioned to districts on the basis of district GVA.

Limitations The District income estimates are mostly derived from the State income estimates for different sectors. In disaggregating and allocating the sectoral income of the State to different districts, basic district level data and norms in the case of yield of crops and prices have been adopted where such data are available. In the case of agricultural sector for certain crops, district-wise yield and prices are not available. In such cases district-wise value of output of these crops are worked by allocating the State level value of output on the basis of district-wise area under the crop. In the case of manufacturing sector (registered) the district-wise income is estimated on the basis of ASI and the income originating method is adopted. Therefore, wherever there is concentration of manufacturing activity as in the case of Thoothukudi and Hosur in Dharmapuri district, the entire value added by manufacture will be allocated to those districts. In the same way, in the primary sector mining activities in Neyveli, the entire income will be allocated to Cuddalore district. The entire marine fish activities will be allocated to the coastal districts on the basis of fish landing/the length of coastline of the district. In the tertiary sector, where the income approach is adopted, the State income estimates are allocated to the district with reference to the workforce in each district. The average earning of workforce in some industry is likely to vary from district to district, as in the case of trade, hotel and transport. The basic data on workforce and average earnings, on the basis of several surveys, were adopted in estimating the income of these sectors. In the case of supra regional sectors like railways, banking services, etc., the State income estimates themselves incorporate the allocation made by the CSO and these estimates are in turn allocated to different districts based on indicators such as workforce. The district income estimates for l7 sectors and sub-sectors are built through an elaborate process, adopting norms such as yield area, prices, average earnings per worker in different sectors and workforce in different sectors. The deficiencies in such indicators will get reflected on the estimates of the district income also. In building up district income, the inflows into the district and outflows from the districts are not accounted. Substantial quantity of products of a district, in the case of number of sectors, goes out, for example paddy from

TECHNICAL NOTES



193

delta districts, manufactured goods from Chennai, Kancheepuram and Tuticorin. Similarly, inflow into the districts of both commodities and remittances is also not accounted for. For example, in a district where there is considerable amount of remittances from persons working in other parts of India and abroad may not be reflected in the district income. It is often said that if the remittances of NRIs are taken into account, the per capita income of Kerala will be substantially higher than the State income estimates of the Statistics Department. Sources: 1. Department of Economics and Statistics, Government of Tamil Nadu. 2. National Account Statistics of India, 1950–1 to 1996–7. 3. Economic and Political Weekly, Research Foundation, 1998.

D. Estimation of Housing Shortages in Tamil Nadu—2001 and 2011 The housing shortages for Tamil Nadu in 2001 and 2011 are estimated taking into account two major components under the housing sector viz. (i) minimum housing need and (ii) replacement demand. 2. The minimum housing need is arrived at by estimating the total number of households and total number of housing units in the year 2001 and 2011. The number of households, both rural and urban, are estimated separately based on the population projected for 2001 and 2011, by the Registrar General of India—Expert Group. The household size norms used for estimating the households in 2001 is presumed size of 4.2 for rural and 4.4 for urban and for the year 2011 the presumed size of 4.0 for rural and 4.2 for urban. The household size norm was presumed keeping in view the declining trend found between 1981 (Rural 4.61; Urban 4.92) and 1991 (Rural 4.36; Urban 4.64) Census household size norms. The district-wise households for 2001 and 2011 are estimated from the district-wise projected population arrived at by using the percentage of population in each district in 1991 Census data and the above said household size norms for both rural and urban areas. Similarly, the housing units for the year 2001 and 2011 are estimated by the Regression method using the population and housing unit census figures available from 1961 to 1991. The district-wise housing units for 2001 and 2011 are estimated by de-segregation, using the percentage of housing units in each district in the 1991 Census data for both rural and urban respectively. 3. To arrive at the replacement demand, it is assumed that all the houses of kutcha type in bad condition, in both rural and urban areas, are obsolete and need to be replaced. Housing units estimated for 2001 and 2011 by the above said regression method are subsequently apportioned to each district based on the percentage of housing units in each district by 1991 Census data, for both rural and urban respectively. After the estimation of district-wise houses, the number of kutcha houses and number of kutcha houses in bad condition that is those which are to be replaced, for both rural and urban are estimated using housing types norms and the proportion (percentage) of bad condition houses under each type of structure found in the NSS 49th Round Report (see table below). Typology 1

% of households by type of structure

Proportion (%) of Structure in bad condition

2

3

4

5

Rural

Urban

Rural

Urban

Pucca

35.16

69.25

3.18

2.22

Semi-pucca

23.50

17.22

12.95

12.39

Kutcha

41.33

13.53

29.94

43.20

16.54

9.51

All Source: NSS, 49th Round, 1993.



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The number of houses in bad condition estimated following the above procedure is taken for replacement demand. 4. The minimum housing demand and replacement demand, estimated as above are added together to estimate the housing shortage in Tamil Nadu as a whole as well as separately for districts. TABLE AH1—HOUSING SHORTAGE IN TAMIL NADU FOR THE YEARS 2001 AND 2011 (District-wise Estimates) (in thousands) 2001 S. No. Districts

1 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

2 Chennai Total Rural Urban Kancheepuram Total Rural Urban Cuddalore Total Rural Urban Vellore Total Rural Urban Tiruvannamalai Total Rural Urban Salem Total Rural Urban Dharmapuri Total Rural Urban Erode Total Rural Urban Coimbatore Total Rural Urban

2011

Minimum housing need estimated

Replacement demand estimated

Housing shortage estimated (3+4)

Minimum housing need estimated

Replacement demand estimated

Housing shortage estimated (6+7)

3

4

5

6

7

8

96 0 96

56 0 56

152 0 152

138 0 138

68 0 68

206 0 206

120 68 52

104 73 31

224 141 83

176 101 75

113 76 37

289 177 112

147 119 28

126 115 11

273 234 39

211 173 38

133 120 13

344 293 51

137 70 67

68 56 12

205 126 79

184 98 86

73 59 14

257 157 100

66 51 15

53 50 3

119 101 18

94 75 19

56 52 4

150 127 23

–67 –56 –11

113 94 19

46 38 8

–32 –25 –7

121 98 23

89 73 16

76 73 3

64 60 4

140 133 7

108 103 5

67 63 4

175 166 9

–78 –61 –17

73 63 10

–5 2 –7

–61 –43 –18

77 65 12

16 22 –6

–22 –20 –2

85 55 30

63 35 28

7 –1 8

93 57 36

100 56 44 (Contd...)

TECHNICAL NOTES



195

(Table AH1 Contd.) 2001 S. No. Districts

1 10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

2011

Minimum housing need estimated

Replacement demand estimated

Housing shortage estimated (3+4)

Minimum housing need estimated

Replacement demand estimated

Housing shortage estimated (6+7)

3

4

5

6

7

8

7 5 2

17 11 6

24 16 8

14 10 4

18 11 7

32 21 11

19 7 12

112 95 17

131 102 29

64 44 20

120 99 21

184 143 41

94 59 35

118 103 15

212 162 50

150 103 47

125 107 18

275 210 65

50 44 6

33 30 3

83 74 9

67 59 8

35 32 3

102 91 11

57 10 47

81 59 22

138 69 69

99 33 66

88 61 27

187 94 93

1 –2 3

50 44 6

51 42 9

21 15 6

53 46 7

74 61 13

31 19 12

29 26 3

60 45 15

47 31 16

31 27 4

78 58 20

–14 –3 –11

41 31 10

27 28 –1

–1 9 –10

45 33 12

44 42 2

11 8 3

28 24 4

39 32 7

24 18 6

30 25 5

54 43 11

0 –1 1

67 54 13

67 53 14

26 20 6

71 56 15

97 76 21

–5 0 –5

37 27 10

32 27 5

8 10 –2

40 28 12

48 38 10

2 Nilgiris Total Rural Urban Trichy Total Rural Urban Thanjavur Total Rural Urban Pudukottai Total Rural Urban Madurai Total Rural Urban Dindigul Total Rural Urban Ramanathapuram Total Rural Urban Virdhunagar Total Rural Urban Sivagangai Total Rural Urban Tirunelveli Total Rural Urban Thoothukudi Total Rural Urban

(Contd...)



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(Table AH1 Contd.) 2001 S. No. Districts

1 21

2

2011

Minimum housing need estimated

Replacement demand estimated

Housing shortage estimated (3+4)

Minimum housing need estimated

Replacement demand estimated

Housing shortage estimated (6+7)

3

4

5

6

7

8

Kanyakumari Total Rural Urban Tamil Nadu Total Rural

65 58 7

38 34 4

103 92 11

86 76 10

41 36 5

127 112 15

793 450

1391 1103

2184 1553

1428 908

1495 1149

2923 2057

Urban

343

288

631

520

346

866

Sources: Population: 1981 and 1991 Census data and RGI Expert Group Projected population for 2001 and 2011. Households: For 2001 presumed household size of 4.2 for rural and 4.4 for urban and for the year 2011, 4.0 for rural and 4.2 for urban. Housing units: For 2001 and 2011 projected by regression method using 1981, 1991 Census data. Replacement demand: Used NSS 49th Round, 1993 Results on percentage of Housing. Type—Structure and Percentage of bad condition Kutcha houses (Please see Technical Notes). Notes: The districts shown are composite districts as per the 1991 Census. These districts have since been bifurcated (S.no. 2, 3, 6 and14)/trifurcated (S.no. 11 and 12).

E. Calculation of the Index of Deprivation (IOD) The index of deprivation for each component is calculated by the following formula: Index of Deprivation (i) =

Target Xi – Actual value Xi Target Xi – min Xi

The Index of Deprivation values for the jth district with respect to the ith variable (I j) is defined as the average of these variables; Ij = I ij/3; i = 1, 2, 3 Equal weights are assigned to each of the three dimensions, as each component is equally important and the shortfall in any is indicative of the deprivation of the people in a particular district. The target values and the minimum values taken for each of the dimensions are as follows: Safe Drinking Water Target

– 100 per cent

Minimum – 32.10 per cent (minimum value of a district) Sanitation Target

– 90 per cent

Minimum – 8.63 per cent (minimum value of a district) Electricity Target – 100 per cent Minimum – 39.1 per cent (minimum value of a district)

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197

Chapter

 8

Statistical Gaps

This being the first Human Development Report for Tamil Nadu, it was decided that it would be broadbased and all relevant sectors would be covered.

Data Sources We have relied extensively on the Census 1991 data and data from different rounds of the National Sample Survey. This report was ready for publication at the time when the first results of population, literacy and sex ratio of the 2001 Census were just released. These have also been incorporated wherever possible in the report. In the absence of socio-economic tables that could be available from mid-2002, detailed analysis of the preliminary Census 2001 results could not be made. Data on several indicators had to be collected from a large number of central and State government agencies. The availability of district-wise basic data required for estimation of income at the district level is essential for the computation of reliable estimates. The data in respect of commodity producing sectors, viz. primary sectors and manufacturing (registered) sector, are fairly available but in respect of remaining sectors, are very scanty. As such, wherever district-wise basic data are available, the same have been utilized to compute the district income estimates following the State level methodology. In case of non-commodity producing sectors, where district-wise basic data are not available, the State level estimates have been allocated to the districts on the basis of suitable district-wise indicators. Further, in some of the commodity producing sectors, though data on district-wise production are available, the corresponding prices are not available. In such cases district income estimates are compiled using district production and State prices. Similarly, wherever certain ratios/norms, yield rates, etc. are used for State estimates and which are normally not available at the district level, the State level ratios or yield rates, etc. have been utilized for district income estimates also. Regarding tertiary sectors, the income method is adopted in the State estimates. The per head earnings based on survey results are used in the estimates along with the workforce. As the per head earnings are not available at the district level, State per head earnings with the district workforce are used to arrive at the estimates of income at district level. Broadly, the methodology of computation of sectoral estimates is the same as that adopted for estimating SDP. The sources of data at the district level for computing the HDI are given below:

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(i) The Life expectancy at birth for the year 1997 for all the 29 Districts was based on Vital Events Survey conducted by DANIDA. (ii) The literacy rate by district for 23 districts was based on pooled samples (NSS 52 sch 1.0 (July 1995 to June 1996) census. As the new districts were formed either by bifurcating, trifurcating or reorganizing the districts in the recent years, the literacy rates for such new districts are assumed at the same levels. (iii) Gross enrolment ratio for primary and secondary (middle, higher) schools was furnished by the Department of School Education. (iv) Details on adult literacy by district were not available. Instead, combined literacy was adopted for calculating educational attainment. It is measured by a combination of total literacy (1991 census) (twothirds weight) and combined primary and secondary level gross enrolment ratio (1998–9) (one-third weight). (v) The Department of Economics and Statistics estimated district-wise income for the revised series with 1993–4 as base for the years from 1993–4 to 1997–8. The District Domestic Product (DDP) per capita was available for all the 29 districts for the year 1996–7. (vi) Combined gross primary, middle, high and higher secondary schools enrolment ratio adjusted by the school age population has been worked out by the Department of Economics and Statistics using the data furnished by the Education Department. It refers to the number of students, regardless of age, at all these levels as a percentage of official school age population for these levels. (vii) On income and poverty, the Gini coefficient of inequality was worked out with pooled data of consumption expenditure. The district-wise rural and urban inequality ratios have been calculated. (viii) The HDI and GDI have been computed for all the 29 districts. Wherever the data are not available for bifurcated/trifurcated districts, the value for the composite district has been used for the bifurcated and trifurcated districts, for example the composite Trichy district literacy rate is used for Perambalur and Karur. Education: (i) School age population based on 1991 Census data was used and for the sake of consistency, projections of school going population in primary, middle, high and higher secondary schools were made on the basis of 1991 Census data. As regards middle school, the School Education Department figures were adopted. (ii) As regards enrolment, only the School Education Department figures have been adopted. (iii) As regards the projection of population, the School Education Department figures for 1998–9 could be adopted after implementing the correction for half year. As regards the drop out rates, it was decided to adopt the School Education Department figures. However, the DPEP drop out data based on cohort study and which show a higher drop out rate in DPEP districts should be discussed for such necessary corrective action by the Department, as a similar trend in drop out rates in non-DPEP districts is likely. (iv) As the details on adult literacy by districts are not available, literacy rate according to 1991 Census is adopted. As regards demography, census data were used for inter-district comparison as CSO publications dwelt only on annual State-wise comparison.

Issues Difficulties that were faced during the preparation of some sectoral chapters. 1) There had been some initial problems in the compilation of data as district level data were not readily available in the administrative departments. Data on critical indicators such as LEB were available only at the State level.

STATISTICAL GAPS



199

2) The bifurcation of districts inevitably forced certain reworking of data in respect of other indicators. 3) In the case of enrolment in schools, the compilation of data for the newly formed districts and by gender and by rural/urban as well as by various types of schools by management (government, aided, unaided and local bodies) took some time. 4) On social security, the data on old age pension were not forthcoming and data gaps were present. Also, available data were inconsistent. 5) Worker Participation Rate was not available across sectors and major States. As the labour force participation rates are available, the relevant comparisons with major States and SAARC countries was made. 6) The district-wise, class-wise enrolment figures are not available prior to 1993–4. Hence the drop out rate for 1993–4 has not been calculated from the Sixth Education Survey. As an alternative, it was decided that the drop out rate would be calculated by comparing Class I and Class V ratios, using Class I figures as proxy. 7) Life expectancy at birth is a crucial indicator for computing the HDI. As the number of deaths, particularly in the age group 5–9, 10–14 etc., was very small, there was a need to moderate the LEB by undertaking some corrections in the form of regrouping of data, so as to ensure that the figures did not show large variations from SRS data. 8) On nutrition, reconciliation of data taken from different sources had to be undertaken as different sources were based on different norms. Contradictions within programme data and between programme and non-programme data were found to be present. 9) On education, the age-wise school going population (51/2 to 101/2) has been calculated by the following methodology: the single age group population has been projected using the exponential growth rate method and then grouped and adjusted to the projected State population. The Registrar General of India (RGI) deals only with group population. A component cohort trend trained method (which makes use of birth rate, death rate and migration rate) is used by RGI to calculate the projections. After discussion, it was decided that the birth rate decline between 1981 and 1991 could be adopted by applying the correction factor to 1991 Census data. After checking for their validity, the school age population was firmed up. 10) As regards representation in the panchayats, though the numbers were available, information on the background of members with respect to caste, sex, occupation, education and ownership of assets was lacking.

Building Information Base To tackle data gaps, it is suggested that one agency could be declared as the custodian of statistics, as has been done by the Government of India. It is also felt that gender disaggregated data need to be institutionalized for the future. The exercise on evolving a methodology to estimate SDP and determining district level prices could be taken up as an ongoing exercise by the Department of Economics and Statistics.

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Abbreviations

ACR

Actual Completion Rate

ADC AIDS

All Developing Countries Acquired Immuno-deficiency Syndrome

ARS

Accident Relief Scheme

ASFR CBO

Age Specific Fertility Rate Community Based Organizations

CBR CC

Crude Birth Rate Conventional Contraceptives

CDR CFC

Crude Death Rate Consumption of Fixed Capital

CMIE

Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy

CMWSB CrPC

Chennai Metropolitan Water and Sewerage Board Criminal Proceeding Code

DALP DANIDA

Destitute Agricultural Labourers’ Pension Danish International Development Assistance

DDWP DPEP

Destitute Deserted Wives Pension District Primary Education Programme

DPH

Destitute Physically Handicapped Pension

DRDA DWP

Department of Rural Development Destitute Widows Pension

ESI EWS

Employees State Insurance Economically Weaker Section

FDI

Foreign Direct Investment

FDRS FI

Family Distress Relief Scheme Female Infanticide

FRU FSI

First Referral Unit Floor Space Index

GDI GDP

Gender Development Index Gross Domestic Product

ABBREVIATIONS

GER

Gross Enrolment Ratio

GFCF

Gross Fixed Capital Formation

GOI

Government of India

GSDP

Gross State Domestic Product

HDFC

Housing Development Finance Corporation

HDI

Human Development Index

HDR

Human Development Report

HFI

Housing Finance Institutions

HIG

High Income Group

HIV

Human Immuno-deficiency Virus

HSC

Health Sub-centres

HUD

Health Unit Districts

HUDCO

Housing and Urban Development Corporation

IAP

Indian Academy of Paediatrics

ICDS

Integrated Child Development Services Scheme

IEC

Information, Education and Communication

IFAD

International Fund for Agricultural Development

IMR

Infant Mortality Rate

IOD

Index of Deprivation

IPC

Indian Penal Code

IRDP

Integrated Rural Development Programme

ISM

Indian Systems of Medicine

KMC

Kilpauk Medical College

LBW

Low Birth Weight

LCA

Land Ceiling Act

LEB

Life Expectancy at Birth

LFPR

Labour Force Participation Rate

LIG

Low Income Group

LPG

Liquified Petroleum Gas

MHD

Medium Human Development

MIG

Middle Income Group

MMDA

Madras Metropolitan Development Authority

MMR

Maternal Mortality Ratio

MTP

Medical Termination of Pregnancy

NAD

Clinically Normal Children

NBO

National Buildings Organization

NCAER

National Council for Applied Economics and Research

NCERT

National Council for Education Research and Training

NFHS-2

National Family Health Survey-2

NGO

Non-governmental Organization

NHB

National Housing Bank

NHP

National Housing Policy, 1998

NLEP

National Leprosy Eradication Programme

NMCP

National Malaria Control Programme



201

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TAMIL NADU HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT

NMEP

National Malaria Eradication Programme

NMP NNMB

Noon Meal Programme National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau

NSDP NSSO

Net State Domestic Product National Sample Survey Organization

OAP ORT

Old Age Pension Oral Rehydration Therapy

PEM

Protein Energy Malnutrition

PHC PHP

Primary Health Centre Physically Handicapped Person

PNMR PPP$

Prenatal Mortality Rate Purchasing Power Parity Dollars

RCH

Reproductive and Child Health

RHC SBR

Rural Housing Corporation Still Birth Rate

SDS SHG

Society for Development Studies Self Help Group

SIRD SRS

State Institute of Rural Development Sample Registration System

STD

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

TFR TINP

Total Fertility Rate Tamil Nadu Integrated Nutrition Project

TN TNAHCP

Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Area Health Care Project

TNCDW TNCHF

Tamil Nadu Corporation for Development of Women Tamil Nadu Co-operative Housing Federation

TNEB

Tamil Nadu Electricity Board

TNMSC TNSCB

Tamil Nadu Medical Services Corporation Tamil Nadu Slum Clearance Board

UNCHS UNDP

The United Nations Centre for Human Settlements United Nations Development Programme

UNICEF USAID

United Nations Children’s Education Fund United States Agency for International Development

VES

Vital Events Survey

VHN VHS

Village Health Nurse Voluntary Health Services

VLCC WHH

Village Level Coordination Committee Women-headed Household

WPR

Work Participation Rate

REFERENCES



203

Chapter

 8

References

Chapter 1: Tamil Nadu—A Profile Bajpai, Nirupam and Jeffrey D. Sachs, 2001. Harvard University—Harvard Study Paper No. 9, Harvard University Press, Harvard. Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Government of Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu at 50—A Statistical Compendium. Francis, W., 2001. Madras Gazetteer, Cosmo Publications, New Delhi. Government of India, Ministry of Finance, 2001. Economic Survey 2001. New Delhi. International Institute for Population Science, 1998–99, 2000. National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2). Madras Institute of Development Studies, 1988. Tamil Nadu Economy—Performance and Issues, Oxford University Press, New Delhi. National Institute of Public Finance and Policy, May 1999. Tamil Nadu Fiscal Studies, New Delhi. Registrar General of India, 1991. Census Report, New Delhi. State Planning Commission, Government of Tamil Nadu. Ninth Plan Document, Chennai. Union Planning Commission, Government of India. Ninth Plan Document, New Delhi.

Chapter 2: Status of Human Development in Tamil Nadu Anand, Sudir, and Amartya Sen, 1999. The Income Component in the Human Development Index—Alternative Formulations, Occasional Paper, UNDP, Human Development Report Office, New York. Census of India, 2001. Primary Census Abstract. , 1991. Primary Census Abstract. Sivakumar, A.K., 1991. ‘UNDP’s Human Development Index—Computation for States’, Economic and Political Weekly, 12 October. UNDP, Human Development Report, 2000. Oxford University Press, New Delhi. , 1999. Oxford University Press, New Delhi.

Chapter 3: Employment, Income and Poverty GOI, Department of Statistics, 1998. Counting the Poor—Where are the Poor in India?, Government of India. Planning Commission, Ninth Five Year Plan, Government of India. , 1993. Report of the Expert Group on Estimation of Proportion and Number of Poor, Government of India. Ranjan Ray, 2000. ‘Poverty, Household Size and Child Welfare’, Economic and Political Weekly, 23 September. World Bank, 2001. India: Reducing Poverty, Accelerating Development, New York.

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Chapter 4: Demography, Health And Nutrition Athreya, V.B. and K.S. Rajeswari, 1998. Women’s Participation in Panchayat Raj—A Case Study from Tamil Nadu, M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, Chennai. and S.R. Chunkath, 1998. ‘Gender and Infant Survival in Tamil Nadu’, Economic and Political Weekly, 2–9 October. , 1996. Literacy and Empowerment, New Delhi, Sage Publications. Baru, Rama V., 1998. Private Health Care in India, New Delhi, Sage Publications. Berman, Peter and M.E. Khan (Eds), 1993. Paying for India’s Health Care, New Delhi, Sage Publications. Census of India, 1991. Various volumes. Chunkath, S.R. and V.B. Athreya, 1997. ‘Female Infanticide in Tamil Nadu’, Economic and Political Weekly, 26 April–2 May. DANIDA, 1999. Report of Global Health Evaluation Team of 10 years of DANIDA Assistance, Delhi. DANIDA TNHCP, 1999. Report on Vital Events Surveys, 1998 and 1999, Chennai. Department of Women, 1986. ‘Women in Tamil Nadu, A Profile’, Chennai. Draft Report on Health Management Information System, Technical Working Group (Officials of the Department of Public Health, RCH, DANIDA and Family Welfare), Delhi. Dreze, J. and A.K. Sen, 1995. INDIA: Economic Development and Social Opportunity, Oxford University Press, Delhi. Evaluation Reports of DANIDA TNHCP, Phase II, 1994, Vols 1, 2, and 3, Tamil Nadu. Gopalan, Sarala, 1995. Women and Employment in India, Har-Anand Publications, Delhi. Government of India, Economic Survey, Various issues. , Improving Quality of Care in FW/RCH Programme, Delhi. Government of Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu—An Economic Appraisal, Various issues. , Various departments, Policy Notes, Various years. Government reports and other documents. International Institute for Population Sciences, November 1999. Rapid Household Survey under RCHP (Tamil Nadu), Phase I, 1998, Tamil Nadu. Mahapatra, Prasanta, 1996. Government Health Expenditures in an Indian State, International Health Policy Program, Washington, DC, USA. Malaney, Pia, 2000. Health Sector Reform in Tamil Nadu: Understanding the Role of the Public Sector, Mimeo, Chennai. Nagaraj, K., 1999. Tamil Nadu Economy, Mimeo, Madras Institute of Development Studies (MIDS), Chennai. , 1998. Fertility Decline in Tamil Nadu: Social Capillarity in Action?, Mimeo, MIDS, Chennai. National Family Health Survey, 1998–99 (NFHS-2), 2000. India: Key Findings, International Institute of Population Sciences, Mumbai. , 1998–99 (NFHS-2), January 2000. Tamil Nadu: Preliminary Report, Population Research Centre, Gandhigram and International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai. National Sample Survey Organisation, 1987. Morbidity and Utilisation of Medical Services, Report No. 364. NSSO, New Delhi. Pai, Madhukar, 2000. ‘Unnecessary Medical Interventions: Caesarean Sections as a Case Study’, Economic and Political Weekly, 29 July. Raghuram Shobha (Ed.), 2000. Health and Equity—Effecting Change, Technical Report Series 1–8 (2000), HIVOS, Bangalore. Rao Mohan (Ed.), 1999. Disinvesting in Health, Sage Publications, New Delhi. Shariff, A., 1995. Health Transition in India, Working Paper No. 57, National Council of Applied Economic Research, New Delhi. Shivakumar, A.K., 1996. ‘UNDP’s Gender-Related Development Index’, Economic and Political Weekly, 6 April 1996, pp. 887–95. Sundar, R., 1995. Household Survey of Health Care Utilisation and Expenditure, Working Paper No. 53. National Council of Applied Economic Research, New Delhi. Swaminathan, Padmini,1996. Work and Reproductive Health: A Hobson’s Choice for Indian Women, Working Paper No.147, MIDS, Chennai. Tulasidhar, V.B., 1996. Public Financing for Health in India: Recent Trends, International Health Policy Programme, Washington DC, USA. World Health Organisation, 2000. World Health Report 2000, WHO, Geneva.

REFERENCES



205

Chapter 5: Literacy and Education Aggarwal, Y.P., EDCIL Access and Retention under DPEP—a Trend Analysis. , Tamil Nadu—Cohort Study—A Study of Internal Efficiency in DPEP. Census of India, 1991. India and Tamil Nadu, Part IV A, Social and Cultural Tables, Chennai. DPEP, 1995. Mid Term Assessment Survey—An Appraisal of Student Achievement in DPEP, NCERT, Delhi. , 1995–98. Tamil Nadu—District Information Tables. Dreze, J. and Halder, 1997. In J. Dreze and A. Sen (Eds). Uttar Pradesh: The Burden of Inertia in Indian Development, Selected Regional Perspectives, New Delhi, Oxford University Press, Delhi. and A. Sen, 1995. India: Economic Development and Social Opportunity, Oxford University Press, Delhi. Duraiswamy, Dr. Malathi and P. Duraiswamy, August 1999. ‘Cost Wastage and Effectiveness of Primary Education in Tamil Nadu’, Paper presented at National Seminar on Cost and Wastage in Primary Education, Chennai. Government of India, 1997. Ministry of Human Resources Development Annual Report 1996–97, Ministry of Human Resources Development, Delhi. Haq, Mahbub ul and Khadija Haq, 1998. Human Development in South Asia, Oxford University Press, Karachi. Jandhyala, B.G. Thilak, April 2000. Education for All—Financing of Elementary Education in India, NIEPA, Ministry of HRD, Delhi. McDougall, Lori, 2000. ‘Gender Gap in Literacy in Uttar Pradesh’, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. XXXV, No. 19. MHRD, 1999. Expert Group Report on Financial Requirements for Making Elementary Education a Fundamental Right. National Family Health Survey, 1992–93, Tamil Nadu, Chennai. National Sample Survey Organisation, 52nd Round. Attending an Educational Institution in India, 95–96—Its Level, Nature and Cost, Government of India, Department of Statistics, MHRD. NCERT, 1997–98. Sixth All India Educational Survey—National Tables (Vols I–VI), Tamil Nadu Tables, Delhi. , 1994. Report on Quality in Primary Schools, Delhi. Pal, Anita Ram, 23 July 2000. ‘Education for Human Development and South Asia’, Economic and Political Weekly. Probe Team, 1999. Public Report on Basic Education in India, Oxford University Press, Delhi. Radhakrishnan, P. and Akhila R. Narayanasamy, April 2000. Education for All—Progress towards Education—The Case of Tamil Nadu, NIEPA, Ministry of HRD, Delhi. Ramachandran, V.K., Vikas Rawal and Madhura Swaminathan, 4 to 11 January, 1997. ‘Investment Gaps in Primary Education— Statewise Study’, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. XXXII, Nos 1 and 2. Shariff, Abusaleh and Ghosh, 2000. ‘Indian Education Scene and the Public Expenditure Gap’, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. XXXV, No. 16. and P.K. Ghosh, August 1999. Paper presented at National Seminar on Costs and Wastage in Primary Education— Public Expenditure of Education in Indian States, Delhi. Thakur, Davendra and D.N. Thakur, 1997. New Education Policy—Study in Education, Deep and Deep Publications, New Delhi. Weiner, Myron, 1991. The Child and the State in India, Princeton University Press, Princeton, USA. World Bank, 2000. India—Reducing Poverty, Accelerating Development, World Bank, Washington, DC, USA. , 1997. Indian Achievements and Challenges in Reducing Poverty, World Bank, Washington, DC, USA. , 1997. Primary Education in India, Allied Publishers. , 1996. Improving Basic Education in Pakistan: Community Participation, System Accessibility and Efficiency, World Bank, Washington, DC, USA. , 1990. Education Sector Strategy, World Bank, Washington, DC, USA.

Chapter 6: Gender Agarwal, Bina, 1992. The Gender and Environment Debate, Feminist Studies. Government of India, Planning Commission (SD and WP division), July 2000. Women in India—A Statistical Profile, New Delhi. Government of Tamil Nadu, Department of Economics and Statistics, September 2000. Report of Time Use Survey in Tamil Nadu—July 1998 to June 1999, Chennai.

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, 1999. Statistical Handbook of Tamil Nadu, Chennai, pp. 694. , 1998. Women and Men in Tamil Nadu Programme, Table-22, Oxford University Press, Delhi. Jayaraj, D. and S. Subramaniam, August 1997. Child Labour in TN: A preliminary account of its nature, extent and distribution, Working paper no. 151, MIDS, Chennai. Jejeebhoy, Shireen J., September 1998. Association Between Wife-Beating and Foetal and Infant Death: Impressions from a Survey in Rural India, Studies In Family Planning. Law Trust, 1998. Evaluation of Law Trust, Law Trust, Nagapattinam. Mavanahalii Youth Welfare Association, 2001. Mid Term Review Report, Nilgiris. MYWA, Mavanahalla. National Sample Survey, 49th round, NSSO, Delhi. Raju et al., 1999. Atlas of Women and Men in India, New Delhi, Kali for Women. pp. 29, Table 8. RUWSEC, 1997. Women’s Health Survey: 1997, Chengelapettu, RUWSEC. Swaminathan, Padmini, April 1997. Work and Reproductive Health: A Hobson’s Choice for Indian Women, Working paper No. 147, MIDS, Chennai. TNCDW, Forthcoming. Mid Term Review of Mahalir Thittam in Cuddalore District, TNCDW, Chennai. UNDP, 1995. Human Development Report, United Nations Development Programme, New York.

Chapter 7: Social Security Ahmed, Dreze, Hills and Sen (Eds) 1999. Social Security in Developing Countries, Oxford University Press, New Delhi. Central Statistical Organisation, 2000. Elderly in India—Profile and Programmes 2000, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, New Delhi. Desjarlais, Robert (Ed.), 1995. World Mental Health, Problems and Priorities in Low Income Countries, Oxford University Press, New York. Guhan, S., 1993. ‘Social Security for the Poor in the Unorganised Sector: A Feasible Blueprint for India’. In K.S. Parikh and R. Sudarshan (Eds), Human Development and Structural Adjustment, Macmillan, Madras. , 1992. ‘Social Security Initiatives in Tamil Nadu 1989’. In S. Subramanian (Ed.), Themes in Development Economies, Oxford University Press, Delhi. Guinekan, Wonter Van Ed, 1998. Social Security for all Indians, Oxford University Press, Delhi. Irudaya, Rajan, S. Mishra and Sarma, 1999. India’s Elderly: Burden or Challenge, Sage Publications, New Delhi. Jhabvala, R. and R.K.A. Subrahmanya, 2000. The Unorganised Sector: Work Security and Social Protection, Sage Publications, New Delhi. Midgley, J., 1993. ‘Social security and Third World Poverty’, Policy Studies Review. Neki, J., ‘Pycho social stressors in ageing and old age in various subcultures in India’. In Society, Stress and Disease in Old Age, Vol. 5: (Ed. L. Levi), Oxford University Press, New Delhi. Registrar General of India, 1996. Census of India, 1991: Population Projections for India and States 1996–2016, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, New Delhi.

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Human Development Report 2003 : Tamil Nadu - UNDP

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